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Full text of "Standard history of Essex county, Massachusetts, embracing a history of the county from its first settlement to the present time, with a history and description of its towns and cities. The Most historic county of America."

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Essex County, 







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No. 79 Mni Street (cokseb op Fedebit), Boston. 


The Colonial Seal granted by Charles I., March 4, 1629 (new style), to the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in New Eng- 
land, made provision for the use of a common seal by the Company. One was accordingly prepared in silver, and sent over to Gov. Endicott 
with the duplicate charter iu 1629. It was used by our Colonial authorities till 1686, resumed 1689, and suspended from 1692 till 1780; at 
which time it was partly revived with the Indian much more civilized in appearance, and with the adjuncts of an English-American arm 
brandishing a sword, — which arm was also a part of the seal from 1775 to 1780; — and, as revived, it has continued to be used to the 
present day, — the seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts being of substantially the same design, with different inscriptions. A represen- 
tation of the Colonial Seal, as sent to Gov. Endicott iu 1629, appears on the title-page. 


The History of Essex County is herewith presented to the public, with the confidence that it -will make a 
valuable and important addition to the local histories of the State. The County History has been prepared with 
care ; and the different city and town histories, to which much could have been added had space allowed, are as 
full and complete as it is possible to make them in the limits of a single volume. The reader will notice a 
different method of treatment, and a different style, in the various histories, — due to the fact that they are the 
work of different hands. This variation is not without its advantages; although a greater symmetry might have 
been given to the work, and a more accurate apportionment of the space given to the historical importance of 
each town, had it been possible to have secured a single person under whose supervision the whole history could 
have been written. 

The histories are believed to be accurate presentations of the facts connected with the settlement and devel- 
opment of each of the towns and cities ; and have in all cases, where the writer was not of the town, been 
carefully read by some local antiquarian or historian, and received his indorsement 

The Publishers are under great obligations to Dr. Henry Wheatland, of Salem, the President of the Essex 
Institute, for his general supervision of the chapters of the County History ; and the authors of the sketch of 
Salem desire to express their indebtedness to him for his invaluable assistance in the preparation of their work. 

Among those to whom the Publishers and the Authors (whose names appear in the table of contents) are indebted 
for their kind advice and assistance, in the preparation of the Histories of their respective towns and cities, acknowledg- 
ment is especially due to Joseph Merrill, Esq., of Amesbury ; the Rev. John L. Taylor, of Andover ; Hon. John 
I. Baker, of Beverly ; the Rev. Charles B. Rice, of Danvers ; Hon. George L. Davis, of North Andover ; Mr. 
John D. Parsons, Jr., of Newburyport ; Mr. C. F. W. Archer, of Salem ; and Wellington Pool, Esq., of Wenham ; 
and, in the preparation of the County History, to William P. Upham, Esq., and Prof. John Robinson, of Salem. 

The Publishers offer the History to their patrons, assured that it cannot fail to meet their expectations as 
a work of historical accuracy and merit. 

Boston, December, 1878. 


HISTORY OF ESSEX COUNTY, MASS., written under the supervision of Henry Wheatland, M. D., President of the Essex Institute, by Cyrus M. 

Tracy, William E. Graves, and Henry M. Batchelder. 


Chapter I. Sketch of the History of the Massachusetts Bay Colon}-, 1620 to 1692, ............ 9 

Chapter II. Sketch of the Principal Indian Nations of New England — The Tribes of Essex Count}- — Early Indian Land Grants — The last of 

the Sagamores, ..................... 19 

Chapter III. Organization of the County — Settlement of Salem, Lynn, Audover, Ipswich, Rowle}-, Newbmy, Gloucester, and Wenham, . . 21 

Chapter IV. Peculiarities of Early Settlers — Freemen — Residents — Titles and Distinctions — Dwelling-Houses — Lights, &c, ... 24 

Chapter V. Salem Witchcraft — Brief History of the Delusion, with an account of the Trials, Executions, &c, 25 

Chapter VI. The Early and Later Means of Communication and Transportation in and through Essex Count} T , 30 

Chapter VII. Historical Notice of some of the more Important Public Institutions of Essex County, 40 


CITIES and towns. authors. paqes. 

Amesbury, Cyrus M. Tracy, 46 

Andover, Bradford Kingman, 53 

Beverly, - Elias Nason, 68 

Boxford, Sidney Perley, 79 

Bradford, Edwin P. Hill, 86 

Danvers, Charles F. W. Archer, 96 

Essex, Elias Nason, 115 

Georgetown, Edwin P. Hill, 121 

Gloucester, John J. Babson, 130 

Groveland, Edwin P. Hill, 155 

Hamilton, Elias Nason, 161 

Haverhill, Edwin P. Hill, 164 

Ipswich, Elias Nason, 199 

Lawrence, Robert H. Tewksbury, 210 

Lynn, Cyrus M. Tracy, 239 

Lynnfield, Cyrus M. Tracy, 262 

Marblehead, Jonathan H. Orne, 264 

Manchester, Elias Nason, 287 

Merrimac, W. H. B. Currier, 292 

Methuen, Edwin P. Hill, 294 

Middleton, Sidney Perley, 301 

Nahant, Cyrus M. Tracy, 305 

Newbury, George J. L. Colby, 308 

Newburyport, George J. L. Colby, 322 

North Andover, ■ . . . Bradford Kingman, 340 

Peabody, Charles F. W. Archer 346 

Rockport, John J. Babson 351 

Rowley, Elias Nason, 355 

Salem, . . . Charles S. Osgood and Henry M. Batchelder, ...... 360 

Saugus, Cyrus M. Tracy, 398 

Salisbury, W. H. B. Currier, 401 

Swampscott, Cyrus M. Tracy, 410 

Topsfield, Sidney Perley, 411 

Wenham, Charles F. W. Archer, 416 

West Newbury, George J. L. Colby, 419 





COLONY — 1620 To 1692. 


A good many plans for the construction of the history of Essex 
County have presented themselves, and we trust that, in our dis- 
crimination, we have selected one that will meet with general 
approval. In regard to the arrangement of the subjects treated, a 
method has been adopted, that best conforms to the logical and chron- 
ological requirements of the work. Some deliberation arose as to 
what extent this volume should include a record of those events which, 
while they may have direct connection with the history of Essex 
County, are, nevertheless, more essentially a part of a history of 
Massachusetts, and the course finally decided upon, will lead us to 
consider matters and events pertaining to the Commonwealth at 
large, only in so far as will be necessary to write a comprehensive 
history of the county proper. 

The materials before us, — while they are abundant, — are scattered 
and fragmentary, presenting but few traces of previous compilers. 
But while this condition renders our task many times greater than 
we had expected, it inspires the belief that what we shall do, if well 
done, will be the more valuable. 

The arrangement adopted, embraces a general history of Essex 
County, and a history of each of the towns separately. Preceding 
these, we have given a brief sketch of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Such a plan has necessarily left us the alternative of using great 
discrimination in the classification of subjects, or falling into the 
imperfection of needless repetitions. It has been impossible to ren- 
der the following pages wholly free from the latter, partly because 
the important events recorded as peculiar to any of the towns, are, 
for the most part, the same which, in a general fund, constitute the 
county history : but mainly from the reason that the work, as a whole, 
is the consolidated product of many writers, over whom it was 
impossible to exercise the control of a managing editorship, that was 
in some cases desirable. 

In cases where one town is the common ancestor of several adjoin- 
ing settlements, as, for instance, in the same sense in which Ipswich 
is the historical parent of Essex, we have not always been success- 
ful in dividing the honors of early historical records with just that 
degree of nicety that would conform to our judgment, and meet the 
ambition of local historians. In this dilemma, we have chosen, as 
the most expedient course, an occasional repetition of incident; but, 
where this occurs, the incident repeated has a garmenting of new 
associations, so that what might otherwise be considered objection- 
able, has been, in the present case, so manipulated as to result in a 
decided gain. 

The same conflict which has existed between the county history, as 
a separate department, and the several town histories, has occasion- 
ally manifested itself, from our sketch of Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
towards the early records of the county history, but, happily, with 
similar results. For any further comments in respect to this vol- 
ume, the reader is referred to the preface on a preceding page. 

Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

A settlement — the first in Xew England — had already been 
made at Plymouth, when, three years later, in 1G23, the Dorchester 
Company, which was dissolved in 1626, established a colony at Cape 
Ann, near what is now Gloucester. Roger Conant, who superin- 
tended the affairs of the Company in New England, soon became dis- 
satisfied with the location and removed to Naumkeag, now Salem, 
" secretly conceiving in his mind that in following times it might 
prove a receptacle for such as, upon the account of religion, would 
be willing to begin a foreign plantation in this part of the world, of 
which he gave an intimation to his friends in England." * Conant 
was a tine man. well qualified for the task before him, but the colony 
over which he presided did not number over fifty souls. But how- 
ever small their Dumber, a wonderful interest attaches to this little 
company, when we think of them us the pioneers of the Massachu- 
setts Bay ( 'olony. 

The Dorchester Company was organized by the Rev. John White, of 
Dorchester, England, who prevailed upon certain gentlemen of means 
residing in that place to contribute three thousand pounds. Conant, 
upon his removal to Naumkeag, at once informed the Rev. Mr. 
White of the act, and his reasons therefor, and set forth the advan- 
tages of the new project. The divine replied, that if Mr. Conant, 
John Woodbury, John Balch, and Peter Palfrey would remain at 
Naumkeag, he would, as soon as possible, obtain a royal patent, and 
forward more men and the necessary supplies. 

When the letter arrived a consultation took place between Conant 
and his three selected companions, in which they debated the whole 
subject with great care. The hitter were in favor of removing to 
Virginia, and for some time refused to enter into the engagement ; 
but Conant persuaded them to remain, and in this success he secured 
to them, in common with himself, the distinction of being called, in 
the language of Bancroft, " the sentinels of Puritanism on the Ba}' of 

But if Conant succeeded in prevailing upon his comrades to remain 
with the colony, so did the Rev. Mr. White in executing his promise. 
In 1628, he obtained a patent, conveying to six persons — Sir Henry 
Rosewell, Sir John Young, John Humphrey, Thomas Southcate, 
John Endicott, and Simon Whitcomb — a tract of country described 
as " that part of New England lying between three miles north of 
the Merrimac, and three miles to the south of the Charles River, and 
of every part thereof, in the Massachusetts Bay ; and in length 
between the described breadth from the Atlantic to the South Sea." 

* Hubbard's Hist., 102-107. 



Nor did Mr. "White cease his efforts with this result, but labored 
earnestly to promote the enterprise by endeavoring to interest others. 
In this he met with only moderate success. At length. Rosewell. 
Young, and Southeate retired, and the others formed a copartnership 
with certain London merchants, purchased the interests of the three 
gentlemen who retired, and organized the Massachusetts Company. 
Of this company John Endicott was made chief representative, and 
commissioned "to carry on the plantation of the Dorchester agents, 
and to make way for the settling of another colony in Massachu- 

In 1(128. John Endicott. with a small company of emigrants who 
had left England in June, arrived safely at Xaumkeag. He at once 
entered upon the duties of his office as magistrate and governor ; and 
at the close of the year, according to the records, the colony num- 
bered about one hundred persons, mostly from Dorchester, and some 
places adjoining. The rapid increase in the Colony led to plans for 
establishing some kind of local government, subordinate to the Com- 
pany in England, to consist of thirteen members, to be styled "The 
Governor and Council of London's Plantation in the Massachusetts 
Day. in New England." 

John Endicott was first appointed governor, and twelve represen- 
tative men of the Colony constituted the council. The local govern- 
ment could inflict punishment for minor offences, but aggravated 
climes could be finally adjudicated upon only in England. Land was 
distributed judiciously among the colonists, and the policy of kind- 
ness was adopted in regard to the Indians. Molality was inculcated, 
profanity forbidden, idleness discouraged, and drunkenness severely 
punished. In the following year, the Rev. Francis Higginson reached 
Naumkeag with a company of English emigrants. Certain of these 
men, with others in the settlement, hearing favorable reports of a 
place called "Mishawum." now Charlestown, commenced laying out 
a town around an elevation in that vicinity, and within a year the 
Puritan colony numbered nearly Ave hundred souls, of whom oue- 
fifth were living at Charlestown. 

A church was soon organized at Salem, disregarding the service 
of the Episcopal church. This gave offence to certain parties, who 
were forthwith sent back to the mother country by Gov. Endicott, 
with the comment that " Xew England was no place for them.*' — a 
course of proceeding for which the governor has since been censured. 
Troubles next arose between the Company in England, under 
Gov. Cradock. and the Massachusetts Colony, over which Gov. 
Endicott presided, in regard to a transfer of the charter from English 
to American residents. A consolidation of the Company and the 
Colony would involve the election of a new chief magistrate. At 
this period John Winthrop proved to be the master spirit, born for 
the occasion, — refined, intelligent, learned in the law as well as in 
theology, in the full maturity and vigor of forty years, eminent for 
liberality, and distinguished for his hospitality. In the words of 
another, he "enjoyed the distinguished honor of being the first gov- 
ernor chosen by the freemen of the Colony, within its limits, under 
the charter after its transfer, and the first who was head both of the 
Company and the Colony established by that instrument." 

His associates were gentlemen of influence, professional and other- 
wise. — a few prominent merchants, and some well-to-do farmer.-. — 
all possessing an unconquerable love for freedom, in both church and 
State, for themselves and for their posterity. Two vessels, contain- 
ing colonists, had already sailed from England, one reaching Salem 
in May. 1630, the other arriving at Nantasket; and. finally, the fleet. 
under Gov. Winthrop. comprising eleven vessels, sailed for the Xew 
World. After a stormy passage of sixty-one days, the admiral of 
the fleet, the "Arbella." came in sight of Cape Ann, and. on the 
following day. was near Naumkeag. Early in July, all the vessels were 
at anchor in Salem Harbor. Gov. "Winthrop himself arriving just before 
the 17th of June. On that day. as he himself says, he "sailed up the 
Mystic," in company with others, and there found " a good place." 

A second party followed the first; and, as the counhy around suited 
them better than the vicinity of Salem, about the 10th of July, 1630, 
most of the emigrants landed at Charlestown. and set up tents about 
the town hill. But the length and hardships of the passage, with 
the want of provisions, brought on sickness and famine. At this 
time, occurred the death of the lamented Lady Arbella, wife of 
Isaac Johnson, Esq., who had come "from a paradise of plenty, 
into a wilderness of wants," leaving her husband, a "holy man 
and wise." who died a mouth later, "overwhelmed in a flood of tears 
and grief." 

Within a year, two hundred had <rone to the grave. More than a 
hundred persons became disheartened, and returned to England. 
"Winter came on, and spring followed; but the " wolf of famine" 
faced the feeble remnant of the - people at the door. The colonists 
began to scatter to "Watertown, Roxbury. Newton, Lynn, and other 
places. A number of persons, by invitation of Mr. Blackstone, 
removed to Shawmut, where was an excellent spring of water. 
Gov. Winthrop, Mr. Wilson, and others followed, and thus laid the 
foundation of Boston. Winter set in with great severity. A day 
of fasting and prayer was appointed : but the very day before, while 
the last loaf Mas in the oven, a vessel landed at Xantasket. laden 
with provisions, and with twenty-six passengers on board, and the 
"fast was chanjred into a thanksgiving, which was celebrated throueh- 
out all the Colony with ardent rejoicing." * 

The principal new comers to the Colony, in 1631, were the Rev. 
John Eliot, afterwards the apostle to the Indians, and the wife and 
family of Gov. Winthrop. At a later day, Thomas Leverett, John 
Cotton, Thomas Hooker, and Samuel Stone Avere added to their 
number ; thus, in the words of Mather, supplying three great 
necessities: Cotton, for their clothing; Hooker, for their fishing; 
and Stone, for their building. All this occurred in 1633; and 
before the end of 1636, the Massachusetts Colony could boast of 
nine churches. Before 1650, there were twenty-nine, over which 
were settled "Godly ministers." all of them "burning and shining 
lights." and all zealous in propagating the " orthodox faith." 

In 1634. Gov. Winthrop retired from his office. A new election 
was held, and Thomas Dudley was chosen governor, holding the 
office, owing to a want of popularity, but a single year. He was 
succeeded by John Havnes as governor, with Richard Bellingham as 
deputy-governor: and. during their administration, more than three 
thousand emigrants left England and came to the Colony. Among 
these were Richard Mather, and the accomplished Sir Harry Vane, 
the heir of a powerful privy counsellor of England. Brilliant and 
talented, he had left the splendors of the court and the palace, to 
become almost an exile in the obscure wilderness of Massachusetts. 
The freemen of the Colony, flattered that so distinguished a person- 
age should have joined their ranks, and forgetting, moreover, his 
youth and want of experience, in a period of intense excitement 
unwisely chose him governor. He knew little of the people, less of 
their colonial prejudices, and was embarrassed at every step. It was 
a period of intense excitement, filled with faction and intrigue. 
Various disputes and dissensions followed, the red cross in the 
English flag being viewed as a "relic of Popery, insufl'erable in a 
Puritan community." 

Close upon these things came the troubles with Anne Hutchinson, 
wife of William Hutchinson, of Lincolnshire, who had come over to 
America in the emigration of 1634. The part taken in this contro- 
versv by Vane, gave quite as much dissatisfaction as his previous 
conduct, and the result was that, in the annual election of the fol- 
lowing year, John Winthrop was again chosen governor. Once 
more in the chair, Winthrop continued in oflice, with the excep- 
tion of four years, until his death in 1649. His administration of 
affairs brought great prosperity to the Colony. Emigrants were 

* Barrv's Historv, i, 196. 



continually arriving, and the progress of settlement was proportion- 
ally rapid. Hingham was settled in 1634; Newbury, Dedham, and 
Concord were incorporated in the following year, and from this date 
to 1643, the towns of Salisbury. Lynn, North Chelsea, Rowley, Sud- 
bury, Braintree, Woburn, Gloucester, Haverhill, Wenham, and 
Hull were incorporated. The town of Springfield followed in 1636, 
and in 1643 four counties were created, — Suffolk, Essex, Middle- 
sex, and old Norfolk, each of the first three containing eight towns, 
while Norfolk had only six, comprising a total of precisely thirty 
towns. In 1635, according to good authorities, the people began to 
be straightened for want of room. These complaints were heard 
particularly from Dorchester and Newton, and the result was the 
settlement of Connecticut. Troubles followed with the Pequots 
and the Narragansetts. A rumor was spread abroad that these two 
tribes were about to unite in exterminating the English, — the 
Pequots having previously murdered Capt. Stone, and his compan- 
ion, ('apt. Norton. 

The colonists besought Roger Williams, who alone had influence 
with the Narragansetts, to dissuade them. He had previously been 
persecuted, tried for sedition, and sentenced to depart from the 
jurisdiction of his judges and accusers; but. in the winter of 1635, 
he left Salem, turned his steps to Narragansett Bay, moved to the 
other side of the water, and, with five others, laid the foundation of 
Providence. Putting his life in his hands, he embarked in a frail 
canoe, and hastened to the house of the sachem of the Narragan- 
setts. The result was. that Miantinomoh, and two son of Canonicus. 
repaired to Boston, and there signed a treaty of peace and alliance. 
Foiled in their efforts, the exasperated Pequots thirsted for ven- 
geance. They seized, burned at the stake, mutilated and flayed alive 
those whom they took captives, and a succession of tragedies spread 
alarm throughout the Colonies. A bloody Indian war followed, and, 
as the result of a single onslaught, nearly six hundred Indians, — 
men, women, and children, — perished. The remaining Pequots 
were driven into a swamp, their wigwams Avere burned, and Sas- 
sacus, their sachem, was murdered. About two hundred who sur- 
vived, surrendered to the English, and were distributed by them to 
other tribes. Thus ended the first Indian war in New England. 

It has been said that the five points of a well-founded government 
are an hereditary monarchy, an established church, an order of 
nobility, a standing army, and a military police. The rigid Puritans, 
however, placed more faith in the five points of Calvinism. They 
made the Government subordinate to the Church, securing its very 
life and welfare by increasing Puritan principles in the basis of all 
their legislation. By their charter, the lands they held were their 
own; and. to build up an exclusively Puritan community, they for- 
bade any person to plant within their limits without permission from 
the governor and council. Later, it was forbidden to harbor persons 
whose religious views were considered " dangerous." This last 
statute was opposed by Sir Harry Vane, but rather favored by Gov. 
Winthrop, who deemed it " lawful and good that the Colony receives 
no one into its fellowship who would be likely to disturb the same." 
As the colonists held the key to their asylum in their own hands, 
another law was passed in 1631, in substance, that no man should be 
admitted to the freedom of their body politic who was not " a mem- 
ber of the church;" i. e., of some one of the churches! It was a 
bad policy, condemned by the Episcopalians of that day. as well as 
by Roger Williams; yet it was copied by the New Haven Colony, by 
that at Rhode Island for a time, and continued subsequently in force 
in Massachusetts until 1692, being repealed, in appearance only, after 
the restoration of Charles II. Possibly it was as much a political 
regulation as a sectarian scruple ; not intended to bestow privileges 
on piety, but to guard liberty, — to prevent encroachments upon their 
infant Commonwealth of chosen people in covenant with God, in 
which the humblest freeholder, if sound in faith, possessed a power 
as great, in the election of magistrates and the enactment of laws, as 

a peer of the realm, or the proudest lord spiritual, in the laud of their 

Still another order was passed in 1634, whereby every male resi- 
dent, twenty years old and upwards, not a freeman, was compelled 
under oath to acknowledge subjection to the Colonial Government, 
and to promise abidance to the same. The object of all these laws 
was to secure the allegiance of all not entitled to the immunities of 
citizenship. It was not a retaliatory, but a defensive policy which 
they adopted ; and as the colony grew in strength and wisdom, these 
laws, necessarily temporary, were in due time changed or abrogated, 
as their own circumstances, or those of the English Church, gave 
them opportunity. 

The terms of the colonial charter required the principal govern- 
ment officers to be chosen directly by the freemen. At first, in 1630, 
the freemen chose the assistants, and the assistants, from among 
themselves, the governor and deputy-governor. This kind of elec- 
tive aristocracy, with no limit to the tenure of office, was too anti- 
Republican for the masses; and the next spring, May, 1631, an 
order was passed making it lawful for the "commons" to propose — 
or, as we say in modern times, to nominate, — such persons as they 
wished to lie chosen. Later in the same month, to limit the tenure 
of office, it was agreed that the governor, his deputy, and the assist- 
ants (officials probably similar to the governor, lieutenant-governor, 
and council of the present day) should all be chosen anew every 
year, by the whole court, " the Great General Court," or House 
of Representatives, which comprised twenty-four delegates. The 
arrangement made a i'vw years later, that a portion of the magistrates 
should be chosen for life, awakened jealousy, and was soon aban- 
doned. Moreover, in some of the earlier disputes concerning the 
relative powers of the officers and the delegates, the people of New- 
town became disaffected, requested permission to remove to Con- 
necticut, were refused, and a political controversy ensued, lasting 
many years. It was finally settled by a compromise which " divided 
the Court into two branches, and gave to each (like our modern 
House and Senate) a negative upon the other." This conflict of his- 
torical opinion is worthy of note as a remarkable feature in the his- 
tory of New England, that, from the outset of its career, the two 
necessary elements of a proper government have ever been promi- 

Previous to 1635, the Colony had no regularly framed body of 
laws. The population was increasing, and the want was felt of 
positive statutes. In that year, four magistrates were deputed to 
frame a code of laws, bearing some "resemblance to a Magna Charta." 
This "Body of Liberties," as it was called, comprising one hundred 
laws, compiled mostly by the Rev. Nathaniel Ward, of Ipswich, was 
adopted in December, 1641, and subsequently revised at different 
periods. These laws were collected and published in 1648, 1660, 
1672, and at other times. Bancroft says of their author, "he is the 
most remarkable among all the early legislators of Massachusetts ; 
he had been formerly a student and practiser in the courts of common 
law in England, but became a Nonconformist minister, so that he 
was competent to combine the humane doctrines of the common law, 
with the principles of natural right and equality, as deducted from 
the Bible." The colonists have received much ridicule, however, for 
adopting those laws, and some have described them as a "literal 
transcript of the laws of Moses." Admitting this, it is well known 
that their predilection for the Mosaic policy was neither confined to 
Massachusetts, nor was it peculiar to the Puritans. The Presbyte- 
rians of Scotland asserted the obligations of the judicial laws of the 
Pentateuch, at least in criminal cases, and deduced therefrom the 
duty of executing idolaters, adulterers, witches, and Sabbath-break- 
ers. Our Puritan fathers were undoubtedly familial- with Magna 
Charta, and. taken as a whole, it is a question whether the Bod}' of 
Liberties which they promulgated, may not fearlessly challenge 
comparison with the cotemporary legislation of England, or any 



other land. And well might they say. in 1646. in repelling the 
charge of arbitrary government, illiuiited oaths, unjust taxes, illegal 
commitments, and others of a like nature: " Let them produce any 
Colony or Commonwealth 'in the world, where more hath l>een done 
in sixteen years. Let them show where hath been more care and 
strife to prevent all arbitrariness, and to bring all judgments to a cer- 
tain rule so far as may be." Comparing their laws with those of Eng- 
land, we find, in the "judicials '* of Mr. Cotton, nineteen offences are 
capital: in the ''Body of Liberties," twelve; while in England, at 
the same time, one hundred and fifty offences were punishable with 

In the Puritan code, slavery was prohibited, except in the case of 
"lawful captives taken in just war. and such strangers as willingly 
sell themselves, or are sold to us." Wife-whipping was forbidden, 
and " inhuman, cruel, or barbarous " punishments were not allowed. 
"No true gentleman, nor any man equal to a gentleman, was to be 
punished with whipping, unless his crime Mas very shameful, and his 
course of life vicious and profligate. It is true, cropping the ears, 
slitting the nose, branding the cheek, and whipping at the carfs tail 
were permitted, though, if contemporary history is to be credited, 
such inflictions were less frequent here than in England. The rights 
of the widow were respected, and the shield of the law Mas thrown 
around orphans. Profane swearing, drunkenness, and beggars were 
rare. In fact, the inspectors, in their official report to Charles II.. in 
1673, stated, "there are no beggars, and not three persons are put to 
death annually for theft." And Vincent, in closing his account of 
the Pequot Mar. says : "The air of New England, and the diet, equal. 
if not excel, that of Old England ; besides, their honor of marriage, 
and careful preventing and punishing of furtive congression, giveth 
them and us no small hope of their future puissance and multitude 
of subjects. Herein, saith the wise man. consisteth the strength of 
a kinsr, and likewise of a nation or kingdom." 

It Mould be hardly fair, says Barry, to contrast with this picture 
the contemporary condition of down-trodden Ireland, which James I. 
considered as a "masterpiece." But. at the risk of being considered 
a little invidious, one extract may be furnished from the journal 
of the faithful Evelyn, relating to England itself. "Aug. 2, 16(34. 
Went to Uppingham, the shire town of Rutland ; pretty and well- 
built, of stone, which is a rarity in that part of England, where most 
of the rural villages are built of mud. and the people living as wretch- 
edly as the most impoverished parts of France, which they much 
resemble, being idle and sluttish. The country (especially Leicester- 
shire) much in common ; the gentry free drinkers." 

Meanwhile trouble Mas brewing. Charles Mas at first inclined to 
treat the colonists and their infant commonwealth with benevolent 
platitude. But the stern discipline of their leaders in expelling 
some, and punishing by whipping others, set a thousand eyes over 
them to "pick a hole in their coats." Sir Ferdinando Gorges and 
Capt. John Mason, who had spent many thousand pounds in fruit- 
less attempts at colonization, grew jealous of the Massachusetts 
Colony, and, envious of its success, they complained to the lords of 
the Privy Council of "disorders ami distractions in the Colony.'' 
demanding a recall of its charter. They alleged that the colonists 
Mere opposed to Episcopacy and the Anglican Church : but Charles 
had discretion enough to see where the truth lay. To be sure, offend- 
ers had been punished, not because they Mere Episcopalians, but 
because they were insubordinate to the Colonial government. So cer- 
tain aide defenders of New England in the mother country. Sir Rich- 
ard Saltonstall. Mathew Cradock, and others, were assured by the 
council that "his majesty did not intend to impose the ceremonies of 
the Church of England" upon the colonists, as it Mas considered that 
it Mas " the freedom from such things that made people come over to 
the Colony." The news reaching Boston, in May. 1633, a day of 
thanksgiving Mas ordered, in which Plymouth Mas requested to join. 
An answer to the objectionable memorial Mas prepared, signed by the 

governor, and sent to England by Capt. Graves, with a certificate 
from the "old planters." certifying the loyalty of the colonists. After 
this, emigrations increased to an alarming extent, "many of the best, 
both ministers and Christians." leaving England for America. The 
dignitaries, both of church and state, became alarmed, and a warrant 
Mas issued, in 1634, to stay several vessels then in the Thames ready 
to sail for New England. Further, by royal decree, the archbishops 
of York and Canterbury, m ith ten others, or any five of them, were 
empowered to govern the plantations of New England, temporally 
and spiritually : and three days later, on the first of May. a governor 
wa- selected, and vessels provided to convey him to the Colony. The 
intelligence of this royal edict received by the colonists caused great 
excitement. The sum of six hundred pounds Mas appropriated for 
the erection of a fort at Boston, and another at Castle Island, with 
entrenchments at Dorchester and Charlestown : and in the fall of 
1634, Mr. Edward Winslow, of Plymouth, was sent to England in 
behalf of the Colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts, to obtain a 
commission to withstand the "intrusions of the French and the 
Dutch." He pointed out a May by which this might be effected with- 
out charge to the Crown. His petition Mas favorably received by the 
lords, but Archbishop Laud Mas not so easily baffled. Mr. Winslow 
Mas accused of exercising the functions of the ministry, by marrying 
people as a justice of the peace, without being episcopally ordained. 
He frankly confessed that "about marriage, it Mas a civil thing, and 
he nowhere found in the word of (bid that it was tied to a minister." 
and the result was Mr. Winslow's commitment to the fleet, where he 
Mas confined four months before he Mas liberated. 

Notwithstanding the vigorous policy of the Crown, emigrants con- 
tinued to flock by hundreds to America. Efforts were made to stop 
"promiscuous and disorderly departing out of the realm." In 1636 
a warrant Mas issued against the Massachusetts Bay Company, its 
"liberties, privileges, and franchises." Mere "taken and seized into 
the king's hands." though its charter Mas by no means revoked : but 
in May. 1637. an order of council directed the attorney-general to call 
for the Massachusetts patent. Xo result, however, followed; and the 
subsequent appointment, in July, of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, as gov- 
ernor-general of the country. Mas "passed over in silence." At 
this period troubles in Scotland so completely engrossed King 
Charles's time and the attention of his council, that he had "neither 
heart nor leisure to look much after New England's affairs." In the 
following year. 1638, orders Mere issued to stay eight ships then in 
the Thames which, certain parties said and believed, had on board 
Hampden. Cromwell, and others afterwards conspicuous in the annals 
of the Long Parliament. All these troubles terminated at last in the 
death of Charles, and the storm that Mould have compelled the colo- 
nists to bend or break Mas thus averted. 

The confederacy of 1643. among the New England Colonies, i- 
justly claimed as an important event in its history. The idea of such 
a union had been conceived in 1637, soon after the Pequot Mar. 
During the following year. 1638, the General Court at Newtown had 
declined to accept articles of confederation: but, in May. 1639, 
Gov. Haynes. of the Hartford Colony, visited Boston to renew the 
treaty, and. about this time, the people of New Hampshire, vexed by 
proprietary claims. Mere anxious also to come under the government 
of Massachusetts. Already, four distinct governments, including one 
at Kittery. Mere formed in 1640, near the Piscataqua. In 1641. the 
"lords and geutlemen." at Dover and Strawberry Bank, who held 
patents, resigned their jurisdiction to Massachusetts, for the sake 
of safety, and in the following year. 1642. Exeter followed their 
example. Troubles ensued at this period with certain French immi- 
grants, including some Jesuit priests sent over by Cardinal Richelieu. 
They had settlements near Cape Sable : and their governor, La Tour, 
claimed all the land from Cape Sable to Cape Cod, under authority 
ofiven him by the king of France. When asked for his patent, he 
said "his sword Mas his commission." Now the people of Massachu- 



setts had, as early as 1632, entertained the idea of establishing a 
plantation at Ipswich, and it is not surprising that they regarded the 
French as "ill neighbors." 

A glance at the condition of the Colonies at this period may prove 
to he of interest. The Puritans, like the Pilgrims, when they came 
over to America, knew that success meant hard work, patience, and 
economy. Poverty stared them in the face, and for several months 
they lived on Indian corn. Fish, to he sure, were plentiful, and seeds 
were sown for future harvests. Before the beginning of 1<>4:>, fifteen 
thousand acres were cultivated for grain purposes, and there were not 
less than a thousand acres of gardens and orchards. They had, more- 
over, twelve thousand neat cattle, and three thousand sheep. Hun- 
dreds of laborers, who "had not enough to tiring them over.*' were 
now worth scores and hundreds of pounds invested in lands and 
stock. Citizens began erecting buildings of brick in Boston, markets 
were established, wharves constructed, and vessels sent to the West 
Indies and to the Madeira Islands, returning with sugar, cotton, and 
tobacco; and these, with the furs and the products of the fisheries at 
the Cape and at the Hanks, including moose teeth and oil, procured 
in trips further to the north, were sent to England to pay for the 
manufactured goods needed for their wants. The resources of 
the 'country were rapidly developed. Forests were converted into 
masts, planks, hoards, staves, shingles, and hoops, all of which were 
of value in commercial exchange. Before 1650 glass works were 
commenced, and iron foundries established at Lynn and Braintree in 
the Massachusetts Colony, and at Kaynham in Plymouth. Mills were 
erected, and shipyards established : and. as wool, tlax. and hemp 
were plenty, manufacturing commenced. But changes in England 
checked the tlow of emigration from the Old World to the New. 
causing an immediate reduction in the market value of cattle : and as 
manufactures assumed an increased importance, they were prosecuted 
with more vigor. 

It is well know n that many early settlers of the Massachusetts Col- 
ony, particularly the clergy, were graduates of English universities. 
As a matter of course they felt an interest in the cause of education : 
and, when a sufficient degree of prosperity had been reached, it be- 
came a law that children and apprentices should be taught "so much 
learning as might enable them perfectly to read the English tongue." 
Every township of fifty householders was required to appoint one to 
teach all children to read and write; and every town of one hundred 
families was ordered to establish a grammar school, with a master 
able to tit them for college. In 1636, six years after the settlement 
of Boston, the General Court voted the sum of four hundred pounds 
— equal to a year's rate of the whole Colony — towards the erection 
of a "public school or college." The next year. 1637, the college 
was "ordered to be at New town : " and the following spring, in 1638, 
it was further ordered that " New town shall henceforward be called 
Cambridge," in honor of the English alma mater of many of the emi- 
grants. Before the end of the year, John Harvard, a minister settled 
at Charlestown, and a lover of learning, who died of consumption 
after a year's residence in the country, bequeathed one-half his whole 
property and his entire library to the college. This benefaction was 
so timely, and the sum so generous, that the college owns him as its 
earliest founder, and continues to wear his name. During the same 
year, 1638, a regular course of academical instruction was com- 
menced ; and, in 1(542, there were nine graduates, all of whom 
received degrees. Gov. Winthrop commended the young men for 
their proficiency : and this was the first commencement in the history 
of Harvard College. At this date, a charter for the college had 
been granted, and a board of overseers established. The seminary 
was undejr the charge of President Dunster, a man of eminent talents 
and singular worth, who continued at its head, discharging with fidel- 
ity the duties of his office for a period of nearly fourteen years ; and, 
before the grant of the province charter in 1(592. the office of presi- 
dent had been held by a succession of distinguished men. That the 

college moulded the character of the country, there can be little 
doubt. Its influence alarmed the commissioners of Charles II., and 
the Marquis of Wellesley is reported to have said to an American, 
many years later. "Establishing a seminary in New England at so 
early a period of time, hastened your revolution half a century." 

In 1639, the first printing-press in New England was set up at 
Cambridge. Both the press and the pressmen were brought over 
from England by the Rev. Joseph Glover. "The first thing printed," 
says Winthrop. in his journal, was "The Freeman's Oath." The press 
afterwards became the property of Samuel Green, who followed the 
printer's trade in Cambridge for more than forty years. He published 
"The Cambridge Platform" in 1649; "The Laws of the Colony" in 
1 licit : the " Psalter" in 1685, together with Baxter's " Call," and the 
Bible in the Indian language — publications now rarely met with. 
The literary attainments of the time were not extensive, but the 
period was pleasing for its patriarchal simplicity and freshness, and 
by some this was termed the golden asre of the Colony. 

•• For them each evening bad its shining star, 
And every Sabbath day its golden sun." 

At this time, about 1643, the population of New England was not 
far from twenty-tive thousand : while that of .Massachusetts was about 
eighteen thousand. And now the people talked, and the General 
Court discussed the subject, of a confederacy of the Colonies. Xo 
one doubted that such a union was necessary, even for common safety : 
and. May ID. 1643, the first step was taken. Commissioners from 
four of the Colonics met at Boston, and agreed upon the terms. 
These were signed by the delegates from Massachusetts. Connecticut, 
and New Haven : but the Plymouth commissioners, having no author- 
ity to sign, reported to the General Court, which submitted the mat- 
ter to the several towns, and on the 7th of September, in the same 
year, after complete ratification by the people, was formed the con- 
federation of "The United Colonies of New England," justly termed 
the prototype of the North American Confederacy of 1774. The 
articles of confederation were twelve in number, containing every 
proper provision for the welfare and security of the league. It was 
simple, but strong in its purpose, and was virtually an assumption of 
the sovereignty of the people. 

But the fortunes of the Colonies were influenced in no small degree 
by the revolution in England which dethroned and sent Charles I. 
to the scaffold. There were always difficulties within the Colonies; 
and at this particular period, those who were hostile to the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts sought redress for their grievances in England. 
Cromwell had always manifested great love for the Colonists; and, 
after his successes in Ireland, he tried to introduce Puritanism there, 
by inviting thither people of Massachusetts, who persistently declined 
the offer, preferring their own land as the "happiest and wisest this 
day in the world."' In the words of Bancroft, " English history must 
judge of Cromwell by his influence on the institutions of England ; 
the American Colonies remember the years of his power as the period 
when British sovereignty was for them free from rapacity, intolerance, 
and oppression. He may be called the benefactor of the English in 
America : for he left them to enjoy, unshackled, the liberal benevo- 
lence of Providence, the freedom of industry, of commerce, of relig- 
ion, and of government." During these years the Puritans and the 
Pilgrims worked harmoniously together to build up a mighty Com- 
monwealth ; and, as evil is always found following the footsteps of 
good, we come now, with regret, to another display of the persecut- 
ing spirit which pervaded the people of Massachusetts. 

In 1656, the first Quakers arrived in Massachusetts, and their doc- 
trines were deemed " another assault of Satan upon God's poor peo- 
ple here." The poor immigrants were subjected to all manner of 
atrocities. They were banished, whipped, transported : and a fine of 
one hundred pounds was imposed on every shipmaster who brought 
Quakers within the jurisdiction. Other severe laws prohibited any 



person from harboring " the pernicious sect." Plymouth and Con- 
necticut shared the sentiments of Massachusetts ; while Rhode Island 
alone, under the wise guidance of Roger Williams, looked with favor 
upon those persecuted people. For a season, men, women, and chil- 
dren were either scourged or tined, while some were imprisoned, 
others banished, and four were sent to the scatfold. Tidings of this 
inhumanity reached England, and came to the ears of Charles II., 
then on the throne of his father. The king finally put a stop to 
these persecutions in a summary way. and. on the part of the Quakers, 
the matter was finally compromised. From this hour the rigor of the 
Colonial laws abated, and the principles of toleration began to sur- 
mount the evils of bigotry. Says a writer: "Let us not censure too 
harshly the conduct of men to whom we are so largely indebted for 
the blessings we enjoy. Candid minds will not be indisposed to cast 
over their errors the mantle of charity. "We have no disposition to 
conceal those errors ; neither would we magnify them to an undue 
extent. Future ages, perhaps, in considering the laws of the middle 
of the nineteenth century, will look back with wonder to our days. 
and may find it as difficult to conceive how we should have strayed so 
far from the spirit of the gospel as then understood, as we find it diffi- 
cult to conceive how our ancestors should have strayed so far from 
that spirit as we understand it. Let each age be judged by its own 
light, and let due credit be given for all that was good in the past." 

In December, 1660, news reached Massachusetts that Charles II. 
had mounted the throne of his ancestors. — a piece of intelligence 
not wholly unexpected in New England. The General Court of Mas- 
sachusetts met, prepared addresses to the king and parliament, solic- 
iting their favor towards the Colonies, and urging Mr. Leverett, their 
agent, to use his utmost endeavors " for the renewing that ordinance 
that freed us from customs, 10th March, 164:2.'" The king's reply, 
received in the following May, 1661, was gracious, but not enough so 
to quiet the fears of the colonists. At a special meeting of the Court 
in June, "a declaration of natural and chartered rights" was issued, 
affirming their rights to choose their own governor, deputy -governor, 
and representatives ; to set up all sort of officers, superior or inferior, 
and determine their powers and places ; to exercise, by their annually 
elected magistrates and deputies, all power and authority, legislative, 
executive and judicial ; to defend themselves by force of arms against 
even' aggression ; and to reject as an infringement of their rights any 
parliamentary or royal imposition prejudicial to the country. It was 
a year before the restoration of Charles II. was publicly recognized in 
Boston. While Old England had welcomed his return with riotous 
festivity, and even Plymouth had readily acknowledged his authority. 
Massachusetts delayed as long as was prudent. Hitherto New Eng- 
land forbade even the drinking of his health ; but now a few formali- 
ties were observed in Massachusetts. The troops were paraded ; and, 
on the whole, the people behaved with decorum and discretion. A 
letter had been received from the Court of St. James forbidding fur- 
ther persecution of the Quakers, and ordering those who disobeyed 
to be sent over to England : and. soon after, orders were received for 
commissioners to be sent to answer accusations against the Colony. 
Finally, Feb. 10, 1662, after much agitation and opposition, and 
arrangements for their departure which required twelve meetings at 
the " Ancor Taverne " to perfect, the Rev. John Norton aud Simon Brad- 
street sailed, with an address commending them to the king, and 
another soliciting the favor of the Earl of Clarendon. Friends in 
England had prepared the way for them, and they were courteously 
received by King Charles ; and finally. June 28, 1662, the commis- 
sioners obtained a confirmation of their charter, and an amnesty for 
all past offences. A day of thanksgiving was appointed for the safe 
return of the messengers, and for a time matters wore a pleasing 
aspect. But some were dissatisfied. The king had rebuked the colo- 
nists for the irregularities which had been complained of. He had 
ordered a repeal of all laws derogatory to his authority ; the oath of 
allegiance was to be taken by all ; persons of honest life, except 

Quakers, were to be admitted to the sacrament of the Lord's supper, 
and their children to baptism ; and liberty of conscience was to be 
allowed those persons who desired to use the book of common 
prayer, and perform their devotion in the manner established in Eng- 
land. These directions of his majesty were not carried into imme- 
diate effect. The people met, discussed the subject, and finally 
referred the whole matter to the next General Court. In vain did 
Mr. Norton protest that if the demands of the monarch were not 
literally complied with, the blood that should be spilt would lie at 
their door. They told him his mission had been a failure, and so 
worried him, that he became despondent and melancholy ; and, being 
naturally of a sensitive temperament, died soon after. 

Rumors now reached England that Goffe and Whalley, the regicides, 
who had escaped in vessels to Massachusetts, were at the head of an 
army, and that the union of the Colonies in 1643 Mas a war combina- 
tion got up expressly to throw oil* their dependence on the mother 
country. There Mas no truth whatever in the rumor concerning the 
fugitive regicides. King Charles II. had previously issued an order 
for their apprehension, with a mandate to search for them; but, it 
seems, they had fled to Connecticut, after appeariug publicly every- 
M'here in Massachusetts — attending meetings on the Sabbath, and on 
other occasions. — and, on reaching the former Colony, were so effect- 
ually secreted by their friends, that their place of retreat was never 
discovered. After living in several places, they finally died in peace 
in the land of their exile. 

The situation of the colonists Mas now critical. Rumors and re- 
ports, both false and true, had tended to incense the court of St. 
James ; and it Mas even said that royal commissioners were to come 
over and regulate matters in New England. The colonists accord- 
ingly selected four persons — Bellingham, Leverett, Clark, and John- 
son — as a commission, instructing them to retain the patent, and a 
duplicate of the same, and to keep it safe and secret for the benefit 
of the country. Capt. Davenport. Mho commanded at the Castle, 
Mas ordered to report the arrival of any portion of his majesty's fleet, 
and the people were enjoined to strictly obey the laMs. A day of 
fasting aud prayer Mas appointed, — as usual on all important occa- 
sions, — and none but the sick were exempt from public worship. 
Even "the mother took with her the nursling whom she could not 
leave " at home. About an hour before sunset, on the 23d of July, 
1664, the principal vessel, the Guinea, of thirty-six guns, followed by 
three other ships of the line, arrived in Boston hai'bor. This fleet 
bore the commissioners, with the king's warrant, and a request to the 
colonists for aid in reducing the Dutch settlements on the Hudson, for 
which the vessels Mere equipped ; and, soon after, the fleet sailed 
for the New Netherlands. The king's letter Mas read ; and the sub- 
ject debated in the General Court, M'hich sent an able and eloquent 
reply, sketching the early history of the Colony under the charter 
from Charles I., and the sufferings and privations endured by the 
emigrants ; reciting the encouragements which Charles H. himself 
had given them, and his assurances of protection ; aud stating what 
had been done to satisfy him of their loyalty, by complying with his 
requests so far as Mas consistent with their charter. It then alluded 
to the conduct of those who had for years sought their overthrow, aud 
had set themselves against them by '' misinformations, complaints, 
and solicitations;" deprecates the commission appointed to interfere, 
as Mas apprehended, Mith their rights, by subjecting them to the 
arbitrary poMer of strangers, proceeding not by any established law. 
but by their own discretion ; aud though the course of the commis- 
sioners is not specially censured, yet, say they, " we have had enough 
to confirm us in our fears." 

The reply made to the king by the General Court also appealed to 
his majesty "to put a stop to these proceedings," and added, in this 
language : " For if they go on your subjecfs here Mill either be forced 
to seek new dwellings, or sink and faint under intolerable burdens. 
If the aime should be to gratify some gentlemen by livings and 



revenues, that will also fail from the poverty of the people. If all 
the charges of the whole government by the year were put together, 
and then doubled or trebled, it would not be counted for one of those 
srentlemen a considerable accommodation. To a coalition in this 
course the people will never come ; and it will be hard to find another 
people that Mill stand under any considerable burden in this country, 
seeing it is not a country where men can subsist without hard labor 
and great frugality. God knows our greatest ambition is to live a 
quiet life in a corner of the world. We came not into this wildcrnesse 
to seek great things to ourselves ; and if any come after us to secke 
them heere, they will be disappointed. We keep ourselves within out- 
line, a just dependence upon, and subjection to, your majestie, ac- 
cording to our charter, it is far from our hearts to disacknowledge. 
We would gladly do anything within our power to purchase the con- 
tinuance of your favorable aspect. But it is a great unhappiness to 
have no testimony of our loyalty offered but this, to yield up our 
liberties which are far dearer to us than our lives, and which we have 
willingly ventured our lives, and passed through many deaths to 
obtain. It was Job's excellency when he sat as king among his 
people, that he was a father to the poor. A poor people, destitute 
of outward favor, wealth, and power, now cry unto their lord the 
king. May your majestic regard their cause, and maintain their right ; 
it will stand among the marks of lasting honor to after generation- ; 
and we and ours shall have hearty cause to rejoice that we have been 
numbered among your majesty's most humble servants and sup- 

With this reply, address letters were sent to the Earls of Claren- 
don and Manchester, two of the most influential noblemen of the 
realm, but were not favorably received, the king being "displeased 
with their petition," while Clarendon expressed amazement that a 
recall of the commission should be demanded, when the commission- 
ers had committed no crime, nor exceeded the duties of their office. 
Three of the commissioners returned to Boston in February, 1665, 
but their reception was far from cordial. Even the magistrates defied 
their authority ; and, after a fruitless attempt to revise the laws of the 
Colony, the commissioners retired, and for a season the contest with 
the Crown ceased. In the meantime, Gov. Bellingham was chosen 
to succeed Gov. Endicott, whose death occurred a short time pre- 
vious. King Charles was too much engrossed with his private affairs 
to pay much attention to matters of state, and the Colonies flourished 
in comparative peace. 

When forsaking their native land to settle in a wilderness, one 
declared purpose of theirs was, to propagate the gospel among the 
ignorant whom they might meet. Allusion was made to this subject 
in their charter, and the matter was often alluded to in the earlier 
letters of the company. Several years passed before much was accom- 
plished. The severity of their trials, with the struggles of the emi- 
grants for subsistence, and the difficulties met with in their attempts 
to acquire a new language, were serious obstacles in their path. Yet 
something had been done towards converting the Indians. Roger 
Williams had labored by clay and by night, from one end of the coun- 
try to the other, learning a little here and there, of the language of 
the red men ; striving, almost against hope, for their conversion. 
Mayhew, the " young New England scholar," preached the gospel to 
the savages in his wild home on the lonely island of Nantucket, which 
his father had selected for his abode. To be sure, the scene of his 
labors was limited to a narrow region ; yet in five years, thirty-nine 
men, beside women, had joined his meetings; the next year, the 
number was increased to one hundred and ninety-nine men, women, 
and children ; and, in the following year, two hundred and eighty- 
three persons, exclusive of children, had renounced their false gods; 
a school was established, which was attended by thirty children; a 
town projected, to " carry on things in a civil and religious wa} r ; " 
and a covenant of faith had been drawn up and adopted. Mr. May- 
hew continued his labors, under the auspices of the society formed in 

England in 1649, for Propagating the Gospel, " sparing not his body 
by night nor day ; lodging in their houses, and solving their senqdes 
and objections ; " but business at length calling him to cross the 
Atlantic, the vessel in which he sailed was lost, and he " ended his 
days, and finished his work." 

John Eliot, of Roxbury, better known as the " Apostle to the 
Indians," began his work, assisted by his pious and constant com- 
panion, Gookiu, with a firm belief that the Indians must be civilized 
before they could be christianized; and all his earlier efforts were 
directed to this end. He preached his first sermon in October, 1646, 
on an elevated piece of land near Newton Corner, afterwards called 
by the Indian name " Nonantum," or "the place of rejoicing." His 
labors were afterwards continued at Concord, Neponset, and in many 
other Colonial towns ; and the people of Dedham were induced by 
Mr. Eliot to grant a township of nearly six thousand acres, where 
the Praying Indians, as they were called, were gathered. This, 
founded in 1650, was afterwards called Natick, or "the place of hills." 
In the meantime, Mr. Winslow, agent of the Colony in England, had 
succeeded in obtaining funds from pious people in that country, and 
soon a sum, yielding six hundred pounds a year was raised, and the 
proceeds regularly forwarded to purchase clothing, educate children, 
publish books, and maintain teachers for the mission ; and by these 
means was the gospel propagated by the labors of the society before 
alluded to. The Indians began to forsake their former habits, and to 
dress like the English ; to engage in agricultural pursuits; to build 
better houses; to catechise their children, and open schools for their 
in>truction ; to pray in their families morning and evening, and give 
thanks at their meals ; to sanctify the Sabbath, and imitate the Eng- 
lish generally. Much difficulty was experienced in instilling fixed 
habits of sobriety and industry, the seeds of indolence seeming to be 
too deeply rooted to be wholly eradicated. 

But the labors of Eliot did not end here. He prepared a gram- 
mar, catechisms, a primer, a psalter, and finally completed the 
herculean task of translating the Bible into the dialect of the 
Indians; all of which works, — now extremely rare, — were highly 
esteemed by our Puritan fathers, and were printed at the expense of 
the Society for Propagating the Gospel. Even in old age, he abated 
not his labors. In 1661, an Indian college, with accommodations 
for twenty scholars, was erected at Cambridge, and before long, 
fourteen praying towns, so called, were settled ; two Indian churches 
were established, connected with which were eleven hundred persons, 
"yielding obedience to the gospel." The war with Philip, which 
occurred soon after, proved a serious interruption to the work. 
There were, of course, not wanting those who doubted the success 
of the enterprise, while others openly condemned it. Says an able 
writer on this subject : " If the value of an enterprise is to be meas- 
ured by its success, the conversion of the Indians must be regarded 
as a failure. The race itself has dwindled away, leaving behind 
i'cw tokens of its presence in the country ; and nearly all that 
remains to remind us of the genius and exertions of Eliot, are the 
few scattered books which have descended to us from the past, as 
unintelligible as the inscriptions upon the obelisk of Luxor ; yet, 
like that, they are memorials of the labors of man, and impressive 
and instructive are the lessons they teach." Yet the Natick church 
continued many years to maintain its existence ; the town was settled 
principally by Indians ; a son of Waban, in whose wigwam Mr. 
Eliot first preached, held the office of "town clerk" ; and a succession 
of pastors conducted services in the rude church of Eliot's day, and 
those afterwards erected on its site, until the English became most 
numerous, and an English settlement was incorporated; but a house 
of worship still marks the spot where the rude Indian temple stood. 

In the Plymouth Colony, success seems also to have attended the 
missionary labors of Thomas Tupper and Richard Borne, of Sand- 
wich, and of Mr. Cotton, of Plymouth, who was an assistant in the 
work. There were twenty places where meetings were held within 



the Colony, and. although but one church was gathered, having 
twenty-seven communicants, and but ninety persons had been 
baptized, there were nearly rive hundred attendants on public wor- 
ship ; and eleven years later, this number had increased to about 
fifteen hundred. The record of all these missionary efforts, still 
remains as a worthy memorial of the piety of our ancestors. The 
founders of new sects, are not un frequently characterized by a zeal 
highly disproportioncd to the wisdom necessary to control the same. 
But it is with sects, a- with individuals. — age cools the impetuosity 
of youthful pas-ions, and the wildest seldom fail to be sobered by its 
experience, and instructed by its warnings. In a word, the history 
of enthusiasm is in all ages the same. Xo wonder that the Quakers. 
— to whose persecution we have already alluded. — who are now a 
quiet and peaceable order of Christians, should have been denounced 
as "fanatics." Of their history, prior to their appearance in New 
England, it is not necessary to speak at length. The founder of the 
sect. George Fox. Mas a native of Drayton, in Leicestershire, and 
was the son of Christopher Fox. a weaver by profession, and a man 
of such integrity, that he was called by his neighbors "righteous 
Christer." From his earliest year-. George, the son. Avas marked 
by a gravity of deportment unusual in children. At the age of 
eleven, he "knew pureness and righteousness.'* and, during his 
apprenticeship, such was his honesty, that he " never wronged man 
or woman in all that time, and it was a common saying among peo- 
ple, if George says verih/, there is no altering him." There is an 
apparent vanity in such statements, coming from the subject himself, 
and a lack of attention to the scripture command, "Let another's 
mouth praise thee, and not thine own." But whatever of egotism 
his journal may display, it is cheerfully admitted that his morals 
were exemplary, that his piety was fervent, and that he labored 
sincerely and zealously for what he regarded as the true doctrines 
of godliness. Yet his own morals, however pure, did not prevent 
him from approving acts of his followers of questionable propriety, 
if not of positive indecency: nor did the fervency of his piety, how- 
ever vital, preserve him from the insidious, because imperceptible, 
delusions to which imaginative and melancholy minds are so often 
subject. Quakerism, without doubt, had a mission to perform in 
the world, or it would never have appeared : and the very sufferings 
which the persecuted sect endured, afford sufficient evidence of 
Puritan intolerance, and of nameless cruelties practised by those 
whose minds were now fast becoming poisoned with suspicions of 
the fidelity of the savagi -. 

Previous to 1675, four powerful tribes of Indians owned land in 
Xew England : and. next to the Pequots. the Xarragansetts were the 
most warlike. Most of the tribes had resisted all efforts to convert 
them to Christianity. But the Wampanoags had hitherto continued 
friendly with the colonists, and had kept their treaty of 1621 inviola- 
ble, not only with Massasoit, but with his son and successor Alexan- 
der, and also with their new sachem, the brother of Alexander, gen- 
erally known, from his place of residence, as Philip of Mount Hope. 
He was an aide and a great man. From the moment when the white 
man landed, he saw that the doom of the Indian was sealed. He had 
exchanged the rude bow and arrow for the English musket, 'in the 
skilful use of which he flattered himself he could drive his foes before 
him as the wind whirls the leaves of the autumnal forests. Philip of 
Mount Hope knew that unless the pale-face was expelled, the Indian 
would be exterminated ; and he was the first to propose an alliance to 
prevent it. It was about 1670—71 that suspicions of the intentions 
of Philip began to be excited. Eight years previous he had prom- 
ised, at Plymouth, to continue in friendship with the English, and to 
remain faithful to the king and the Colony: but now it was rumored 
that he was about to violate his pledge. This lie promptly denied : 
and perhaps deceived those who had so often, in trade, dealt unjustly 
with the aged chief. Several year- of quiet followed, during which 
Philip matured all his plans: and, in 1G75, the war commenced. 

The proximate cause of it was the murder of one Sausaman, of the 
Massachusetts tribe, who had been converted to Christianity, and 
employed as a teacher at Xatick. but who afterwards apostatized, 
joined Philip, and became his principal counsellor and secretary. 
By the exertions of Mr. Eliot he was reclaimed, but was soon after 
assassinated by three of Philip's men. who were afterwards seized, 
tried by a jury, part of whom were Indians, condemned and executed. 
Hostilities began at once, and butcheries followed, in which the sav- 
ages "exercised more than brutish barbarities. — beheading, dismem- 
bering and mangling" murdered bodies, and exposing them in the 
most inhuman maimer. Details of the various attacks and repulses 
would scarcely come within the scope of the present work. It may 
therefore be found sufficient to state that in all their dealings with 
the Indians, the colonists experienced many difficulties with Philip. 
There was a continuous series of meetings for adjustment, followed 
by fresh rumors of threatened attacks, retreats, and sorties, in which 
(apt. Benjamin Church, the most famous partisan warrior, perhaps, 
that Massachusetts produced, took a prominent part. Another out- 
break of hostilities occurred at the time Swanzey was attacked, 
when, anticipating all the horrors of war. Maj. Gookin. of Cambridge, 
received orders to enlist a band of Praying Indians, of whom fifty- 
two were mustered in. and marched to the relief of that beleagured 
town, while the country around was scoured unsuccessfully by Mas- 
sachusetts troops in search of Philip. Under command of Capt 
Savage, they immediately marched to the Narragansett country, and. 
being joiued by commissioners from Connecticut, a treaty was con- 
cluded at the point of the sword, signed by four persons as attorneys 
for the six principal sachems, and hostages were delivered as a pledge 
of fidelity. Near Brookfield, in the Old Colony, where a high hill 
arose almost perpendicularly from the road. — the opposite side being 
skirted by a swamp. — two or three hundred savages, concealed on 
the height-, attacked the command of Capt. Hutchinson, wounding 
him severely, and killing eight men. The town itself was tired in 
several places, and nearly all the dwellings were consumed. One 
principal building, to which the inhabitants and the soldiers had tied 
for safety, was besieged : and for two days the Indians poured in upon 
its seventy occupants an incessant volley of musketry. Twice, a large 
heap of combustibles was placed against it : but the flames were ex- 
tinguished by extraordinary efforts. Pieces of cloth, dipped in sul- 
phur, were fastened to arrow-heads, and shot at the roof to set it on 
tire. Foiled in these attempts, a cart, tilled with burning flax, hay. 
and other materials, was pushed up to the walls: but this too was 
quenched by a shower of rain. The scene was terrific. Within were 
the English, a comparative handful, with women and children hanging 
around them; but their courage never quailed. Xo quarter was 
offered ; no quarter was asked. At this critical juncture, when escape 
seemed hopeless, aid came from Boston, under the command of Maj. 
Willard, of Marlborough, and Capt. Parker, of Groton : an engage- 
ment followed, continuing all night, and. near morning, the Indians, 
having burned their shelters, retreated to a swamp a few miles dis- 
tant, where they were joined by Philip and a remnant of his tribe. 

Driven to the forest- bordering upon the Connecticut River, Philip 
attacked Hadley, while all the people were at church, and set the 
town on tire. This occurred on a Fast day. September 1. 1665, and 
the place was in danger of being destroyed: but. in the midst of the 
contest, while the war-whoop was ringing, and just as the Indians 
Mere about to triumph, a venerable figure, of commanding aspect, 
clad in the fashion of a former generation, with his hair white from 
age, suddenly appeared, it is stated, and with sword in hand rallied 
the disordered troops, infused into them fresh courage, and. placing 
himself at their head, the savages were speedily compelled to retire. 
At the close of the struggle the visitor vanished as mysteriously as 
he came. The belief was long cherished that an angel-hand relieved 
the town : and years elapsed before it was known that Col. Goffe, who 
had been a commander in the army of Cromwell's Invincibles. and 



who was then concealed in Hadley, was the one to whom they were 
indebted for so timely a deliverance. Deerfield was attacked and 
nearly destroyed by the Indians, on the same day ; and before the 
middle of that week, Northfield shared a similar fate. In a second 
attack on Deerfield, a fortnight later, occurred the dreadful scene at 
Bloody Brook, wherein scarcely a white man escaped. On the 4th 
of the following month, the savages attacked Springfield, burning 
upwards of sixty houses. During these four months of war, the col- 
onists had acted mainly on the defensive. Now they proposed to 
push the fighting, and one thousand troops were ordered to be raised 
without delay, of which Massachusetts furnished the greater part. A 
winter campaign was proposed, war was declared, and the Massachu- 
setts troops, under Maj. Appleton, joined by the Plymouth forces, 
under Maj. Bradford, and later by the Connecticut troops under Maj. 
Treat, set out for the country of the Narragansetts. Marching all 
night through the untrodden snow, the army of nearly twelve hun- 
dred, of whom one hundred and fifty were friendly Indians, reached 
the edge of the swamp near the Narragansett fort. A bloody strug- 
gle followed. At length, gaining a shelter in the lower part of the 
fort, the opposing parties fought desperately, hand to hand. The 
wigwams were soon set ablaze, and the shouts of battle mingled with 
the screams of women and children roasting in the flames. The 
slaughter ceased only at nightfall, when the wretched remnant of 
Narragansett warriors crept into a neighboring swamp, and the 
troops returned to headquarters, with a loss of eighty killed, includ- 
ing some of their best officers, and one hundred and fifty wounded, 
some of whom were afterwards found frozen stiff, and nearly one- 
third of the little army were reported unfit for duly. 

On the 10th of February, Kill!, the Narragansetts and others 
united with the remnant of Philip's tribe, and attacked the town of 
Lancaster, sotting fire to the houses and capturing or killing those 
who attempted to escape. Nearly all of the forty-two persons, who 
sought refuge in the house of Mr. Rowlandson, their pastor, were 
either wounded or killed. Before the dwelling had burned to the 
ground, Mrs. Rowlandson was taken prisoner, but treated kindly. 
She was afterwards exchanged, and wrote an interesting narrative of 
her captivity. Ten days later, February 21st. the Indians burned 
half of the houses, and killed twenty of the inhabitants, of Medfield. 
Weymouth had a similar experience on the 24th ; and, on the 2d of 
March, Groton was nearly destroyed. In the attack on Northampton 
the Indians were defeated ; but the saddest calamity which the Plym- 
outh Colony suffered during the war, occurred on the 26th of the 
same month. Capt. Pierce, of Scituate, with about seventy men, 
was crossing the river near Pawtucket Falls, not far from a pass since 
known as Attleborough Gore. Here a few Indians made their appear- 
ance, limping, and running away, as if lame, to deceive the English. 
The stratagem succeeded in drawing the colonists into the fatal snare, 
where, fighting like heroes, they were rapidly mowed down between 
two fires. A hundred Indians were killed, but not one of the Plym- 
outh troops escaped. The burning of Seekonk and of Providence 
followed, and the Indians seemed masters of the situation. A coun- 
cil of war was immediately called, fresh troops were raised, and on 
the 21st of April occurred the Sudbury fight, one of the most memor- 
able in the annals of the Massachusetts Colony, wherein fifteen hun- 
dred Indian warriors attacked a comparatively small force of English, 
killing the brave Capt. Wadsworth, of Milton, with most of his men. 
The success of the Indians, however, was short-lived. Starvation 
and disease rapidly wasted their miserable ranks, saving many a town 
from attack, and leading at last to Philip's ruin. Multitudes of his 
men deserted him, and a "great and notable slaughter was made," 
while the savages were sunk in slumber in an Indian encampment 
near the upper falls of the Connecticut. On the 18th of May, in the 
same year, Capts. Turner and Holyoke, with one hundred and fifty 
men, surprised the sleeping camp, took deliberate aim, and cut down 
all who fled. Some were drowned in the river, while others leaped 

into their canoes and were carried over the falls. On returning, the 
English were attacked by a large body under Philip, losing thirty- 
eight of their number, among whom was Capt. Turner, " whose name 
is perpetuated in that of the beautiful falls near which his corpse was 
afterwards found." 

In the month of July vast numbers of starving Indians surrendered 
themselves to the colonists ; while others continued to subsist on roots 
and ground-nuts, by devouring loathsome animals, — such as toads 
and frogs, — and by chewing the soft inner bark of trees. Hunted 
through the woods like a wild beast, Philip fled to Mount Hope. The 
sachem's wife and child having been captured during the pursuit, were 
ordered by Capt. Church to be sent to Bridgewater, and from thence 
to Plymouth, where he himself soon after retired, worn out by fatigue 
and exposure. Urged by the government, Church soon prepared for 
another expedition. Recruiting his own men, as was his custom, and 
followed by large numbers of volunteers, he found Philip in a swamp 
near Pocasset. Carne describes it, in his life of Eliot, as "a place 
well suited to awaken all the terrors of the imagination. It was a fit 
retreat for a despairing man, being one of those waste and dismal 
places to which i't^w ever wandered, covered with rank and dense 
vegetation ; to any eye but that of the savage, it was like the 'valley 
of the shadow of death'; the cypress and oak trees hung heavy and 
still over the accursed soil ; the faint gleam of the pools and sluggish 
lakes on every side, in the starlight, and the howl of the wolf, fit- 
fully, as if it warned that the hour was nigh." On the 12th of 
August Church arranged his men to surround Philip and prevent his 
escape. A single shot was heard in the distance, and a ball whistled 
through the air. Then came an entire volley, and the battle began. 
Completely surprised, Philip seized his gun and fled. Running 
directly towards two of Church's men concealed in ambush, the first 
levelled his gun, which missed fire ; while a ball from the second 
pierced the sachem's heart. Thus fell King Philip ! None braver 
ever "drew the bow" ; but he had often been merciless, and, as Capt. 
Church remarked, had "caused many an Englishman's body to rot 
above ground," — so he ordered that " not one of his bones should be 
buried." Tradition says, his head was cut off and his body quartered ; 
and many modern writers continue to assert of King Philip's war, 
that the advance of New England was retarded by it fifty years. 

The English commission sent out by Charles II., in 1664, to reduce 
the Colonies to obedience, having failed in its efforts, the court voted, 
in 1672, to send new agents to America; but they never came. 
Massachusetts, the most perverse of all the Colonies, had prospered 
in commerce and in wealth ; while New Hampshire and Maine, with 
a portion of the Province of Acadia, were yet within her jurisdiction. 
Four years later, in 1676, the king sent Edward Randolph to Boston, 
with full powers to carry out the will of his sovereign. Gov. Lev- 
erett, without paying much attention to his credentials, or his pro- 
posals, gave him to understand that his majesty ought not to retrench 
their liberties which he had agreed to confirm, but leave them to enjoy 
the same, inasmuch, as without any contribution from the Crown, they 
had " made so large a plantation in the wilderness." So Randolph 
returned to England the following year without accomplishing the 
object of his mission. Pending disputes as to the right of jurisdiction 
over Maine and New Hampshire, — during which, John Usher, a Bos- 
ton merchant, purchased the interest of Gorges' heirs, and assigned it 
to the governor and company of Massachusetts, — the court had deter- 
mined to send over a royal governor, " wholly supported by his maj- 
esty," and also a collector for the port of Boston. This office was 
conferred upon Randolph, who, in December, 1678, again came to 
Boston, where he was made the object of abuse, and returned to Eng- 
land " soured by disappointment." He told the king that the " Bos- 
toneers " were usurpers ; that they were " forming themselves into a 
commonwealth, neglecting the oath of allegiance, protecting regi- 
cides," and so forth ; and Charles sent him back to Boston, in 1681, 
with a royal letter solemnly declaring, that, if all the irregular pro- 



ceedings of the Colonies in New England were not forthwith attended 
to by duly authorized agents, "we are fully resolved, in Trinity term 
next ensuing, to direct our attorney-general to bring a quo warranto 
in our Court of King's Bench, whereby our charter granted unto you, 
with all the powers thereof, may be legally evicted and made void." 

This kingly summons was sufficiently powerful to meet with a 
response. Besides, the royalist party in Boston was every day grow- 
ing stronger. William Stoughton Mas first appointed one of the new 
agents to be sent to England, but refused to go ; and Joseph Dudley, 
with John Richards, finally departed, pledged " not to do or consent 
to anything that should violate or infringe the liberties and privi- 
leges" granted by the charter. When the agents arrived in England, 
they Mere graciously, but by no means heartily received by his maj- 
esty, and were told at the hearing that their powers were entirely 
insufficient. It was a sad day for Massachusetts ; where the farmers 
talked it over, people pondered it. the merchants discussed it on the 
exchange, and the clergy made it the burden of their prayers. But, 
as the first race of emigrants had nearly all departed, and a new gen- 
eration had come upon the stage, and among the people there were 
many who were wearied with these incessant struggles, which ended. 
only to be renewed; and as the population had largely increased, and 
there were many besides Episcopalians opposed to the ecclesiastical 
constitution of the Colony, the power of the clergy had become 
measurablv weakened by the infusion of new elements into the reliff- 
ious controversies of the clay : dissensions had arisen even in the 
churches of Boston : the party in favor of rigidly adhering to the long 
established policy of the rulers, at the head of whom were Danforth 
and Gookin, was daily losing ground; and those who Mere inclined 
to yield to the demands of the king, of whom Bradstreet Mas the 
leader, Mere increasing in strength. It was plainly evident that the 
king was desirous, not to regulate, but to recall the charter; that 
Massachusetts must be humbled ; and that matters were to be pushed 
to the utmost extremity. When Randolph, who reached England in 
May. brought before the committee of plantations his articles of "high 
crimes and misdemeanors" against the Massachusetts Colony, the fate 
of her charter Mas sealed. Unwilling, with their limited powers, to 
undertake the defence or management of so important a case, the 
agents returned home and reported the result of their mission. Ran- 
dolph followed the same Meek with his quo warranto, and two hun- 
dred copies of the proceedings in England against the Massachusetts 
charter, for general distribution. The governor, and a portion of the 
council M-ere inclined to submit, and accordingly voted " not to con- 
tend with his majesty in a course of law." This vote, to which the 
deputy-governor and other of the assistants objected. Mas referred to 
the deputies, Mho, after a fortnight's consideration and protracted 
debate, refused consent, and adhered "to their former bills." The 
people of Boston sustained the deputies ; and, at a town meeting, 
Increase Mather, then president of the college, nurtured in the 
ancient faith of the Puritans, full of zeal, with a mind " richly fur- 
nished by study and reflection," — a man Mho for twenty years exerted 
a greater influence upon the fortunes of Massachusetts, than any other 
in the same length of time, — delivered a speech against the surren- 
der of the charter which Mas both powerful and effective. " God for- 
bid," said he, "that we should give away the inheritance of our 
fathers ! I hope there is not one freeman in Boston that can be guilty 
of it." The effect of this Mas irresistible. Many of the people Mere 
in tears. And when the question Mas put to vote, it Mas unanimously 
rejected. ''It is better," was their conclusion, " if we must die. to 
die by the hands of others than by our own." Entreaties and remon- 
strances Mere of no avail, and the forbearance of the king Mas in vain 
solicited. Randolph being ''commanded to prosecute the Boston 
charter." a writ of sci re facias Mas issued in England, April 16, 1684, 
and before action could be taken upon it by the colonists, the day of 
grace had passed, and the charter which Winthrop had brought over 
to America, Mas adjudged to be conditionally forfeited. This Mas the 

last effective act of Charles II. relative to Massachusetts. His death 
and that of the charter were nearly contemporary. 

The accession of James II. to the English throne took place in Feb- 
ruary, 1685. As dutiful subjects, his majesty Mas proclaimed, 
though "with sorrowful pomp," at the town house in Boston, in the 
presence of the eight military companies ; and '' three volleys of can- 
non" were discharged on the occasion. But wheu the Rose frigate 
arrived in Boston. May 14. 1686, and a commission from King James 
Mas presented and read to the General Court, then in session, whereby 
Joseph Dudley Mas appointed president of the Colony, the members 
at once adjourned : and it is said " the deputies returned in sadness 
to their homes." Mr. Dudley did not consider himself a permanent 
president, but only as appointed to prevent confusion, until the king's 
pleasure should be known. He Mas generally regarded with suspi- 
cion, and was never popular with the people, some of whom took 
sides Mith him. however, on account of their great dislike to Ran- 
dolph, who Mas shunned by many of the colonists as a sort of "evil 
genius " of New England. One thing for which Randolph Mas dis- 
liked, was his proposition to tax the Plymouth Colony for the support 
of Episcopal worship in Boston: and further, that one of its three 
meeting-houses should be " sot apart for the exercise of the religion 
according to the Church of England"; and that twenty shillings 
Meekly should be pail out of the contributions of each society to 
defray the expenses of an Episcopal church. Such a church Mas 
gathered, in the same year, with nearly four hundred communicants ; 
but it is said there is no proof that Randolph's proposition prevailed. 
For some reason a coolness had grown up between Dudley and Ran- 
dolph ; and m hile outsiders Mere Matching the controversy, his majesty's 
frigate, "Kingfisher," arrived on the coast, and Sir Edmund Andros, 
glittering in scarlet and lace, landed at Boston, December 20, 1686, 

- \aptain-gencral and governor-in-chief" of all Xew England, with 
companies of soldiers brought from Europe to support his claims. 
Forthwith he marched to the town house and made a " short speech." 
At a meeting of the council the next day. " all members of the late 
government Mere summoned to meet at Boston on the 30th inst." A 
surrender of the charters of Rhode Island and Connecticut was de- 
manded. The new government Mas organized on the clay appointed, 
and proclamation was made that " all officers, both civil and military, 
>hould be continued in their places of trust, and that the laws not 
repugnant to the laws of England, should be continued and observed 
during his excellency's pleasure." One of his first acts Mas to levy a 
tax of twenty pence on each poll, and one penny in the pound upon 
"all the late Colonies and Provinces, towarda defraying the public 
charges of the government." This act caused great excitement, and 
Mas deemed oppressive. It was the beginning of trouble. Excise 
laws Mere afterwards passed, and enforced by fines and imprison- 
ment ; freedom of the press Mas limited ; no one Mas allowed to leave 
the country without permission, lest complaints should reach England, 
and redress of public grievance be sought. In August, 1687, writs 
as "many as a cart could hold." Mere ordered to be issued, whereby, 
wrote Randolph, "all the inhabitants of Boston Mill lie forced to take 
new grants and confirmations of their lands, which Mill bring in vast 
profits " to the Crown. Much caution Mas needed to manage this ; 
tor "what people," it Mas asked, "that had the spirits of Englishmen 
could endure this? " Indian deeds that Mere sometimes produced as 
original titles. Merc pronounced "worth no more than a bear's paw." 
Even the records of Lynn were declared "not worth a rush." At 
this stage, the Rev. Increase Mather Mas sent to England to enlist the 
king's sympathy ; but his mission proved a failure. Soon after oc- 
curred the downfall of the Stuarts; and William of Holland, in right 
of his wife, was proclaimed sovereign. News of the revolution in 
England reached Boston early in 1689, and Andros Mas soon after 
imprisoned. He Mas subsequently released and recalled home to 
England, where he Mas summoned before the council, April 17, 1690. 
On account of some informality, he Mas soon discharged from cus- 



tody, and afterwards became governor of Virginia. Randolph was 
sent to the West Indies, and Dudley, at a later day, sat upon the 
bench as chief justice of New York. 

That King William and his ministers were determined to erect a 
new government in Massachusetts, to be known as the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, became evident. Massachusetts, Plymouth, and 
Maine were to be united under one jurisdiction, whose officers were 
to comprise a governor, deputy-governor, and secretary, appointed 
by the king, and twenty-eight councillors chosen by the people. 
Each town was authorized to choose two deputies to represent them 
in the General Court ; rights of citizenship were established, and lib- 
erty of conscience secured to all but Papists. This Province charter 
of 1692 differed quite materially from the Colonial charter of 1629. 
It completely revolutionized the country, and secured the dependence 
of the Colonies upon the Crown; and on Saturday, May 14, Sir 
William Phips, the new governor, arrived in Boston. Some of the 
people submitted reluctantly, but a majority accepted the new gov- 
ernment, and a day of thanksgiving was appointed on that account. 

We must, at this point, leave the history of Massachusetts as such, 
and turn our attention more directly to Essex County: but, in con- 
cluding this part of the work, we will annex the following list of 
governors, embracing a period from the earliest settlement of the 
country to the Revolution. 


lf.'O John Carver. 
l(i-2l William Bradford. 
1633 Edward Winslow. 
Ui:S4 Thomas Preuce. 
I63fl William Bradford. 
1630 Edward Winslow. 

1637 William Bradford. 

1638 Thomas Prence. 

1639 William Bradford. 

1C>44 Edward Winslow. 

1645 William Bradford. 

li'i.'T Thomas Prence. 

1673 .Josias Winslow. 

1681 Thomas Hinckley, who held his place, 
except daring the interruption by 
Andros, till the anion with Massa- 
chusetts in 1692. 


1629 John Endicott. 
1629 John Winthrop. 

1634 Thomas Dudley. 

1635 John Haynes. 

1636 Henry Vane. 

1637 John Winthrop. 

1640 Thomas Dudley. 

1641 Richard Bellingham. 

1642 John Winthrop. 
1644 John Endicott. 

1643 Thomas Dudley. 
1646 John Winthrop. 

1649 John Endicott. 

1650 Thomas Dudley. 
lii.">l John Endicott. 
u;:>4 Richard Bellingham. 
1655 John Endicott. 
1665 Richard Bellingham. 
11)73 John Leveled. 

1679 Simon Bradstreet, who, with the ex- 
ception of the administration of Sir 
Edmund Andros, continued in office 
till 1692. 



1692 May, Sir William Phips. 1730 
1694 Nov., Win. Stoughton, Acting Gov. 1730 

1697 May, Earl of Bellomont. 1741 

1700 July. William Stoughton, A.G. 1749 

1701 July, The Council. 1753 

1702 June, Joseph Dudley. 1756 
1714-15 Feb., The Council. 1757 
1714-15 Manh, Joseph Dudley. 1757 

1715 Nov., William Taihr, A.G. 1760 

1716 Oct., Samuel Shnte. 1760 
1722-23 Jan., William Dummer, A.G. 1769 
1728 July, William Burnet. 1771 
1728 Sept., William Dummer, A.G. 1774 

June, William Tailer, A.G. 

Aug., Jonathan Belcher. 

Aug., William Shirley. 

Sept., Spencer Phips, A.G. ' 

Aug., William Shirley. 

Sept., Spencer Phips, A.G. 

April, The Council. 

Aug., Thomas Pownal. 

June, Thomas Hutchinson, A.G. 

Aug., Francis Bernard. 

Aug., Thomas Hutchinson, A.G.. 

March, Thomas Hutchinson. 

May, Thomas Gage. 






It was our intention to present a somewhat complete narrative of 
the affairs of the Indians of New England, and more particularly 
those of Essex County during the last days of activity; but the 
materials necessary do not exist in accessible form, and we are com- 
pelled to satisfy this ambition with a few remarks, such as may be 
sufficient to give the reader a general knowledge of the extent and 
character of the latest tribes. The Indian towns, at the time the 
county began to be settled, were located principally at Haverhill, 
Newbury, Andover, Ipswich, Lynn, Marblehead, and Salem. But, 
first of all, let us glance at the nations at large, as they were situ- 
ated in New England a short time previous to this date. In the early 
part of the seventeenth century, the territory was divided among sev- 
eral tribes or nations, but all speaking the Algonquin tongue, and all 
forming a part of that once mighty Indian nation which at one time 
extended their dominions along the coast from Quebec to the Hudson. 
It was a fragment of the same people who welcomed Cartier on the 
banks of the St. Lawrence in 1535, — a part of the same people who 
induced Champlain, the founder of Quebec, to join them in a war 
against the Five Nations, — an error from which his Colony suffered 
for more than half a century after his death. The scattering bands 
of these Indians situated in New England at the date mentioned, are 
thus described in the unique language of Capt. John Smith, who was 
among the first Europeans to visit these parts. He says : "The prin- 
cipal inhabitants I saw at Northward was penobscot, who are in 
warres with the Tcrentines, their next northerly neighbors, Southerly, 
up the rivers, and along the coast, we found Meeadacut, Scgockct, 
Pemmaquid, Nasconcus, Sagadahock, Satquin, Aumughcawgen, and 
Kennabeca; to those belong the countries and people Setogato, 
Pauhuntanuck, Pocopassum, Taughtanakagent, Wabigganus, Nas- 
saque, Mauherosqueck, Warigwick, Moshoquen, "Waccogo, Pasha ra- 
nock, &c. To those arc allied in confederacy the countries of 
Ancociseo, Accominticus, Passataquak, Augawoam, and Naemeck; 
all those, for anything I could perceive, differ little in language 
or anything, though most of them be Sagamos and Lords of them- 
selves, yet they hold the Bashabes of Pennobscot the chiefe and 
greatest amongst them. The next is Mattahomt, Totant, Massachu- 
set, Paconekick, then Cape Cod, by which is Pawmet, the lies Naw- 
sct and Capawuck, neere which are the shoules of Rocks and sands 
that stretch themselves into the maine Sea twenty leagues, and very 
dangerous betwixt the degrees of 40 and 41." 

Nearly all of these tribes occupied about the same position for 
a considerable time after the country was permanently settled by the 
English, and the writer is of the belief that he or she who shall give 
to the world, a connected, complete, and reliable narrative of their 
decline and final extinguishment, will render an imperishable service. 
The materials for such are rapidly decaying, and the near future will 
find such a task to be one of the impossibilities. 

The foregoing paragraph quoted from Capt. Smith, although some 
of his Indian names differ orthographic-ally from the modern construc- 
tion, will indicate the location of the tribes named. To the west 
of Cape Cod the powerful Narragansctts and Pequots were scattered 
in well organized bands ; while in the interior, upon the rivers, and on 
the borders of the lakes, were other strong settlements : the Nipmucks, 
in the interior of Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, and occupying 
the valley of the Merrimack, were a thrifty people ; the Norridgc- 
wocks, seated upon the branches of the Kennebec and the hikes, in the 
northern part of Maine, prospered equally with their neighbors. The 



latter Mere called Abenaquis by the French, and they are remarkable 
in history for the active services which they rendered the French in 
their long and finally unsuccessful war with the English. 

East of the Penobscot were the Scootueks or Passaraaquoddies. 
inhabiting the Scootuck or St. Croix River, and the shores of the Pas- 
sainaquoddy Bay. In 1614. the Penobscots were one of the most 
powerful tribes in New England. Their chief held jurisdiction over 
the tribes in Maine as far as the Saco. They Mere then led into a 
war with the Tarratines by this chief. The contest lasted for some 
time, during which the Penobscot leader had many signal triumphs. 
At last his crafty enemies conducted an expedition into his country 
with so much secrecy that they were crowned with abundant buo - 
The chief of the Penobscots and his family were put to death. 
Divisions now arose as to the vacant chieftainship, of which the cun- 
ning Tarratines took timely advantage and prosecuted a war of exter- 
mination along the coast of Massachusetts. Hand in hand with 
this dreadful war came that more dreadful pestilence of which poets 
have sung and historians written much, but of which we have no 
authentic records ; but we have the most ample evidences of its 
existence, for, in 1020, the vast Indian populations from the St. Croix 
to Cape Cod had become so greatly reduced in numbers that many of 
the settlements existed only in remembrance. 

Capt. Smith informs us that the Indians suffered from a most 
destructive plague for three successive years, which extended for 
about two hundred miles along the sea-coast. The results were so 
terrible that in many places there remained scarcely live out of the 
hundred of the inhabitants. We are left in total ignorance, or wholly 
to conjecture, as to the nature of this disease, except in respect of its 
power for evil ; but there are sufficient indications to show that 
its fearful march did not extend south beyond Cape Cod. and that it 
was limited, in its more fatal results, to the tribes of the interior, so 
that the Pilgrims, in 1620, and for many years thereafter, had but little 
to fear from the once warlike tribes of the seashore north of Cape 

It was at this period that we find the prosperous settlements in the 
valley of the Merrimack, around the fruitful falls and rich meadows 
of that ever-pleasant river. The Merrimack of the day of which we 
are writing, was a succession of bays from Lake Winnepesaukee to the 
ocean, a portion of which still remains at Sanbornton and Meredith. 
"These intervales," -ays Mr. Potter, "were of very great fertility and 
of such ready productiveness as to afford an abundant harvest to the 
scanty husbandry of the Indian." More thau two centuries of culture 
have hardly decreased their fertility. But the Merrimack had 
many attractions to draw the native inhabitants along its borders. 
" Rising in the White Mountains, at an altitude of six thousand feet 
above the level of the ocean, its waters find their way to the Atlantic, 
through the distance of two hundred and fifty miles : of course there 
are rapids and falls through nio?t of its entire length. These afforded 
the most ample fishing-grounds to the natives, whereat to spear, 
and take with dip-net and seine, the myriads of alewives, shad, and 
salmon, that literally crowded the Merrimack during certain season* 
of the year. Then the woods upon its banks were filled with moose, 
deer, and bears, whilst the ponds and lakes, the sources of it? 
tributaries, were teeming with Mater- fowl." Along the borders of 
this liver, at points most convenient to Indian wants, the early 
European explorers found happy Indian settlements. Some one has 
fitly called this river the very paradise of Indian imagination. 

These tribes upon this noble river Mere the Agawam. Wamesit or 
Pawtucket, Nashua, Souhegan, Namaoskeag, Peuuacook, and Win- 
nepesaukee. The Agawams occupied the eastern portion of Essex 
County, extending from " tide-Mater on the Merrimack, round to 
Cape Ann." Their Mhole territory Mas called Wormesquamsauke, 
which means the Pleasant Water Place. This long word, under the 
pressure of early American genius, soon fell to Squamsauke, then to 
Asquam, and finally to Squam. Several localities in Essex County 

have derived their names from this Indian word, such as Squam. the 
name of a pleasant harbor, north of Cape Ann. and Swampscott, the 
pleasant tOM"n just east of Lynn. 

The Wamesits lived at the forks of the Merrimack and Concord 
rivers, and upon both banks of the latter. Here all the Indians, for 
miles in every direction. Mere in the habit of gathering at certain 
seasons of the year, especially in the spring and summer, where, 
at the Pawtucket Falls, near by. Mas one of the most noted Indian 
fishing-stations in Xcm- England. Thev caught and dried their year's 
stock of shad and salmon, engaged in their usual dances and merry- 
makings, and then dispersed to their more permanent settlements. 
Wamesit was co-extensive with the present limits of the city of 
LoAvell. The Indians in this neighborhood Mere called Pavrtuckets 
frequently, probably from the falls in the river of that name. The 
Mord, hoMever. *eeins, as used by the English, rather to have 
included all the Indians north of the Merrimack, than only that 
particular tribe. 

The Xashuas resided upon the Nashua, and the valley of the Mer- 
rimack, opposite and below the mouth of that river. The Souhegans 
scattered their tents upon the banks of the river of that name, 
occupying the Iom lauds of the Merrimack, above and below the mouth 
of their own river. These Indians Mere often called Natacooks, or 
Nacooks. The Namaoskeags were established at the falls in the 
Merrimack, presently called Amoskeag. The Penuacooks occupied 
the fertile bottom lauds at Pennacook. now included within the limits 
of Bow, Concord, and Boscawen. The Wiunepesaukees occupied 
the borders of the lake of that name, one of their noted fishing- 
places being at the outlet of the lake, now known as the Weirs. 

Of these tribes, the Penuacooks Mere the most powerful, and the 
Winnepesaukee. Amoskeag. Souhegan. and Nashua tribes Mere 
tributary to them. On the other hand, the Wamesits were so inter- 
married with them, as to be mainly under their control, acknowl- 
edged submission to their chief. Passaconaway, and finally, as the 
population decreased, with the other tribes upon the Merrimack, 
became incorporated Mith the Penuacooks, ceasing to be distinct 
tribes. The Agawams of E-sex Mere merged into this tribe also, 
and at such an early date that but little can be recorded of them as a 
separate tribe. 

The whole of these Indians in the interior Mere known and called 
by the name of Xipmucks. or Fresh Water Indians. But the Indians 
in the Merrimack valley, although properly Nipmucks, and living in 
distant bands or tribes, Mere nearly always called Penuacooks by the 
English. This Mas due to the fact that the Pennacook was the most 
powerful tribe in the valley, and. as well to the other fact, that its 
chief, Passaconaway. Mas the most powerful sagamore in that 
region. The standing and prowess of this tribe and chief, brought 
them prominently before the English on all occasions of importance, 
such as treaties and negotiations : and hence the English, meeting 
but few Indians of importance from the Merrimae valley. Mho Mere 
not Penuacooks. applied their names generally to the inhabitants of 
the upper Merrimack valley. But this Mas due to the foresight of 
the English, for. by the year 168£, the Penuacooks were the only 
tribe in. and had undisputed possession of the Mhole valley. 

The Xaumkeags occupied the land Mhere Salem uow stands, and, 
in the years of their strength, they Mere a prosperous, numerous, 
and powerful tribe; but Mheu our fathers entered upon their soil. 
they Mere so dwindled away by fatal disease, that they M-ere not 
reckoned as of any importance in times of Mar Mith more powerful 
bands. The Rev. John Higgiuson thus speaks of such of these 
Indians as survived when he came to Salem : " To the best of my 
remembrance Mhen I came over Mith my father to this place, being 
then about thirteen years old, there Mas in these parts a Midow 
woman, called the Squaw Sachem. who had three sons. Sagamore 
John, kept at Mistick. Sagamore James, at Saugust, and Sagamore 
George here at Xaumkeke. 

Whether he Mas actual sachem here. I 



cannot say, for he was young then about my age, and I think there 
was an elder man that was at least his guardian. But the Indian 
towne of Wigwams was on the north side of the north river not 
farre from Simondes and then both the north and south side of the 
river was called Xaumkeke." The squaw here named, was probably 
the companion of Xauepashemet, the chief who was killed about 
1619, and left five children; of these was the sagamore named by 
Higginson. It is reasonable to suppose that Xaumkeag was one of 
his principal residences. A party from Plymouth, in 1621, came 
upon two of his forts, one of which was, no doubt, the "old Indian 
fort" at Marblehead Xeck. Xanepaskemet's jurisdiction was quite 
extensive. The three sons, who succeeded him, claimed all the lands 
in and around Salem, Marblehead, Lynn, and as far as "Mystick." 

Mr. Felt informs us that for a second husband, the squaw sachem 
married Wappacomet, a priest. Jointly with him she granted lands, 
between 163i>— 40, bordering on Mistick Pond, reserved by her from 
Charlestown and Cambridge, to Jotham Gibbons, son of Edward 
Gibbons of Boston. The land so granted was to be possessed by 
Gibbons at her death. In the deed of this conveyance she styles 
herself " squaw sachem of Mystick." In 1644 she, with several saga- 
mores, submitted to the government of the Colony, and consented to 
have the children of her subjects taught the truths of the Bible. It 
is thought by soine, though it is not definitely known, that she was 
the squaw, who, being blind, died in consequence of ill treatment from 
a party of Xarragansetts, who came as enemies in 1667 and robbed 
their fort. 

Sagamore James, one of the squaw sachem's sons, was named Mon- 
towompatt, and was sagamore of Lynn and Marblehead. Mr. Dud- 
ley, in his letter of 1631, informs us that "near to Salem dwelleth 
two or three families subject to the sagamore of Agawam. This 
sagamore hath but few subjects, and they and himself tributary to 
Sagamore James, having been, before the last year, in James's minor- 
ity, tributary to Shicka Talbott." "When Mr. Dudley wrote, it 
appeared that James had but recently assumed his jurisdiction, and 
held authority over the Indians of Salem and Ij)s\vich, as tributaries. 
Thus this chief came into possession of a part of his father's terri- 
tory, formerly under the sagamoreship of Xaumkeag. But the juris- 
diction was destined to cease. James and most of his subjects were 
carried oil* by small-pox, in 1633. 

His elder brother, John, or "Wonohaquaham, met the same fate. 
He and most of his people died of the same disease, near the same 
date. Mr. Maverick buried above thirty of them in one day. The 
Charlestown records inform us that John cheerfully permitted the 
emigrants from Salem to settle that place, and speak of him as "of 
gentle and good disposition." When the fatal disease overtook him, 
he desired to be committed to the care of the English, and promised, 
if he recovered, to live with the English and to serve the English- 
man's God. He left one son, whom he committed to the care of the Eev. 
Mr. Wilson, pastor at Boston. He left certain gifts for the governor 
and his English friends, and provided for the payment of his own 
debts and those of his subjects. Finally, he died in the faith of the 
true God, leaving his laud at Powder Horn Hill to his son, and, in 
case of his death, to his brother George. 

Thus it was that George was left the sole survivor and successor. 
It was probably this George to whom Mr. Eliot referred, in his letter 
of 1649, when he said : "Lynn Indians are all naught, save one, who 
sometimes cometh to heare the word and telleth me that hee prayeth 
to God, and the reason why they are bad is partly and principally 
because their sachem is naught, and careth not to pray unto God." 
This, and subsequent events, establish pretty clearly that George did 
not embrace, in an}' beneficial degree, the Christian faith. The son 
of John had died, when, in May, 1651, his uncle George petitioned 
the General Court that he might be recognized as the rightful heir to 
the land of the deceased. The residents of Chelsea, then Rumuey 
Marsh, disputed his claim, and submitted that if it was allowed, it 

would result in disturbing most of the land titles in Chelsea and 
Lynn. George had now, undoubtedly, succeeded to the rule of all 
the Indians, from Xaumkeag River to Mystic River, thereby rising, 
in a measure, to the dignity of his father as to his territorial bound- 
aries, but by no means in respect of the number of his subjects. 
George's Indian name was Winnapurkitt. He was sometimes called 
George Rumne}' Marsh, and No Xose. He lived to survive the des- 
perate war between Philip and New England, and appears to have 
allied himself with the hostile Indians. He was convicted of partici- 
pation in the war, and transported, among other Indians, to a foreign 
port and sold as a slave. Ou returning home, he lived the remnant 
of his days, and finally died, at the house of his relative, James Rum- 
uey Marsh, of Xatick. The latter had rendered valuable service to 
the English during the Indian rebellion. George married Joane, or 
Ahawayetsquaine, the daughter of Poquannum, or Dark Skin, who 
lived at Xahant. He left two daughters, Cicely Petaghuncksy and 
Sarah TVuttaquatinmisk, and three grand-children, David Xonnupan- 
dhow and Sam Wattoanoh, both children of his son Xonnumpannum- 
how, and John Toutohqunne, the son of Cicely. In 1686, these de- 
scendants of the last sagamore of Xaumkeag lived at Chelmsford. 
Other connections of the chief resided at Xatick, and elsewhere. 

At George's death, he nominally transferred his possessions to his 
kinsman, James Rumuey Marsh. The condition was imposed that the 
heir should use exertions to have his fee in the lands fully acknowl- 
edged, and an adequate consideration paid for it. Nor were these 
conditions without a basis in equity. The very year in which he 
died, Marblehead paid oft' this additional claim ; and, two years later, 
Salem did likewise. George died in 1684. 

Thus terminated the last reigning house of the natives at Xaum- 
keag. Thus passed forever from the red men the last trace of their 
inherited title to the soil of that region. Still it continued to be trod- 
den with the feet of wandering natives. It is related that as late as 
1725, a company of them paid annual visits to Gallows Hill — a fact, 
which, if correct, sufticiently proves them to have been descendants 
of the Xaumkeags. 

Some further remarks on the earlv Indian land grants will be found 
in the town histories on succeeding pages, as also additional notes on 
the last Indian villages of the county. 




The county of Essex, Mass., was incorporated in 1643. It then 
consisted of the following towns; viz., Salem, Lynn, Enon, Ipswich, 
Rowley, Xewbuiy, Gloucester, and Cochichewic. At the same 
session of the General Court in which the county was incorporated, 
the name of Enon was changed to Wenham. Cochichewic was the 
name applied to the territory now embraced within the limits of 
Audover. The history of the county previous to this date is, 
of course, identical with the history of the eight towns named above, 
and will be found, in detail, in another part of this volume. However, 
to accommodate the purposes of the present sketch, and for the better 
understanding of the reader, we may, even at the risk of being 
repeated in the following town histories, take a hurried glance at the 
rise and early progress of these eight settlements. 

First, then, as to Salem ; and we have already seen, in the fore- 
going account of Massachusetts Bay Colony, how this old town re- 
ceived its first instalments of civilization. Its first settlement was 
consequent upon a failure to plant a fishing-station at Cape Ann, 



■which came to pass in this way. Numerous fishing voyages had been 
made by the English to the American coast ; many of the principal 
bays and harbors on the New England coast had been explored, and 
a few brave, heroic men had founded the Plymouth Colony. Through 
these means the English received such intelligence of the state of the 
country, and of the abundance of fish in its waters, as to induce 
the belief among such as were inclined to venture their means in 
fishing enterprises, that a profitable fishing colony might be planted 
in New England, which, through the means of agriculture, and the 
products of the fisheries, would result in gains to the projectors. 
Certain merchants and other gentlemen of Doi'chester, England, 
made the first move in this direction. They were prompted and 
encouraged by the Rev. John "White, an able divine of that place. 
Nothing appears among the various records of this enterprise to indi- 
cate that cither Mr. White or his copartners had fixed upon any cer- 
tain place for their colony. Their ship arrived at the usual fishing- 
ground, and being rather late in the season, found it necessary to put 
into Massachusetts Bay before the cargo could be completed. This 
done, the vessel proceeded on her return, leaving fourteen men with the 
necessary provisions, "in the country of Cape Ann." These persons, 
no doubt, began the work of a plantation, and however much interest 
may attach to these pioneers, it is doomed to utter disappointment, 
as history refuses to inform us concerning their privations, or even to 
let us have their names. There were at that time in New England, 
besides the settlers of the Plymouth Colony, a few men at Xantaskct : 
the remaining few of George's plantation at Weymouth ; the settlers 
at Piscataqua River and Saco, Mho began in the same year. There 
Mas also a company at Monhegan, and, it may be, one or two other 
residents in Maine. "The imagination,"' says Mr. Babson, "may 
find a pleasure in dwelling for a moment with the little company at 
Cape Ann : in looking upon its members, as they Mere attracted 
abroad by day to find sources of wonder and delight in ik?m- aspects of 
nature, and as they were occupied during the long hours of the winter 
evening with recollections of home and stories of exploits and adven- 
tures along the shores and in the wilderness of the Xew World." 

But while this gallant fourteen Mere surveying Cape Ann. under 
the auspices of the Dorchester Company, others, it may be with a 
knowledge of their occupation of the territory, turned their attention 
to the same place. In the fall of 1623, the same year that these men 
Mere left at Cape Ann, Edward Wiuslow, of New Plymouth, sailed 
on a mission of importance to England. While there, he must have 
obtained information of the doings of the Dorchester Company at 
Cape Ann, and of their partial success in the fisheries : at all events, 
WinsloM- made preparations for the commencement of fishing by his 
own Colony. He and Robert Cushman procured from Lord Shef- 
field, a member of the Council for New England, a patent conveying 
to them and their associates a tract of ground in Xew England. " in a 
known place there commonly called Cape Ann." The Plymouth col- 
onists did not seem to make any use of this patent, except for fishing 
purposes : and as the Dorchester Company had already taken posses- 
sion of the place at the date on which the patent Mas granted Wins- 
low and Cushman, an arrangement Mas effected by the Dorchester 
Company with the patentees for participating iu the benefits secured 
by the patent. This fact is confirmed by Capt. John Smith, who, 
writing in 1024. says, "At Cape Anne there is a settlement beginning 
by the Dorchester men. which they hold of those of XeM" Plymouth." 

The fourteen men Mho Mere left at Cape Ann in 1623, to commence 
the work of a plantation, were gladdened, early in the following 
spring, by the appearance of their ship returning, under the command 
of the same master, with the needed supplies. Additional colonists 
Merc left, so that the number now reached thirty-two. two of whom, 
John Tylly and Thomas Gardner. Mere appointed overseers of the 
business of the plantation. — the first of the fishing, and the other of 
the planting. The fishing business, however, proved a losing specu- 
lation to the Dorchester merchants : and, although a thorough effort 

was made in 1625 to demonstrate the practicability of the scheme, 
its failure became inevitable. "The best results, hoM'ever, for the 
prosperity of the Colony, so far, at least, as the proceedings at the 
plantation could contribute to it, Mere to be expected from the ap- 
pointment of a very superior man already iu the country, to be its 
superintendent or governor." 

It is well known that the merchant adventurers, mIio, in England, 
aided the Pilgrim colonists. Mere divided into two parties on the sub- 
ject of religion : one party, adhering to the established church, suc- 
ceeded in sending to the Colony a minister of their own church. It 
is needless to say that such a course Mas repugnant to the colonists. 
The Rev. John Lyford, the minister referred to. on arriving in the 
Colony, found a few holding views in accord with him ; but these 
held themselves aloof from any hostility, except in the case of John 
Oldham. The conduct of these men secured their expulsion from the 
Colony, and they settled, for the time being, at Xantasket, Mmere, 
soon after, they Mere joined by Roger Conant and a few others, Mho 
disliked the rigid separation of the Pilgrims. 

This is the first mention of Mr. Conant in Xew England history; 
but he Mas M-ell known in his native land, and, in 1625, he Mas ap- 
pointed by the Dorchester Company, acting under the advice of the 
Rev. John White, to be governor of their plantations at Cape Ann. 
Lyford and Oldham Mere invited to join the Colony ; and while the 
latter declined, the former accepted and became their minister. It is 
believed that Conant received his appointment as governor of the 
plantation, in 1625, and that he removed to Cape Ann in the same 
year. There is evidence that he was performing his duties at that 
place early in the spring of that year. About oue year after, the 
Dorchester Company abandoned the enterprise, having expended 
nearly all the capital invested, without any gains. Their operations 
for the Colony now ceased ; and most of their men, being sent for, 
returned to England. Roger Conant, and a feM T of the most honest 
and industrious, resolved to stay and take charge of the little prop- 
erty at the plantation. But, as the advantages of Cape Ann consisted 
only in its adaptability to fishing enterprise, they removed, some time 
in the next year, 1626. to X:'.umkeag, now Salem, a place much bet- 
ter adapted to the wants of an infant colony. 

Such were the means employed, resulting in the first permanent 
settlement in Essex County, at Salem, in 1626. It was evidently 
Mr. Conant's ambition to be instrumental in founding a permanent 
colony, such as Mould be a suitable place for those who desired 
to escape religious intolerance in England. Xo sooner had he re- 
moved, with his few folloM-ers, to Salem, than he communicated 
with the Rev. John White, of Dorchester, England, concerning his 
plans, which Mere approved. The events which followed, embracing 
the arrival of Governors Endicott and Winthrop, together M'itk the 
general affairs of interest connected Mith the establishment of civil 
government, have already been fully recorded in a previous chapter 
on the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The history of Salem, from its 
first settlement to the organization of Essex County, in 1643, and 
subsequently to the present day, Mill be found further on in this 
volume, in its proper place among the town histories. 

Lynn Mas also one of the eight towns in existence in Essex County 
at the date of its incorporation. It was first settled in 1629, by Ed- 
mund and Francis Ingalls, from Lincolnshire, England. Edmund 
Ingalls settled as a farmer in the eastern part of the town, near to a 
small pond, on the margin of which he had a malt-house. Later, in 
1638, when the lands were divided, Edmund and Francis Ingalls 
Mere apportioned one hundred and twenty acres of " upland and 
meadow." These pioneers found the topography of the town quite 
diversified. The southern portion consisted of a long, narrow 
prairie, bounded on the north, by a high, rocky range of hills, 
beyond which Mas a heavy range of woodland. The town originally 
included the territory of Saugus. Swampscott, Xahant. and Lynnfield. 
These towns Mere afterwards settled by themselves. The toM-ns of 



Reading and South Reading were also originally included within 
the extensive boundaries of Lynn. The Indian name of the place 
was Saugus, and by that name it was known for eight years. 

Francis Ingalls, one of the first settlers at Lynn, was a tanner, and 
lived at Swampscott. He erected a tannery at Humphrey's Brook, 
which Avas the first in New England, and the first step in the great 
shoemafcing industry which has subsequently grown up in that quar- 
ter. The Messrs. Ingalls were followed by others ; and in a short 
time the settlement contained five men, with their families, compris- 
ing in all about twenty persons. " They did not settle at Sagamore 
Hill," says Newhall, "because the Indians were there; nor on the 
common, because that was a forest ; but, coming from Salem, they 
selected a ' fa ire plaync,' somewhat less than half a mile in extent, 
where they built their rude cottages, 'and had peaceful possession.' 
There the soil of Lynn was first stirred by the white men ; there, sur- 
rounded by Indians, they laid the foundation of a town." These are 
a few of the circumstances connected with the first settlement of Lynn. 
As will be seen, it Mas a sort of outpost of Salem; for it will be re- 
membered, that when Salem was first laid out, it included within its 
limits, Beverly, Manchester, Marblehead, Danvers, a part of Lynn, 
Topsfield, and Wenham. 

Wenham was the first to be set oft' as a distinct township. The 
first notice we have of this place is in an account of the murder of 
John Hoddy, which took place near the "Great Pond." John Wil- 
liams, the murderer, was seized, sentenced to be hung, and executed 
at Boston. This murder excited great attention, as it was the first 
which occurred among the European population of the Colony. The 
earliest settlers in Wenham probably located on the borders of the 
lake. On the 5th of November, 1639, the General Court enacted 
that "Whereas the inhabitants of Salem have agreed to plant a village 
near the river which runeth to Ipswich, it is ordered that all the lands 
near their bounds, between Salem and said river, not belonging to 
any other town or person, by any former grant shall belong to said 
village." The first settlers called their village Enon ; but in 1643, 
when the town was incorporated, as already mentioned, the name was 
changed to Wenham. 

The town of Ipswich had been settled ten years previous to the 
incorporation of the county. The country for many miles around 
had long been known by the Indian name of Agawam, but in the 
early spring of 1(533, its permanent settlement by the whites was 
inaugurated by John Winthrop, son of Gov. Winthrop, and twelve 
others, among whom were William Clark, Robert Coles, Thomas 
Howlet, John Briggs, John Gage, Thomas Hardy, William Perkins, 
William Thorndike and "William Sargent. In 1G34, the name of Ips- 
wich was substituted in the place of Agawam, and the town was incor- 
porated by the General Court. For a long time Ipswich was one of 
the great central points of the count}-. 

Rowley Avas settled in 1639, and the circumstances connected with 
its settlement are interesting. About twenty ships a year were now 
arriving from England, with passengers, seeking a home in this land 
of liberty. The number of inhabitants were so increased by these 
arrivals that they Avere obliged to look out for new plantations each 
year. Thus it became that within a few years all the most desirable 
places for a settlement Avere taken up. Therefore, on the arrival of 
Ezekiel Rogers, with about twenty families, in the fall of 1G38, no 
favorable place for a settlement seemed to be accessible, and in con- 
sequence he and his party spent the winter at Salem. An eftbrt was 
made in the following spring to induce the whole party to settle in 
New Haven, but this failed ; and, after some delay, Mr. Rogers and 
his associates settled at Rowley, so called from Rowley in Yorkshire, 
Eng., Avhere he and some of his people had lived. In September, 
1639, the toAvn thus founded by Mr. Rogers, was incorporated by the 
General Court under the name of Rowley. The place Avas at first 
called "Mr. Rogers' Plantation." Although Mr. Rogers brought over 
with him but about twenty families, before reaching RoAvley he had 

increased his company to about sixty families. For some time these 
settlers labored together in common. 

NeAvbury Avas settled in the spring of 1G35, and derived its name 
from Newbury, a town in Berkshire, Eng. Before its incorporation, 
which occurred in the spring of 1635, when it was first settled, it 
was called by the Indian name of Quascacunquen. The first settlers 
of Newbury probably reached that place by water from Ipswich. 
This company Avas not large, and included Henry Scwall and servants, 
William Moody, his Avife and four sons, Anthony Short, Henry Short 
and wife, John Spencer, Nicholas Easton, his wife and son John, 
Richard Kent, senior, and Stephen Kent, with their wives, Richard 
Kent, Jr., and James Kent, Thomas Parker, John Woodbridge, 
James Noyes, his wife and brother Nicholas Noyes, Thomas BroAvn, 
Richard Brown, James Browne and wife, Thomas Coleman, Francis 
Plummer and wife, with his two sons Joseph and Samuel, and others 
whose names are not certainly known. 

For some time the business of the town was transacted by a com- 
mittee of the whole, "but," says Mr. Coffin, "the population increas- 
ing rapidly, — fifteen ships with passengers, having arrived in June, 
one in August, one in November, and one in December, bringing with 
them many families, who immediately settled in Newbury, — the plan- 
tation soon received a sufficient company to make a competent toAvn, 
according to the order of the General Court." 

Many attempts were made to found a permanent settlement at Cape 
Ann, but none succeeded until in 1642, when the town Avas incorpor- 
ated under the name of Glocester, " the first ordering, settling and 
disposing of lots, was* made by Mr. Endicott and Mr. Downing." It 
is not known exactly how many settlers were then at that place, but 
at this time it first assumed the condition of a permanent settlement 
and the organic form of a town. The arrival of the Rev. Richard 
Blynman, with several families from Plymouth Colony, in the same 
year, also gave importance to the place. 

Andover, first called Cochichewick, AA r as not incorporated until 
1646, three years after the incorporation of the county of Essex, yet 
a settlement existed there previous to 1643. It is recorded that in 
1H34, an order Avas issued by the General Court respecting the land 
at Andover, "that it shall be reserved for an inland plantation, and 
whosoever shall go to inhabit there shall have three years' immunity 
from all taxes, levies, public charges and services Avhatever, military 
discipline only excepted." A committee Avas appointed, consisting of 
John Winthrop, Richard Bellingham, and William Coddington, to 
license any that might desire to settle on these lands. The land avhs 
purchased from the Indians by Mr. Woodbridge, for £6 and a coat, 
in behalf of the inhabitants of the toAvn. This purchase Avas con- 
firmed by the General Court in 1646. The name Andover was given 
to the town with reference to some of the planters, Avho came from 
Andover in Hampshire, Eng. 

In May, 1643, the settlements of the Massachusetts Bay Colony had 
reached the number of thirty-one, as follows: "Salem, Linn, Enon, 
Ipswich, RoAvley, Newbury, Glocester, Cochichewick, Salsberry, 
Hampton, Haverhill, Excetter, Dover, Strawberry Banck, Charles- 
toAvne, Cambridge, Watertowne, Sudburry, Concord, Wooborne, 
Meadford, Linn Village, Reding, Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, 
Dedham, Braintree, Waymoth, Hingham, Nantasket." The Avhole 
Colony Avas divided into four counties; viz., Essex, Norfolk, Middle- 
sex, and Suffolk. Essex County embraced the eight toAvns first 
named above, Salem being made the shire town. 






The county organization was not burdened with very extensive 
legislative or judicial functions. It is to be believed that the General 
Court was too jealous of its powers to delegate any great degree 
of them to subordinate courts. However, when the county received 
an organic existence, certain duties and powers were given to the 
county courts, which, as a rule, met quarterly at the shire towns, 
and despatched certain local business, such as was at that time con- 
sidered burdensome to the supreme legislative power in the Colony. 
But, as the Colony increased in population, and the business interests 
of the towns developed, the legislative and judicial labor of the 
counties increased, and with it came also an enlargement of their 
powers. From ihe very earliest settlement of the county, certain 
distinctions were recognized among the inhabitants. There was a 
wide difference between a freeman and a resident. To become a free- 
man, each person was legally required to be a respectable member of 
some Congregational church. Persons were generally made freemen 
by the General Court; but as the business of that body increased, 
this duty was transferred to the quarterly courts of the counties. It 
was an important consideration that none but freemen could vote at 
elections, or hold office. However, in 1664, this regulation was so 
far altered, by royal decree, as to permit persons who could not obtain 
certificates of their being correct in the required doctrines to become 

For a considerable period, it was the custom for all the freemen of 
the Colony to meet at Boston to elect magistrates, governor, and 
lieutenant-governor; but, as the settlements extended, this practice 
became inconvenient, and the freemen of the more distant towns were 
permitted to send proxies; and finally, these assemblies were- aban- 
doned altogether. The freeman's oath, as fixed by the General Court 
in 1634, was as follows: "I, A. B., being by God's providence an 
inhabitant and freeman within the jurisdiction of this Commonwealth, 
do freely acknowledge myself to be subject to the government thereof, 
and therefore do here swear by the great and dreadful God, that I will 
be true and faithful to the same, and will accordingly yield assistance 
and support thereunto, with my person and estate, as in equity I am 
bound ; and I will also truly endeavor to maintain and preserve all 
the liberties and privileges thereof, submitting myself to the whole- 
some laws and orders, made and established by the same ; and 
further, that I will not plot nor practise any evil against it, nor con- 
sent to any that shall so do, but will truly discover and reveal the 
same to lawful authority now here established, for the speedy prevent- 
ing thereof. Moreover, I do solemnly bind nvysclf in the sight of 
God, that when I shall be called to give my voice, touching any such 
matter of this state, wherein freemeu are to deal, I will give my vote 
and suffrage, as I shall judge in mine owu conscience may best conduce 
and tend to the public weal of the body, without respect of persons, or 
favor of any man, so help me God, in the Lord Jesus Christ." 

The "residents" were a stratum below the freemen, at least, in 
civil and political rights. They were persons who were either not 
allowed, or declined to become freemen. However, it was provided 
as early as 1635, that all such residents over sixteen years of age 
should take an oath of fidelity ; and although their political rights 
were meagre, they were not by any means thereupon excused from 
contributing of their means for the spread of the gospel and support 
of the government. But light was slowly dawning for these half- 
fledged residents. In 1649 it was ordered that such of them as were 
twenty -four years of age, who had taken the oath of fidelity, might be 

chosen on juries by the freemen, and be allowed to vote for selectmen ; 
and finally, in 1664, when the conditions of freemanship became less 
rigid, the disabilities of residents disappeared entirely. 

The oath which these residents were obliged to take, was in this 
language : "I do here swear and call God to witness, that being now 
au inhabitant within the limits of this jurisdiction of Massachusetts I 
do acknowledge mvself lawfully subject to the authority and govern- 
ment here established ; and do accordingly submit my person, family, 
and estate to be protected, ordered, and governed by the laws and 
constitutions thereof; and do faithfully promise to be from time to time 
obedient and conformable thereto, and to the authority of the governor 
and all other magistrates and their successors, and to all such laws, 
orders, sentences, and decrees as now are or hereafter shall be law- 
fully made, decreed and published by them or their successors, and I 
will always endeavor (as in duty I am bound) to advance the peace 
and welfare of this body politic, and I will to my best power and 
means seek to divert and prevent whatsoever may tend to the ruin or 
damage thereof, or of the governor, deputy-governor, or assistants, or 
any of their successors ; and I will give speedy notice to them, or 
some of them, of any seditions, violent treachery, or other hurt or evil, 
which I shall know, hear, or vehemently suspect to be plotted or 
intended against them or any of them, or against the said Common- 
wealth or government established, so help me God." 

The title of Mr. was applied to captains, and frequently to mates 
of vessels ; to military captains ; to emiuent merchants ; to school- 
masters, doctors, magistrates, and clergymen ; to persons who had 
received a second degree at college, and who had been made freemen. 
The wives and daughters of these persons were honored with the title 
of Mrs. To be deprived of this address required a legal action, and 
was considered a great degradation. In September, 1631, Josiah 
Plaistow, of Boston, for a misdemeanor, was sentenced by the court 
of assistants, " hereafter to be called by the name of Josias, and not 
Mr. as formerly used to be." 

The usual address of adults who were not Mr. or Mrs., was good- 
man and goodwife, placed before their names. The terms soon fell 
into partial disuse, and were often misapplied ; but distinctions simi- 
lar to these continued in the Colony until it become a Province, when 
the custom of making freemen by the General Court seems to have 
been discontinued. 

The early dwelling-houses of Essex County were, upon the whole, 
pleasantly built. They were, for the most part, very similar to each 
other, differing only in size and appointments, according to the means 
of their occupants. The better class of these houses were two stories 
high, with the upper story jutting out a foot or so over the lower. 
The roofs being either " hipped or gambrcl," were high and steep. 
Some of the most pretentious dwellings had peaks on each side of the 
roof, so as to form small chambers. The frames were mostly of white 
oak, and the timbers were very much larger thau those used even in 
larger buildings at the present day. In the best finished rooms the 
beams were either in sight, or poorly disguised. 

"The windows of such houses," says Mr. Felt, "were from two 
and a half to three feet long, one and a half to two wide, with squares 
like the figure of a diamond, set in lead lines, and from three to four 
inches long. These windows were sometimes entire and sometimes 
in halves, and opened outwardly on hinges. They were fashionable 
till after 1734. . . The doors of the best bouses had diagrams marked 
out on them, as large as the squares of glass, set in lead lines, and 
bad brass nails driven in at the points of the angles." 

The walls of the houses were generally daubed with clay, mixed 
with straw, or roughly plastered with a sort of lime made principally 
from clam-shells. On the inside, whitewash was used instead of 
paper, which was substituted at a later period. A few of the best 
buildings were shingled on the top, while a majority had only thatched 
roofs till after 1691. Very few houses, previous to 1700, had more 
thau one chimney. This was generally located in the middle of the 



house, and was of large dimensions ; and, besides other fireplaces, 
had a mammoth one for the kitchen, where the whole family could sit 
on two benches, and enjoy the old-fashioned evening fire. There was 
but little or no paint used, inside or out, previous to 1734. 

Although the early settlers of Essex County could not produce tal- 
low for candles, they were not doomed to sit in darkness ; for, by the 
abundance of fish, oil was afforded in great abundance for lamps. 
But, if this oil ever gave out, there was another source of light. 
The pine-trees, that were most plentiful of all wood, "do allow us 
plenty of candles, which are useful in a bouse ; and tbey are such 
candles as the Indians commonly use, having no other; and they are 
nothing rise but the wood of the pine-tree, cloven in two little slices, 
something slim, which are so full of the moisture of turpentine and 
pitch, that they burn as clear as a torch." 

The oil consumed by the early settlers was mostly obtained from 
fish livers, and continued to be used in the county until within half a 
century. The lamp in which this oil was used was large, made of tin, 
had a great wick, and was usually hung on one side of the fireplace. 

To the first settlers, the rivers were the principal highways of com- 
munication ; but, with the increase of the appliances of civilization, 
roads were constructed, and although, owing to the scarcity of burses, 
walking was common, yet, when such animals became plenty, two 
persons would ride one of them, fitted out with a saddle and a pillion. 
It was also common for females to ride with side-saddles. These cus- 
toms continued until the introduction of small wagons and chaises. 
"About 1770, it began to be the practice to trot horses. Previously, 
these animals had paced. It had been common to pay individuals to 
teach them to go in this manner. The way in which a horse was 
taught to pace, was by fastening his two right and two left feet 
together with leather straps, so that the two former might step to- 
gether, and then the two latter." 

It must now engage our attention to notice the rise of churches and 
other institutions within the county, and to speak of the general pros- 
perity of the settlements ; but, before entering upon this, let us ex- 
amine the witchcraft delusion, which stands out so prominently in the 
early history of Essex County, and which must forever vex and per- 
plex the historian. This may carry us past the dates of other impor- 
tant events, to which we shall be careful to return. 



The witchcraft delusion of 1692 has attracted the eyes of the world 
to the county of Essex; for, although there are records of "com- 
munings with the Devil" as early as the thirteenth century, it was not 
till the delusion popularly known as "the Salem witchcraft," that any- 
thing like universal attention was directed to this sin. This most 
memorable instance of 1692, in " Salem Village," was a crisis, and 
since those days witchcraft has become a matter of history only. 
Forty years before the terrible excitement that resulted in the execu- 
tion of nineteen persons for the crime of witchcraft, scattering cases of 
accusations occurred, but no general outbreak till 1(592. In Septem- 
ber, 1G52, the grand jury presented John Bradstreet, of Rowley, "for 
suspicion of having familiarity with the Devil." On the 28th of that 
month he was convicted in court, at Ipswich, of lying; and this beino- 
a second offence, he was fined to pay twenty shillings, or else be 
whipped. In 1658, John Godfrey, of Andover, was accused of causing 
losses in the estates of several people, and "some affliction in their 
bodies also." No sentence was ever imposed on Godfrey, though the 
case was several times in court; and about 1659, he sued his accusers 


for defamation. lie is reputed to have challenged, and even courted, 
the imputation of witchcraft. In November, 1669, "Goody Burt," a 
widow, was prosecuted, a physician testifying that "no natural cause" 
could have led to such effects as were wrought by her. Her opera- 
tions were mainly in Lynn, Marblehead, and Salem. Philip Reed, 
the physician, preferred similar charges against Margaret Gifford, 
"a witch," in 1680 ; but no record of action against her appears. In 
1679, Caleb Powell was arrested for bewitching, or, as the warrant 
specified, " for suspicion of working with the Devil to the molesting of 
"William Morse and his family." This man was not found guilty, but 
" so much suspicion " was proved, that he was ordered to pay the costs 
of court. The arrest of Mr. Morse's mother was next demanded, on 
charge of causing the trouble ; and as Essex County courts could not 
be relied on for convictions in these cases, she was tried in Boston 
before the highest couit in the Colony. She was found guilty, and the 
death sentence was imposed on her ; but she w r as twice reprieved ; a 
new trial granted by the House of Deputies, but refused by the 
magistrates; and, finally, she was released. The "witchery" in this 
case was all caused by the mischievous son of Mr. Morse. Margaret 
Jones and Ann Hibbins were also sentenced as witches. These, and 
similar instances, wrought up the public mind to that pitch of anxiety, 
that the people were in condition to succumb to the far greater 
excitement of 1692, a year that has become memorable in American 

Briefly traced, the history of the Salem witchcraft is here narrated. 
During the winter of 1691-92, a company of young girls were in the 
habit of assembling at the residence of the Rev. Samuel Parris, the 
clergyman of Salem Village, then including what is now Danvers 
Centre, Danversport, Tapleyville, Putnamville, and a part of Danvers 
Plains. At the social parties held at the minister's house, the arts of 
fortune-telling, palmistry, necromancy and magic were practised, till 
considerable skill in this direction was attained. After a little time, 
these people began to ascribe their peculiar actions to supernatural 
agencies, and the whole neighborhood became intensely interested, 
then alarmed, and an examination by the village physician, resulting 
in pronouncing them "bewitched," capped the whole, and the witch- 
craft delusion had taken root, to grow apace, and to lead to the terri- 
ble tragedies that the page of history records. The persons who were 
of the party that met at the house of Mr. Parris, and who acted the 
opening scenes, are thus named and described by the late Hon. 
Charles W. Upham of Salem, in his valuable and exhaustive volumes 
entitled, "Salem Witchcraft": Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Parris, 
was nine years of age ; she performed a leading part in the first stages 
of the affair. Abigail Williams, a neice of Mr. Parris, was eleven 
years old ; she acted conspicuously from the inception to the end of 
the excitement. Ann Putnam, a daughter of the parish clerk, was 
twelve years old ; this girl was in many respects the leading agent in 
the mischief that followed. Mary Walcot, seventeen years of age, 
was a daughter of Jonathan Walcot. Mercy Lewis was also seven- 
teen ; she lived as a servant in the house of Thomas Putnam ; she was 
responsible for much of the crime and horror connected with the 
affair. Elizabeth Hubbard, aged seventeen, was a neice of Mrs. Dr. 
Griggs, and lived in her family. Elizabeth Booth and Susannah 
Sheldon, each eighteen years old, belonged to families in the neigh- 
borhood. Mary Warren, twenty years of age, and Sarah Churchill, 
of the same age, were servants in the families of John Procter and 
George Jacobs, Sr. These last two acted prominently in the tragedy, 
actuated, it is reputed, by malicious feelings towards their employers. 
Mrs. Ann Putnam, mother of the girl mentioned above, Mrs. Pope, 
and Mrs. Bibber, living in Wenham, acted with the "afiiicted" chil- 

Matters went from bad to worse. The bewitched at first had ex- 
hibited their afflictions, by such strange actions as creeping under 
benches and chairs, making wild gestures, and uttering strange ex- 
clamations. They would be seized with spasms, and apparently suffer 



dreadful tortures. The next feature was the extension of these actions 
to the time of the church services. The minister would be inter- 
rupted in his services ; and Ann Putnam is mentioned as having such 
severe attacks, that she had to he held to prevent her breaking up 
the meeting. Mr. Parris invited neighboring ministers to assemble 
at his house, and unite in a day of praying, invoking the aid of God 
for rescue from the terrible visitation. The same feats were per- 
formed in their presence, and the clergy corroborated the opinion of 
the doctor, that the Evil One had taken possession of the spirits of 
these people. This expression was the last straw. Public opinion 
all turned in one direction now, and the belief that these people 
were bewitched, became almost universal. It was demanded of the 
"afflicted ones " who it was that bewitched them, for it was the ac- 
cepted doctrine in those days, that the Devil acted, not directly, but 
through some human agent, or witch. Tituba, an Indian servant of 
Mr. Parris, Sarah Osburn, who was bedridden, and Sarah Good, a 
woman of ill-repute, were accused, and on the 29th of February, 
1G92, warrants were issued for their arrest, the complainants being 
Joseph Hutchinson. Edward Putnam, Thomas Putnam, and Thomas 
Preston. On March 1st, an examination of the accused was held 
before John Hathorne, and Jonathan Corwin, the two leading masris- 

9 C C 

trates in the vicinity. These magistrates " entered the village in im- 
posing array, escorted by the marshal, constables and their aids, with 
all the trappings of their offices," and a great crowd gathered to hear 
the testimony taken. The examination was held in the meeting-house, 
Sarah Good being arraigned first. Pier bad name in the community 
made the people all the more ready to receive the charge against her. 
She stoutly denied all the charges preferred, as did also Sarah 
Osburn ; but Tituba, the Indian, admitted that she had pinched, and 
otherwise hurt the children, and declared that she was inspired to do 
it by the Devil, who had bid her serve him. She also accused Sarah 
Good and Sarah Osburn of participation in the bewitching of the 
afflicted ones. This woman was perfectly familiar witli the whole 
affair ; and evidently she had been used as an instrument to give 
effect to the delusion ; perhaps, says Mr. Upbam, being frightened 
into confessing what she never did, and accusing the others of what 
she was instructed to; or, perhaps, being promised immunity from 
punishment if she acknowledged her own guilt, and fixed a greater 
responsibility on the other women. Under date of March 7, the court 
records show that all three were sent to the jail in Boston, the magis- 
trates having held them for trial. All that is known of them after 
tbis is very indefinite. The jailer's bill seems to indicate that Sarah 
Osburn died May 10. Tituba is recorded as being "sold for her fees" 
about a year later. 

Martha or "Goody" Core} - , the third wife of Giles Corey, was the 
next person accused. She was examined March 21st, and the records 
appear in the handwriting of Mr. Parris. She was committed to 
Salem jail. Rebecca Nurse was arrested on the 24th, and was ex- 
amined, and she, too, was cast into jail. Martha Corey was a church- 
member, and was evidently a person perfectly free from the terrible 
delusion. Rebecca Nurse was a person of acknowledged worth. She 
was of infirm health and advanced in years. Each of these two women 
declared and protested their entire innocence, but the result of any 
examination was a foregone conclusion, and each new person accused 
was fully committed for trial, the flimsiest evidence being admitted as 
conclusive. Dorcas, a little daughter of Sarah Good, between four 
and five years old, was arraigned and committed with her mother to 
Boston jail. Says Mr. Upham, in his work on this dark delusion : — 
"There was no longer any doubt in the mass of the community that 
the devil had effected a lodgment at Salem Village. Church-members, 
persons of all social positions, of the highest repute and profession of 
piety, eminent for visible manifestations of devotion, and of even- 
age, had joined his standard, and become his active allies and confed- 
erates." "The public mind was worked to red heat, and now was 
the moment to strike the blow that would fix an impression deep and 

irremovable upon it." Deodat Lawson preached a sermon that after- 
noon that "re-enforced the powers that had begun their work. It 
justified and commended everything that had been done, and every- 
thing that remained to be done." It was printed and endorsed by 
several of the most eminent divines in the country. One week passed 
before any further action was taken; but on April 8th, complaints 
against Sarah Cloyse and Elizabeth Procter, " for high suspicion of 
sundry acts of witchcraft," having been preferred, warrants for their 
arrest were procured. Their examination was before a representa- 
tion of the government of the Colony, headed by the deputy-governor, 
Thomas Dan forth, and took place in the meeting-house of the First 
Parish. A number of witnesses were examined, and all testified that 
the accused had "hurt" them, — choked and pinched them, and "tor- 
mented" them. Mr. Upham, after a careful examination of all the 
records and papers relating to those terrible days of evil doing, 
concludes that nothing was worse than this examination before the 
deputy-governor and members of the council. As a result of the 
examination, Sarah Cloyse, John Procter and his wife Elizabeth 
Procter, were held for trial, and were confined in the jail at Boston, 
with Rebecca Nurse, Martha Corey, and Dorcas Good. On April 
18th, warrants were issued against Giles Corey and Mary Warren, of 
Salem, Abigail Ilobbs, of Topsfield, and Bridget Bishop, of Salem, 
the second mentioned being one of those who had before been an 
accuser. She was cast into prison, and was several times examined 
by the judges, till she appeared to the magistrates and the people to 
have been delivered from the devil's clutches, and was then released. 
Mr. Upham expresses the opinion that she played an important part 
as one of the party of conspirators to develop and carry on a deep- 
laid plot — for such he considers the whole phenomena. After her 
discharge from jail, she appeared as a witness in ten prosecutions. 
Giles Core}- was examined in the village meeting-house April 19th. 
Abigail Hobbs "confessed," and secured immunity from heavy pun- 
ishment, though she was imprisoned, as was the custom to do with 
those who confessed, that they might be held in subjection. Bridget 
Bishop was examined at the same session of court before which Mary 
Warren was arraigned, and all of the four mentioned were incarcerated 
in jail. On the 22d of April, William Hobbs, his wife Deliverance, 
Nehemiah Abbot, Jr., Mary Easty, and Sarah Wilds, all of Topsfield 
or Ipswich, Edward Bishop, Sarah his wife, Mary Black, a negro, 
and Mary English, wife of Philip English, all of Salem, were arraigned 
at the house of Lieutenant Nathaniel Ingersoll. The first-named of 
these was committed, but was bailed out and the bail forfeited, the 
parties not deeming it expedient to have him come into court. At 
the May term the next spring, the fine was remitted, and he was dis- 
charged by proclamation. Abbot was dismissed, — the only one 
reported to have been after an examination, — and it is not quite 
certain that he was not re-arrested, for a man by the name of Abbot 
is recorded to have been, though the Christian name is not given in 
the records. The other seven were all committed, as was the rule. 
Records of their trials exist only in the cases of Edward Bishop and 
his wife. The judges — Hathorne and Corwin — showed signs of 
relaxing their stern methods of conducting the trials, and Thomas 
Putnam wrote a letter to them immediately, in which he urged them 
to be a terror to evil-doers, and assured them that, though the people 
would never be able to make them recompense, a full reward would 
be givcu them of the Lord God of Israel, whose cause and interest 
they had espoused. 

On April 30th, wan-ants were granted against Philip English, of 
Salem, Sarah Morrel and Dorcas Hoar, of Beverly. Marshal Herrick, 
the officer entrusted with the serving of the warrants, returned that 
for English with the indorsement, "Mr. Philip English not to be 
found. G. H." The others were duly taken into custody. On the 
Gth of May, English was arrested in Boston, examined, and committed 
to jail, from which he and his wife escaped, and fled to New York. 
After the delusion had run its race, they returned to Salem, and con- 



tinned to reside there. He was one of the leading men of the town, 
a merchant, owning twenty-one vessels, beside much real estate. 
Just what became of Sarah Morrel is not known. She did not suffer 
the death penalty, and was probably one of those long imprisoned, 
but finally discharged. Dorcas Hoar was a widow, and among other 
accusations brought against her in court was the killing of her hus- 
band. She protested her innocence of all charges, and reproached 
her accusers by crying out in court, "Oh, you are liars, and God will 
stop the mouths of liars." She suffered the common fate of imprison- 
ment. Susanna Martin, of Amesbury, was arrested on a warrant 
bearing date of April 30, and was examined on May 2d, and she too 
was added to the list of the imprisoned. In the letter, previously 
referred to, written by Sergeant Thomas Putnam to Judges Corwin 
and Ilathorne, reference was made to "high and dreadful" things to 
be disclosed that would make "ears tingle." This proved to be the 
arrest, probably planned long before it was made, of the Rev. George 
Burroughs, who was settled in Salem in the fall of 1680, but who was 
at this time preaching in the frontier settlements of Maine. He was a 
graduate of Harvard College in the class of 1G70, and is known to 
have been a man of great ability and of sterling worth. The plans 
looking to his arrest go to show what a deep and firm hold the super- 
stition had taken among the people, else the arrest of a former pastor 
would not have been tolerated. The order for his arrest was issued 
in Boston by Elisha Hutchinson, a magistrate in that place, and was 
addressed to John Partridge, of Portsmouth, field-marshal of the 
provinces of New Hampshire and Maine. It bore date April 30, 
1G92, and commanded his arrest on suspicion of "confederacy with 
the devil." The "afflicted children" became as if influenced by him, 
and various charges of bewitching were brought against him. One 
deposition, that of Ann Putnam, taken by her father, and sworn to, is 
as follows: — "The Deposition of Ann Putnam, who testifieth and 
saith, on the 20th day of April, 1692, at evening, she saw the appa- 
rition of a minister, at which she was grievously affrighted, and cried 
out, 'Oh, dreadful, dreadful! here is a minister come! What! arc 
ministers witches too? Whence came you, and what is your name? 
for I will complain of you, though you be a minister, if you be a 
wizard.' Immediately I was tortured by him, being racked, and al- 
most choked by him. And he tempted me to write in his book, which 
I refused with loud outcries, and said I would not write in his book 
though he tore me all to pieces, but told him that it was a dreadful 
thing, that he, which was a minister that should teach children to fear 
God, should come to persuade poor creatures to give their souls to 
the devil. 'Oh, dreadful, dreadful! tell me your name that I may 
know who you are.' Then again he tortured me, and urged me to 
write in his book, which I refused. And then, presently, he told me 
that his name was George Burroughs, and that he had had three 
wives, and that he had bewitched the two first of them to death ; and 
that he killed Mrs. Lawson because she was so unwilling to go from 
the village, and also killed Mr. Lawson's child because he went to the 
eastward with Sir Edmon and preached so to the soldiers ; and that 
he had bewitched a great many soldiers to death at the eastward when 
Sir Edmon was there ; and that he had made Abigail Hobbs a witch, 
and several witches more. And he has continued ever since, by 
times, tempting me to write in his book, and grievously torturing me 
by beating, pinching, and almost choking me several times a day. 
He also told me that he was above a witch. He was a conjurer. 

[Signed] Ann Putnam." 

Burroughs was brought to Salem, May 4. On the 9th, his examina- 
tion was held before a special sitting of the magistrates, Judges William 
S tough ton, of Dorchester, Samuel Scwall, of Boston, and Ilathorne 
and Corwin, of Salem, being on the bench, the former acting as chief 
justice. A private examination was first held before the magistrates 
and ministers alone, and then he was taken into the public court ; 
and, as he entered, "many, if not all the bewitched, were grievously 
tortured," according to the records. As a matter of course, he was 

committed. George Jacobs, Sr. , and his grand-daughter, Margaret 
Jacobs, were the next victims, and were arrested May 10. They 
were examined at the house of Thomas Beadle. On the same day of 
their examination, a warrant was issued for John Willard ; but he had 
fled from the town, and was subsequently arrested in Groton. About 
the same time, Alice Parker and Ann Pudeator, of Salem, were taken 
into custody. They were examined July 2, the same sort of evi- 
dence — in fact, no evidence at all — being offered. On Ma)' 14, the 
following parties were subjects of warrants : Daniel Andrew, George 
Jacobs, Jr., his wife Rebecca Jacobs, Sarah Buckley, and Mary 
Whittredge, of Salem; Elizabeth Hart and Thomas Farrar, Sr., of 
Lynn; Elizabeth Colson, of Reading, and Bethiah Carter, of Woburn. 
Andrew, with Jacobs, Jr., heard of warrants for their arrest, and fled 
from the country. Sarah Buckley and her daughter, Mary Whit- 
tredge, were not tried till January, 1G93, when they were acquitted. 
Mary Easty, who had been arrested April 22, and discharged May 18, 
was again arrested May 20, as one Mercy Lewis asserted that she was 
"afflicted," and could not be delivered from her tortures till Mary 
Easty was again in irons. Testimony was given that Mercy Lewis's 
afflictions ceased the same afternoon that her " witch " was incarcerated. 
The following parties were next "charged" and arrested : On May 21, 
the wife of William Basset, of Lynn, Susanna Roots, of Beverly, Sarah 
Procter, of Salem. A few days later, Benjamin Procter and Mary 
Derich, of Lynn, and wife of Robert Pease, of Salem. On the 28th, 
Martha Carrier, of Andovcr, Elizabeth Fosdick, of Maiden. Wilmot 
Read, of Marblehead, Sarah Rice, of Reading, Elizabeth How, of Tops- 
field, Captain John Alden, of Boston, William Procter, of Salem, 
Capt. John Flood, of Rumney Marsh (now Chelsea), Mrs. Toothaker 
and her daughter, of Billerica, and Abbot, of Topsfield or Wen- 
ham. On the 30th, Elizabeth Paine, of Charlcstown. On June 4, 
Mary Ireson, of Lynn. Many others were complained of, and war- 
rants for them issued; among them Mary Bradbury, of Salisbury, 
Lydia and Sarah Dustin, of Reading, Ann Sears, of Woburn, Job 
Tookey, of Beverly, Abigail Somes, of Gloucester, Elizabeth Carey, 
of Charlcstown, and Candy, a negro woman. 

In commenting on the trials, Mr. Upham calls special attention to 
the fact that "every idle rumor; everything that the gossip of the 
credulous, or the fertile imaginations of the malignant could produce; 
everything gleaned from the memory or the fancy that could have an 
unfavorable bearing upon an accused person, however foreign or 
irrelevant it might be to the charge, was allowed to be brought in evi- 
dence before the magistrates, and received at the trials." That "chil- 
dren were not only permitted but induced to become witnesses against 
their parents, and parents against their children. Husbands and wives 
were made to criminate each other as witnesses in court." The Rev. 
Cotton Mather, a clergyman of Boston ; a man who, according to his 
own declaration, believed that "no place has got such a spell upon it 
as will always keep the devil out," gave an account of the proceedings 
of the courts. In the conclusion of his report of the trial of Martha 
Carrier, he wrote as follows : " This rampant hag was the person of 
whom the confessions of the witches, and of her own children among 
the rest, agreed that the devil had promised her that she should be 
queen of hell." John Alden, mentioned above, was a son of John 
Alden, of Plymouth, one of the founders of the Colony there. He 
made his escape from jail in September of the eventful year, and fled 
to Duxbury, telling his relatives there that he was fleeing from the 

An Andover woman, who was sick with a fever, became the cause 
of a terrible outbreak in that town. Her husband was informed by 
the "afflicted girls "at Salem, that she was suffering from witchery, 
and, once alarmed, Andovcr became the scene of another act in the 
sad tragedy. More than fifty people were imprisoned, and several of 
them were hanged. Dudley Bradstreet, the local magistrate, commit- 
ted forty or thereabouts, and then refused to. act further, which so 
exasperated the people that they threatened the judge and his family 



with punishment for his refusal to assist in banishing the evil ones, 
and they were obliged to flee from the vicinity. The prisons at 
Salem, Ipswich, Boston, and Cambridge were full of parties awaiting 
trial for the crime of witchcraft. About this time Sir William Phips 
became governor under the royal charter, and a special court of oyer 
and terminer was created for witchcraft trials. William Stoughton, of 
Dorchester, was chief justice, and Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, 
Maj. John Richards, of Boston, Maj. Bartholomew Gedney, of Salem, 
Wait Winthrop, Capt. Samuel Sewall, and Peter Sargent, of Bos- 
ton, his associates on the bench. Saltonstall resigned, and Jonathan 
Corwin, of Salem, succeeded him. Before this court the final trials and 
convictions occurred, though a doubt has been raised as to the legality 
of the court, as it is referred to as a question whether the governor 
and council under the charter had power to create it without the con- 
currence of the General Court. The new government did away with 
the office of marshal, held by George Herrick, and created that of 
sherill', to which George Corwin, of Salem, was appointed. The jail at 
Salem, where many of the victims were lodged, was located on 
"Prison Lane," now St. Peter Street, and the court-house, where the 
trials took place, was on ''Town-house Lane," now Washington 
Street. The meeting-house, where examinations had been held, 
was at what is now the south-east corner of Essex and Washington 
streets, the present site of the "First Church." The "old witch- 
house," which every stranger to Salem asks to see, appears not to have 
played so prominent a part in the scenes of the day as many have sup- 
posed, being only used for conferences or sessions of the grand jurors, 
being the residence of Judge Corwin. It is still standing at the cor- 
ner of Essex and North streets. The trials opened in June, 1692. 
The attorney-general, Thomas Newton, had located at Salem to con- 
duct the trials in behalf of the government. He addressed a letter to 
the secretary of the Province, in which he expressed the idea that 
progress would probably be slow, "as the afflicted cannot readily give 
their testimonies, being struck dumb and senseless for a season at the 
name of the accused." No complete records of the doings of this 
special court are in existence, but several depositions are on file in the 
county records. At the first session of the court, Bridget Bishop was 
the only "witch" tried. She was dragged before the assembled 
crowds through Prison Lane, up Essex Street, into Town-house Lane, 
to the court-house. Cotton Mather relates that "there was one 
strange thing with which the court was newly entertained. As this 
woman was, under a guard, passing by the great and spacious meeting- 
house, she gave a look towards the house, and immediately a demon 
invisibly entering the meeting-house, tore down a part of it, so that 
though there was no person to be seen there, yet the people, at the 
noise, running in, found a board which was strongly fastened with 
several nails, transported into another quarter of the house." Owing 
to the lack of records of the testimony in this and other cases tried 
before this special court, no exact account of the trial can be given. 
By diligent research on the subject, our best authority, Mr. Upham, 
collected many interesting facts from various documents of the day now 
preserved in the archives < f Essex County. The Rev. John Hale, of 
Beverly, appeared in court, and testified that he had examined the body 
of the woman whose death was' attributed to the influenced acts of 
Bridget Bishop, and that, in his judgment, it was "impossible for her, 
with so short a pair of scissors, to mangle herself so without some 
extraordinary work of the devil, or witchcraft." The "bewitched" 
woman was evidently a victim of suicide. She was known to have been 
an insane person. Samuel Shattuck and his wife swore to a deposition, 
which asserted the belief that a child of theirs was bewitched through 
this woman. They testified that the child, a young boy, had been 
afflicted with fits; had acted strangely, as if controlled by an evil 
spirit, and had lost power over himself, so that he fell into fire or 
Avater, or laid as if dead. These things occurred and strengthened as 
the Bishop woman "came oftener to the house," according to the 
testimony offered. A son of Mr. John Cook, who lived on the same 

street with Shattuck, testified, that "about five or six years ago, one 
morning, before sun-rising, as I was in bed, before I rose, I saw good- 
wife Bishop, alias Oliver, stand in the chamber, by the window; and 
she looked on me and grinned on me, and presently struck me on the 
side of the head, which did very much hurt me ; and then I saw her go 
out under the end window at a little crevice, about so big as I could 
thrust my hand into. I saw her again the same day, — which was the 
Sabbath day, — about noon, walk across the room ; and having at the 
time an apple in my hand, it flew out of my hand into my mother's 
lap, who sat six or eight foot distance from me, and then she dis- 
appeared. And though my mother and several others were in the 
same room, yet they affirmed they saw her not." 

John Bly, who had purchased a hog of Bridget Bishop, testified to 
strange actions of that animal, and to his belief "that said Bishop had 
bewitched the sow." William Stacy swore that on his way to mill, 
"being gone about six rods from her, the said Bishop, with a small 
load in his cart, suddenly the ofl'-wheel slumped, or sunk down into a 
hole upon plain ground ; that this deponent was forced to get one to 
help him to get the wheel out. Afterwards, this deponent went back 
to look for said hole, where his wheel sunk in, but could not find any 
hole." He also testified that on another occasion, "after he had 
passed by her, this deponent's horse stood still with a small load going 
up the hill ; so that the horse striving to draw, all his gears and tack- 
lings flew to pieces, and the cart fell down." John Louder, who lived 
with John Gedney, Sr., as a servant, gave lengthy testimony, includ- 
ing the following absurd declarations: "I, going to bed about the 
dead of the night, felt a great weight upon my breast, and, awakening, 
looked, and, it being bright moonlight, did clearly see Bridget Bishop, 
or her likeness, sitting upon my stomach, and, putting my arms off of 
the bed to free myself from the great oppression, she presently laid 
hold of my throat, and almost choked me, and I had no strength or 
power in my hands to resist or help myself; and in this condition she 
held me to almost day. Some time after that, I, being not very well, 
stayed at home on a Lord's Day ; and on the afternoon of said day, 
the doors being shut, I did see a black pig in the room coming towards 
me ; so I went towards it to kick it, and it vanished away." He also 
claimed that a "black thing" appeared to him, and assured him that if 
he would " be ruied by him he should want for nothing in this world." 
He brings Bridget Bishop into connection with this apparition, by 
affirming that just after its appearance to him he saw her, and, "seeing 
her, had no power to set one foot forward." John Bly, Sr., and Wil- 
liam Bly, a lad of fifteen, testified that in working in the removal of a 
cellar-wall of the house where Bridget Bishop lived, that they found 
"several puppets made up of rags and hogs' bristles, with headless pins 
in them, with the points outward." 

Such is a fair sample of the loose and utterly unconvincing testimony 
on which this poor woman was convicted and executed in those dark 
days of 1692. It is but natural in these later days, to condemn en 
masse, at first thought, the actors in those terrible tragedies, but more 
deliberate reflection, after a careful examination of the history of the 
affair as it comes down to us, tends to more charitable thoughts. We 
of to-day can form no definite idea of the feelings of the people who 
lived amidst those scenes. They were of Puritan stock, with the 
deepest reverence for their Maker, and a holy horror of neglecting to 
do all they were able to drive out any emissaries of the dark power 
that might oppose the right. Let us have only pity for those who 
were drawn into the whirlpool of public sentiment and public action 
of the day, and charitable thoughts and free forgiveness for those who, 
evidently from some unexplained reason, sought to establish and per- 
petuate such horrible delusions. 

Bridget Bishop was executed the week after her trial, and her death- 
warrant is the only one preserved. The original document is framed, 
and hangs iu the office of the clerk of the courts, at Salem. The 
court re-assembled June 29, and tried and sentenced Sarah Good, 
Sarah Wildes, Elizabeth How, Susanna Martin, and Rebecca Nurse, 



and these were hanged July 19. Quite a general opposition occurred 
to the execution of the last named. Nathaniel Putnam, Sr., at 
the solicitation of Francis Nurse, husband of the condemned, wrote 
a defence of her character, and a similar document was drawn up for 
public approval. This was signed by thirty-nine of the towns-people. 

It was customary, under order of the court, to cause an examination 
to be made of the entire bodies of the accused, that any "witch mark'' 
on them might be found. Marshal Herrick, after examining George 
Jacobs, reported that he found a "witch teat" about a quarter of an 
inch long or better, with a sharp point drooping downwards, so that I 
took a pin, and run it through the said teat, but there was neither 
water, blood or corruption, nor any other matter. This was regarded 
as the "devil's mark," but it may readily be supposed that some infir- 
mity of the flesh would be found on a man advanced in years as Jacobs 
was. These declarations were received in court as evidence. On 
August 5, George Burroughs, John Procter, Elizabeth Procter his 
wife, George Jacobs, Sr., John Willard, and Martha Carrier were 
tried and condemned. With the exception of Elizabeth Procter, they 
were executed August 19. Thirty-two inhabitants of Ipswich addressed 
a petition to the Court of Assistants, at Boston, in behalf of John 
Procter. This petition was headed by the Rev. John "Wise, and the list 
of signers contained many of the best people of that town. Another 
document in his favor was presented, and in court evidence was 
offered to prove that one of the witnesses against him had sworn con- 
trary to what she had stated outside. These facts furnish evidence 
that the persecutions did not receive universal sanction and approval. 
A tradition exists to the effect that the body of George Jacobs was 
buried on his own farm, about a mile from the present city of Salem. 
Remains, undoubtedly his, were exhumed in 1864, and were re-interred 
in the same place. 

The court sat again, the last time, on the 9th of September. On 
that day •Martha Corey, *Mary Easty, *Alice Parker, *Ann Pudeator, 
Dorcas Hoar, and Mary Bradbury were condemned and sentenced ; 
and on the 17th "Margaret Scott, •Wilmot Reed, *Samucl Wardwell, 
•Alary Parker, Abigail Faulkner, Rebecca Fames, Mary Lacy, Ann 
Foster, and Abigail Hobbs were also sentenced. [Those whose names 
are indicated by a star were executed on the 22d.] By order of the 
governor, Sir William Phips, Abigail Faulkner, daughter of the Rev. 
Francis Dane, of Andovcr, was pardoned, having laid in jail under 
sentence of death for thirteen weeks. The reason assigned for the 
pardon (the only one granted during the proceedings) was "insufficient 
evidence." The nineteen, who have been chronicled in the above brief 
narrative as suffering the death penalty, were the only ones who were 
executed ; for, though it was some time before the excitement died 
away, there was an abatement in its violence that saved the other con- 
demned persons suffering the sad fate of their neighbors and fellows. 
Without a single exception the executed protested their innocence to 
the very last, most of them making dying declarations on the scaffold. 
The hangings took place on a slight eminence, just removed from the 
town, and now known as Gallows Hill, from the sad tragedies whose 
final acts were enacted there. One of the most remarkable cases on 
record, of heroic perseverance and unbroken persistence, is that of 
Giles Corey, husband of one of the executed, himself in jail at 
Ipswich, charged with witchcraft. He determined that his lips should 
remain sealed when arraigned in court, and that he would not answer 
to the inquiry, "guilty or not guilty." There are no records of the 
proceedings taken by the court when the prisoner failed to answer, 
but tradition has it that he was crushed to 'death. In a field somewhere 
between Howard Street Cemetery and Brown Street, Salem, is the 
locality designated by Mr. Upham. It is related that Corey urged 
that the weight might be increased, for his death was the only way 
to end the matter, as he should not answer ; and he did not. Not 
a word bordering on an acknowledgment of guilt, or an attestation of 
innocence, escaped his lips. He knew that death was the penalty, if 
he pleaded not guilty, and he would not confess to what he was inno- 

cent of. This man was eighty-one years old ; and the barbarous death 
penalty inflicted on him by the officers of the law, tended to awaken 
the people to a realization of the terrible responsibility resting on them 
as a Christian community. Doubts began to be felt in the public mind 
as to the justice of the prosecutions, and the inevitable sentence and 
execution. But the delusion had not reached its end. The leaders in 
the prosecutions did not delay a new method of attempting to sustain 
the popular opinion in the course it had been running. The day after 
the death of Giles Corey, Thomas Putnam addressed a letter to Judge 
Sew-all, reading as follows : "Last night, my daughter Ann was griev- 
ously tormented by witches, threatening that she should be pressed to 
death before Giles Corey ; but through the goodness of a gracious God 
she has had, at last, a little respite. Whereupon there appeared unto 
her (she said) a man in a winding-sheet, who told her that Giles Corey 
had murdered him by pressing him to death with his feet; but that 
the devil there appeared unto him, and covenanted with him, and 
promised him that he should not be hanged. The apparition said God 
hardened his heart, that he should not hearken to the advice of the 
court, and so die an easy death ; because, as it said, it must be done 
to him as he has done to me. The apparition also said that Giles 
Corey was carried to the court for this, and that the jury had found 
the murder; and that her father knew the man, and the thing was 
done before she was born." 

"This revelation" had some effect; but the tide had turned, and the 
delusion was destined to die away as suddenly as it had appeared. 
The court adjourned the latter part of September, never to meet again. 
Though public opinion cannot be proved to have been the direct agent 
in causing the cessation of the prosecutions, yet it doubtless exerted a 
telling influence. Mr. Upham says that the sudden quieting down has 
been generally attributed to the fact that the "afflicted children" 
became over-confident of their power, and struck too high. Even the 
excited community could not tolerate hints against the Rev. Samuel 
Willard, the wife of the governor, and Mrs. Hale, the wife of the 
pastor of the Beverly flock. The hitter's husbaud had heretofore 
acted with the accusers, but when the girls cried out against his wife, 
he took a noble stand in her behalf. The universal belief in the com- 
munity soon was that the girls at Dr. Parris's had perjured themselves, 
and as soon as this feeling became fixed in the public mind, the storm 
subsided. It is a wonder, perhaps, that the reaction did not lead to 
the prosecution, or at least to the moral arraignment of the "afflicted 
children," but it did not, no doubt fortunately, for the reign of blood 
had been full terrible enough. Sir William Phips, by his executive 
authority, divested the court of its power, and that legal (?) tribunal 
was stricken from the list of courts in the Colony. It was superseded 
by a new court known as the Superior Court of Judicature. Its 
judges were William Stoughton, chief justice, Thomas Danforth, John 
Richards, Wait Winthrop, and Samuel Scwall, associates. This court 
sat at Salem in January of 1693, and acquitted Rebecca Jacobs, Mar- 
garet Jacobs, Sarah Buckley, Job Tookey, Hannah Tyler, Candy, a 
negro woman, Mary Marston, Elizabeth Johnson, Abigail Barker, 
Mary Tyler, Sarah Hawkes, Mary Wardwell, Mary Bridges, Hannah 
Post, Sarah Bridges, Mary Osgood, Mary Lacy, Jr., and condemned 
Sarah Wardwell, Elizabeth Johnson, Jr., and Mary Post. These 
three were not executed, however, being discharged by order of the 
governor in the following May. After this many others were tried, 
but all were acquitted, and the number released in May, 1693, was 
about one hundred and fifty. Two, Ann Foster and Sarah Osburn, 
had died in jail ; others may have, and probably did, and the fact not 
been handed down. Several had escaped from prison, and the whole 
number arrested and committed must have been several hundred, 
according to Mr. Upham's estimate. Those acquitted, or released by 
the governor, were obliged to pay all charges. 

Such, briefly told, is "the history of the Salem witchcraft," — a sad, 
sad tale ; one not likely to be repeated in any natiou. It has not 
been without its moral lessons. Let us hope that the memory of those 



who suffered death as condemned " witches," may remain green in 
history, as it deserves to do so. The courage that faces the scaffold 
or the press, rather than confess to an uncommitted sin, is worthy of 
an epitaph engraved on the hearts of all who follow in the Christian 



Little less interesting than the actual work itself, is the attempt to 
re-examine the course of operations, by which any infant colony, set- 
ting themselves down in the midst of the Aviklerncss, have sought to 
subdue obstacles, conquer difficulties, and overcome whatever 
about their situation might stand between them and their comfort. 
Such warfare against odds unreckoncd, may often be with human 
antagonists ; but more often with the forces of nature, which man in 
such a position finds, if never before, are not already arranged for his 
best accommodation and assistance, when he sets himself to civilize 
the waste. 

One of the very earliest forms in which this opposition of nature is 
met, is in obstructions to free travel and transportation. Our pro- 
genitors did not, indeed, as in the tropics, find the exuberance of veg- 
etation so enormous that their roads and ways must be cleared afresh 
every week, as sometimes there happens ; they did not find their hab- 
itable situation reduced to a scries of detached valleys, between which 
irreducible mountains and rockv crass might forever discourage the 
constructions of the engineer; they did not even find their chosen 
territory subordinated to the condition of heavy streams, whose 
swollen waters might spread their banks with annual desolation, nor 
cast among islands where the oulv communication was burdened with 
the dangers of every storm. 

But they did find many hindrances of other descriptions; and, if 
they were not absolutely insuperable and disheartening, they certainly 
had in them little of encouragement. Before them lay the sea, ill- 
tempered and turbulent, bounded by off-shore winds, and battering 
ever at a coast-wall, before which every ship was like matchwood. 
Behind them was a forest, whose further border no man had seen ; 
and, turn as they would, its thickets met them, inextricable with 
growth confused, its swamps interrupted them, deep with unmeasured 
mire; or its ledges frowned down at them, defying all instruments of 
attack that they could then employ upon them. Under such circum- 
stances, it was not strange that they gave first attention, not to the 
making of roads at all, but to any and all the other arts that more 
particularly, and more immediately, had to do with the maintenance 
of life, and the security of property. 

Still, as communication of some kind must be had, they availed 
themselves of the most ready and natural form ; to wit, that by water. 
From their seaside locations, where, at first, they had planted them- 
selves, within reach, as it were, of their old English homes, with only 
a voyage between, — from these they gradually permitted the attrac- 
tions of better soil or other special advantages, to draw them inland. 
Yet everything depended on the canoe and its powers for carriage ; 
and here again nature had met them more than half way. The smooth 
water of the rivers and the deeper inlets was even better travelling- 
ground for such small craft than the open sea. There was here less 
of danger, more of uniformity. And thus the settlements grew and 
spread inland along the river-margins. More perfectly natural high- 
ways could not be imagined, than these rivers furnished across the 
whole territory of the county ; even now, almost the whole system of 
towns and villages is seen to have been originally fixed and decided 
by the accommodations they afforded. 

The original settlement at Salem found thus an easy extension in 
three directions: northward, along Bass River to Beverly and its 
upper farms; north-west, by the Essex branch to Danvers Port, and 
thence to the Plains and Centre; and westward, by the North River 
to the "North Fields," and to Peabody. The second settlement, at 
Lynn, moved slowly up the Saugus River, and established, not only 
the iron-works, but the several villages that yet maintain the old name 
of Saugus. Later adventurers, seeking more genial aspects of posi- 
tion than the bluffs of Cape Ann or the Plum Island sands could fur- 
nish, saw what they wanted in the islands of the Ipswich River, whose 
innumerable, well-filled channels were to them as ready highways as 
the canals of Venice. And even the same slow stream, smooth and 
unobstructed, invited them inland as far as Topsfield, where, among 
the hills and meadows that never saw the sea, they might safely moor 
the canoes that should give them g»-od passage thither in a day. li- 
the same temper, others, paddling up the Parker and Rowley rivers, 
found virgin fields and homes of happy prospect at Rowley Town, in 
one case, and at By field Parish in the other. And, more than all, 
and above all, did those who first occupied the green hills of Newbury 
and the slant embankments of its Port, see before them in the majes- 
tic Merrimac a grand highway, like another sea engrafted on the first; 
and over this they penetrated inland, founding their villages here and 
there, and bringing their culture and their art deeper and deeper amid 
the homes of the red men, till they had not only dotted the principal 
shores all up and down, but driven, beside, their small craft up the 
Powow to Salisbury, up the Spickct to Mcthuen, and up the still 
more fascinating Shawsheen to Andover with its score of villages. 

Only the cauoe has been mentioned as the common vehicle on these 
watery ways ; and by this, in all the southern parts of New England, 
is generally understood, not the " birch," but the " dug-out," formed 
of the hollowed stem of a single pine. These answered well for the 
Indian, who, nomadic as he might be, had yet not much of weight or 
bulk to be carried at once; but the English settler soon needed a 
higher style and rate of tonnage. And now, as it has been said of 
the average Greek sailor, that "he can build a whole boat at any time 
from her keel to her topmast," so the Englishman, who put himself to 
the settling of this region, knew generally enough to do the same 
thing, at least up to the fashion of the time. At this late period it 
may not be easy to decide what special type of boat was most popu- 
lar with the early people; hut from the universal prevalence of the 
"dory," on both sides of Cape Ann at this day, and the probability 
of its holding this place largely by tradition, it seems not unlikely 
that this flat-bottomed craft, which an ingenious workman, with good 
boards, can put in fair going order in twenty-four hours, was that which 
first opened communication round these shores, and penetrated the 
unexplored intervales of the Ipswich and Merrimac "/alleys. Nothing 
slighter, nor much clumsier, could have answered for the removal of 
all the Colony effects, in 1G2iJ, from Gloucester to Salem ; while, by 
the easy process of lashing two or three together, a deck-load of 
considerable dimensions could be successfully removed, as was act- 
ually done with the timber of the planter's house on that occasion. 

But the object of the colonists was not so much to rule the waters, 
as to subdue and put to service the land. Everything could not be 
done on the river-banks, and a share of land travel became necessary. 
The little path leading to the distant cornfield, became the prototype 
of vaster things in the more distant future. From a single track, just 
passable for a horse and his rider, it spread out in no great while to a 
double one, over which the oxen might easily travel, with the capa- 
cious cart that was piled to groaning with manures in spring, with 
hay in summer, with the crops of autumn, and the icy logs that made 
the winter's heap of fuel. From merely connecting the fields, the 
path presently joined to its like, and ran to the farm of some remote 
neighbor. It was become a bridle road. One after another the little 
farmsteads among the nooks of the finest opened their grassv lanes 
upon it, and soon it was a narrow country way, that led from village 



to village. Yet on it there was little seen of variety. Only the 
heavy, two-wheeled ox-cart, the universal and approved vehicle of 
the farmer, or, rarely, the same extended to a four-wheeled wagon, 
greater in carrying power, but cumbersome to manage, and difficult 
of repairs, — only these were met going over such roads as these, 
where all travel else was on foot, or mounted on that inseparable com- 
panion of man, whether civilized or savage, the horse. 

For all strictly passenger travel for years, even among the rich, 
was by horseback. Every one could ride ; and either sex alike. The 
light ploughing of the mellower fields was turned over to the horse ; 
and both here, and where the same useful creature took the lead of 
the heavy oxen in the breakage of the stiffer sward, did the Yankee 
boy, "riding horse to plough," learn full familiarity with equestrian 
attitudes, and become a fearless horseman, whether graceful or other- 
wise. And not less, in that early day, did the girl find her education, 
in part, by the same spirited model. She had a seat at option, the 
prerogative of qneenship and favor; and, both in the saddle guiding 
her horse as a lady at hawking, and more carelessly perched on her 
pillion, behind her more stalwart companion, she, in a large part, 
acquired that spirit of freedom, that quickness of judgment, and con- 
tempt of danger, that were made such a blessing to the land for two 
centuries afterward. 

For such travel as these methods furnished, the bridle-path was 
every way sufficient. But little clearing was necessary; and, unless 
in rare cases, no grading at all. A small stump, or a slightly pro- 
jecting rock, could be easily surmounted by the heavy wheel, and the 
horse cared nothing for it. Hut before long, the sound of coach- 
wheels began to bo heard. The richer among the colonists remem- 
bercd that the man of wealth at home, always kept his carriage. 
They would do the same. It might be, at first, only the governor, or 
some wealthy justice of the quarterly sessions, that appeared behind 
the glasses, or pulled them down when he went out for an airing; 
but even for him and his few fellows in good fortune, there must be 
better roads provided. The old highway, probably never better than 
a cartway of the woods, ran from Boston to Salem, by way of Saugus 
and Lynn, fording Saugus River at the iron-works ; and over this, an 
early governor of the Colony set out one morning from " Shawmut," 
and pushed forward with his horseback train, till, drawing bridle at 
evening, he sent forward a courier by night, to "Naumkeag," to in- 
form his expectant host "that, by the good blessing of God, he had 
then arrived as far as Master Armitage's, in Saugus, and, by the like 
favor he should hope to be at Nanmkeag by the next day at the same 

Horseback travel was not, geuerally speaking, a mode of much rap- 
idity, or expedition. As wheeled vehicles came more and more into 
general use, a better, or at least, a quicker transit was attained ; and 
this, if nothing else, made a necessity for graded road-beds and hard 
foundations. Thus the highway, gradually improved in structure and 
condition, was widened and straightened from time to time. By the 
time of the Revolution, good carriage roads ran in direct communica- 
tion between most of the towns in the county ; and after the humilia- 
tion at the North Bridge in Salem, the soldiers from the garrison at 
Marblehead, found a smooth, hard way over which to march home- 
ward, from Salem to Boston, by the way of Boston Street. 

But now the streams, from having been the only medium that per- 
mitted any communication, became the worst of obstacles to the newer 
method. Neither had the amount of travel so increased as to 
demand the building of bridges, nor the constructive skill of the 
people risen quite to the point of attempting them, so the natural 
resort for crossing the rivers, where fording was impracticable, was 
found in the same boats that aforetime had done exclusive service. 
In this way ferries started into being, and were soon found, here and 
there, all over the county. The passage of Saugus River, prior to 
1639 at any rate, and probably to a large extent afterward, was made 
by ferriage between Ballard's and Needham's Landings, as they are 

now called. Originally, as has been intimated, it was forded above 
tide-water, a thing always easy to do; and it has been asserted, not 
without show of probability, that the same was done at the landings 
above mentioned ; but it is nearly certain, that by 1639, the water, 
probably deepening annually, had become too wide for such a pas- 
sage. That year, one Spenser (who is called Garrett Spenser by 
Judge Newhall, but who signed himself " Jarrard," and was, more 
likely, named Gerard, or possibly, Jared), was granted the ferry at 
Lynn for the space of two years, and the fare was fixed at one or two 
pence per head for passengers, according to circumstances. Very 
little more can be known about this ferry; the bridge probably ab- 
sorbed most of the travel ; and, as it cost no tolls, and after a time 
was made substantial, the ferry fell into disuse, and was discontinued. 
Mention has been made of a ferry in Lynn kept by Bray Wilkins, but 
it was probably in Neponset instead. 

Three ferries existed at Salem for a considerable period. The 
most important of them had been in operation from December 21, 
1636, running between North Point in Salem, and Cape Ann, or Bass 
River Side, in Beverly. It used to be leased for the benefit of the 
grammar-school masters of Salem. Before 1639, it carried passen- 
gers only ; but by that time, certainly, it was fitted with a horse-boat, 
and had regulations for the transporting of live-stock and beasts of 
all descriptions. This ferry subsisted about one hundred and fifty 
years, or until September 24, 1788, and was then superseded, after 
great contest between the interest of Salem and Beverly, by the finely 
built bridge that yet stands in its place. This ferry was granted, in 
1639, to one John Dixcy, for three years ; but whether this was the 
same with William Dixey, who was one of the first settlers of Lynn, 
and afterward returned to Salem, or whether William took another 
ferry, further up the North River, does not seem well determined. 

This secondary crossing, perhaps not much below the site of the 
present North Bridge, is, on the whole, likely to have been a regular 
ferry at some time ; but not being in any principal highway, and being 
of private ownership on both sides, little or no record remains in 
regard to it. Indeed, it can hardly have been in operation later than 
1770, for the North Bridge was built as soon as then, and the ferry to 
Beverly was then in full activity. 

Another ferry long existed between Salem shore, not far from Phil- 
lips Wharf, and the Marblehead side, near what is called Naugus 
Head. At that time, the highway from Salem to Marblehead left 
the former place near the present entrance of the Boston Turnpike, 
and threading its way along the edge of the Great Pasture, it rounded 
all the creeks and headings of the Mill-pond, gained the line of the 
present road not far from the Loring farm, and made a large curve 
again round the waters of "Forest River." This very circuitous way 
left an excellent opportunity for a ferry like the above-described, to 
do good business ; but before long, the nearer route through the 
''South Fields" was opened, the tendency of Marblehead settlement 
to the eastern side of the peninsula was decided, and the utility of 
that ferry being plainly gone, its practice was given up accordingly. 

The breadth and 'quietness of the Merrimac River, and the number 
of villages scattered along its bauks, made early inducements for the 
establishing of numerous ferries between its shores. Two of these 
were located a little above the Powow River, within the limits of 
Amesbury. The first was authorized by the General Court, April 
29, 1668, the same day of the incorporation of the town. Its location 
may be fixed, perhaps, by tradition ; but the act did not locate it any 
further than to place it "about Mr. Goodwin's house," on the Ames- 
bury side. Where it touched on the other, does not appear. This 
ferry continued in operation, certainly, up to 1729 ; for, on the 22d 
of September, in that year, the town voted to prosecute Capt. Hum- 
phrey Hook for possession. It hardly seems that they succeeded 
against him ; as, after a time, March 10, 1734-5, John Badger and 
others, petitioned for the establishing of a new ferry, at or near 
" Savage's Rock." 



The passage of the river at points above this, was even earlier at- 
tempted, than those mentioned. In 1647, a ferry near Haverhill was 
authorized, to be kept by Thomas Hale ; but the place is not stated. 
The crossing at " Swett's Ferry" has been stated as established in 
1711, but there was certainly an antecedent date; for the town of 
Newbury granted, March 26, 1694, "that John Kelly, Sr., should 
have permission to keep a ferry over the Merrimac, at Holt's Rocks, 
in the place where he now resides." The Swetts, father and son, 
must have succeeded to this same privilege. 

It is said, that by 1745, there were four more lines of ferriage in 
regular service above Holt's Rocks; viz., Cottle's, at the mouth of 
East Meadow River ; Pattec's, near a place formerly of David Nichols ; 
Milliken's, known as the " Chain Ferry " ; and Griffin's, near the cen- 
tre of Haverhill town. It may be this last that has survived since 
1738, not even destroyed by the building of the new bridge almost 
on the same spot, but carrying passengers statedly, for more than a 
hundred years regularly, and occasionally, up to 1872. Still above 
all these, we find Gage's Ferry, plying between the shores of Brad- 
ford and Methuen. It is a little remarkable, as giving a passage over 
the Merrimac by a line due east and west, which could hardly be else- 
where done. The historical data of this ferry are not now at hand, 
but it appears to have been in operation up to 1856, though since 
then it has been discontinued. 

But as the country about the mouth of the Merrimac was sooner 
settled than that above, so there was at least one ferry there of prior 
antiquity. This was at Carr's Island, about midway between the two 
existing bridges. In 1644, a grant was made to Tristram Coffin to 
keep this ferry on the Newbury side, and the patent was renewed 
to him as Tristram Coffin, Sr., December 26, 1647. The Salis- 
bury side of this ferry was kept by George Carr ; and the whole travel 
was here monopolized till October 25, 1687, when Andros granted 
a new patent to Capt. John Marsh, for a new ferry further dowu the 
river. The exact location of Capt. Marsh's ferry may not now be 
known ; but it may very likely have been at some point near the 
present railroad bridge, where it would certainly best accommodate 
the increasing travel and population. 

Most of these ferries were of the simplest kind, carrying little 
beside foot passengers, or occasionally an equestrian and his beast, 
and propelled with nothing more than the oar or paddle. This was 
but an inadequate method, however, as time brought increased neces- 
sities : and ferry-boats were soon constructed, to be propelled by 
horses. Thus, the Beverly Ferry was, by the regulations of 1639, 
obliged " to keepe an horse-boate." "Whether any of the Merrimac 
ferries employed such, does not appear, but is not unlikely. The 
one known as Milliken's was also called the "Chain Fern-; " and this 
may point to the use of a mode of propulsion specially applied in 
such cases. A light, strong chain was stretched loosely across the 
stream, sinking below the draft of ordinary vessels. This ran over a 
wheel ou board the boat, which being turned by the horses, worked 
the boat backward or forward with great power and facility. There 
does not appear to have been any ferry in Essex County using the 
chain method, except the one mentioned; and we have no certain 
information as to this case, but only notice its probability. 

By a natural, though slightly indirect progress, where ferries were 
practicable, and by a most immediate step, where they were not, the 
growing population came to demand the building of bridges over all 
unfordable streams. And here, copying, doubtless, from the institu- 
tions of the mother countrv, the right of the covernmeut to authorize 
and regulate these structures was early recognized. Yet it seems 
rather to have been for the adjustment and apportioning of expenses, 
or for the establishing and regulation of tolls, that the legislative 
power was invoked : for where the bridge was small, or the owner- 
ship beyond question, as must happeu in scores of cases, no attempt 
at chartering was apparently thought of. 

Perhaps one of the oldest chartered bridges in the county is that 

over Saugus River, on the old highway to Boston. It was first built 
in 1639. The General Court ordered, June 6, "that those of Lynn 
shall have 50? from the countrv toward the buildm" of a cart bridge 
over the river there ; when the bridge is finished to be allowed them." 
On petition of the town, October 27, 1648, the Court further ordered, 
"that there shall from henceforth be allowed thirty shillings per 
annum out of the treasury of the county toward the maintenance of 
the said bridge, for which the inhabitants of Lynn are forever to 
repair it." This action was probably incited by the heirs of Edmund 
Ingalls, one of the first settlers of Lynn, who, when the old man was 
unfortunately drowned by falling through the decayed structure, 
applied and recovered of the State 100/ for a life-forfeit. The accident 
happened in March ; and the Court also allowed, on the 23d of that 
month, 20? more for immediate repairs. 

But the General Court seems to have determined that the State 
should pay no more on that account, and the people of Lynn were 
not slow to urge their own inability in the case, so that, May 23, 1655, 
the Court ordered that a committee should rebuild the bridge, and the 
county court should apportion the expense among the towns in the 
county, " according to the law made this present session." It was 
thus made a county charge, and has so remained, save that the joint 
committee of Lynn and Saugus, settling the mutual affairs on the 
incorporation of the latter town, agreed that the two towns "shall 
support said bridge equally, in conjunction with the county." It is 
matter of curious reminiscence, that this, though certainly not much 
more than fifty feet long, went for years and years by the name of 
" Saugus Great Bridge." 

Another bridge, probably of even greater antiquity, and surely of 
greater historic note, is the famous North Bridge in Salem. Unlike 
the other, it is not a communication between town aud town, and 
hence is wanting in those traits of legislative history that would help 
us to a knowledge of its very old story ; but it is, and has always 
been, a cherished object of the people of Salem and vicinity, from 
the fortunate opportunity it presented Feb. 26, 1775, for the checking 
of Col. Leslie and his soldiers, when they marched for the destruction 
of the provincial supplies in "North Fields." It is, no doubt, the 
earliest instance in the country, or very nearly so, of a bridge built 
with a draw for the passage of masted vessels. 

The South Bridge in Salem is very much later in origin, having 
been built not far from 1810. It was an essential part of the enter- 
prise of the great Salem merchant, E. Herscy Derby, who laid out 
Lafayette Street, and brought it into the city proper by a straight 
course, filling up and almost obliterating Peel's Dock, in so doing. 

A far more important bridge, both in history and utility, is that 
connecting Salem and Beverly. The people of the latter town, after 
some years of experience with the ancient ferry already described, 
concluded its management to be almost wholly in the interest of 
Salem, and set themselves to rectify the evil by the substitution of a 
permanent bridge. This was in 1787. The corporators were partly 
from each town, and met and organized at the Sun Tavern in Salem, 
December 13th of the above year. The bridge was at once begun, but 
was not opened for travel till September 24, 1788. Then every one 
wondered to see that such a thing could have been done. The whole 
influence of Salem had been given against the enterprise, even to a 
definite and emphatic vote of the town ; for it was claimed that there 
could be no more navigation of North River, and forty vessels, then 
plying in that water, could enter it no longer. Then, when it was 
found useless to oppose the bridge an}* longer, it was threatened to 
build a parallel one for ruinous competition with it ; and this was so 
far carried into effect as to produce the erection of what was then 
and ever since ailed "Spite Bridge," between Danversport and 
Beverly, by which a shorter and easier route from the western part 
of Beverly to Salem was iudeed secured. 

Beverly Bridge was at once a thing of celebrity, and took rank as 
a great advance in the methods and appliances of swift and easy 



travel. Washington, travelling in New England the next year, made a 
personal inspection of its arrangements. The story is also told, that 
a foreign engineer was sent here for the like purpose. At all events, 
it was found a piece of remarkably good and satisfactory building, 
and the convenience of its draw was such that the only hindrance to 
navigation was that of the few minutes required to open and close it. 
The charter was drawn to run for seventy years, with a complete 
reversion of the franchise, property, and rights to the public at the 
expiration of that period. This, therefore, happened in 1858, when 
the whole was freed of tolls and thrown open to the people. The Hon. 
Robert Eantoul, of Beverly, then eighty years old, walked over it on 
the day of its freedom, as he had done seventy years before, when, a 
lad of ten, he had passed over it at its first opening. 

Few other bridges in the county can compare in interest with those 
spanning the Merrimac. Originally, and for a seemingly long time, 
they were but few in number, — only one or two ; but since then 
they have multiplied, till the river is almost as much covered with 
them as the Thames at London. 

The earliest of these structures appears to have beeu that at Deer 
Island, generally called the "Chain Bridge." It was incorporated in 
1792, by the name of the "Essex Merrimac Bridge," and was finished 
and opened to public travel in November of that year. From some 
cause it was wholly or partially destroyed after this, but was rebuilt in 
1810. There was then provided in it a commodious draw, operated by 
chain gear ; while from the fact that the southern part of the bridge is a 
true suspension structure, the popular name of the whole seems to be 
derived. It is stated that this was the first chain draw in New Eng- 
land ; but from what we have already observed as to the age of Bev- 
erly Bridge, and the probable similarity of the two structures, it is 
difficult to understand how this could be. This bridge, still useful, is 
in two parts, with the considerable tract of Deer Island between 
them; the northern portion, joining Salisbury, being a substantial 
structure of strongly framed wood, comprising one broad arch, a 
draw, and platform beyond, with stone piers. The southern, orNew- 
buryport section, is an open suspension, with span of say 250 feet, 
from heavy link chains, hanging from substantial towers of stoue. 
This bridge was kept and managed for forty years by Ebenezer Pear- 
son, promineutly known in the memorable mock robbery of Good- 
rich ; but in latter time, the tavern house that he occupied on Deer 
Island, where the tolls were paid, has passed into the possession of the 
Hon. Richard S. Spofford,'who, with his talented literary lady, the 
well known Mrs. Harriet Prescott Spofford, finds here a delightful 
summer residence. As in the case of nearly every other large 
bridge, this was hailed with all praise at its completion, as a remark- 
able mechanical achievment ; and without doubt it really was a struct- 
ure of great elegance and success. 

The next bridge in point of antiquity seems to be that at Haverhill, 
connecting with the present town of Bradford. This was incorpo- 
rated as the "Proprietors of Haverhill Bridge," in 1794, the structure 
being finished in the autumn of that year. The construction here, 
too, has beeu greatly praised, and it was, no doubt, a work of great 
strength and excellence. But it seems never to have met all the 
wants of the people, since, as already observed, the ancient ferry at 
the same point has never been wholly displaced by it. 

Next we find a bridge, built in 1795, at the "Rocks Village," 
between Haverhill and West Newbury. This is supposed to be the 
same situation as that of the old ferry at " Holt's Rocks." The bridge 
was the longest of all upon the river ; but the amount of travel realized 
was discouragingly small. Other routes brought a ruinous competition 
against it, and, after a time, the proprietors gave up making further 
repairs. In 1818, occurred a great freshet on the river, and the 
accumulated ice took off what remained of the old structure. After 
this it remained in ruins for about ten years ; but in 1828 a fresh 
interest in it became excited, and the bridge was at length rebuilt. 
It yet remains in service, and forms the chief means of communication 

between West Newbury and the villages on the northerly shore of 
the river. 

No other connections seem to have been placed over the stream 
till 1826, when the growing population and business importance of 
Newburyport came to demand a more direct aud commodious opening 
with the north and east than could be realized by means of the old 
"Chain Bridge" at Deer Island. Efforts were therefore made, result- 
ing in the chartering of the "Newburyport Bridge," in 1826. It was 
immediately built, and like all the rest, was first ready in autumn, 
having been opened for travel September 1, 1827. It was an under- 
taking of no small magnitude, being considerably longer than any 
other bridge on the river, built iu relatively deeper water, and more 
exposed to the injurious action of the tidal and other currents. It 
was, however, completed with entire success, making direct connec- 
tion from the Salisbury side, with the foot of Summer Street, New- 
buryport. The original cost was stated at $70,000. 

In 1870, the inhabitants of Groveland, favored by the peculiar 
curvature of the river at their town, pressed anew their claim for a 
bridge from thence to the Haverhill shore. The point contemplated 
was the site of Millikeu's old "Chain Ferry," which had always been 
well patronized ; and so good a case did they succeed in making, that 
an Act was at length obtained for the erection of a new bridge at that 
situation. It was forthwith erected, under the directum of the county 
commissioners, and now stands as one of the finest constructions 
of the kind in New England. The work was begun March 29, 
1871, under charge of Col. Coffin, of Newburyport. The stone 
piers, five in number, designed by C. A. Putnam, of Salem, were 
built by Blaisdell & Parker, of Rockport. The superstructure is an 
iron tubular work, with 126 feet in each of the six spans, and a draw 
of 68 feet, 804 feet of floor, and 25 feet clear width. This part of the 
work was executed by the King Iron Bridge Company, of Cleveland, 
O., from designs by C. G. Force, their own engineer. The testing 
and formal inauguration were had on Wednesday, April 10, 1872, 
when the deflection of one of the spans, under a weight of thirty 
tons, centrally placed, was found to be but thirteen-sixteenths of au 
inch. The warranty is 3,000 pounds to the lineal foot. 

The total cost of this fine bridge was $84,962.70; which being 
divided into sixty parts, the county of Essex paid twenty-seven, the 
city of Haverhill nineteen, the town of Groveland nine, and the 
town of West Newbury six. The accommodation to the people of 
the region is considered remarkably great ; and the day of inaugura- 
tion was warmly observed with dinners, speeches and jubilation by 
those of the vicinity. Efforts to the same end had beeu made in 
1834, '35, and '36 ; but the local influence of Haverhill, and specially 
of the proprietors of Haverhill Bridge, prevented all success. In 
fact, it probably could not have been done when it was, but that the 
Legislature, by Stat. 1867, chap. 296, extinguished all bridge corpora- 
tions and made all such structures public highways. This action has 
rendered practicable many things that private interests would always 
have obstructed, no matter how much needed for the public good. 

Mention is also due to the Andover Bridge, now lying wholly 
within the city of Lawrence. Had we treated these cases in strict 
order of time, this should have been found near the head of the list, 
being the second of the Merrimac bridges in point of age. It had 
its incorporation in March, 1793, aud appears to have been erected at 
once ; but it met with destruction in about seven years, from causes 
not stated, but of which ice is the most probable. After an interval 
of disuse, the proprietors decided to rebuild, aud did so in 1806-7, 
since which the bridge has had as large a share of business, perhaps, 
as almost any other in the country. It is entitled to peculiar notice 
from its rather unusual connection with the turnpike enterprises of 
later date. 

The Essex Compauy, of Lawrence, owning large tracts of land on 
both sides of the river, long desired to establish communication be- 
tween the sections, more convenient than was afforded by the old 



Andover bridge above them. For this purpose it was finally decided 
to erect a new bridge over the river near the lower part of the city. 
It was accordingly built at a point immediately east of the Duck 
Mills, with a street rui.ning almost due south, to intersect both 
branches of the old Andover turnpike. This bridge is a rather light 
and graceful structure of wood, and of the common construction ; that 
is, a platform bridge upon piers. It offers large accommodation for 
the residents of South Lawrence, and indeed for all approaching the 
city from that side; but being wholly within the city, has not been 
made a public or county charge. 

A remark may be here made as to the Newburyport Bridge, since 
its aspect is now so unlike what it was. After the passage of the 
Eastern Railroad, which raised its own bridge on the piers of the old, 
and above the carriage-way, it long continued in this double form. 
But in 1868 the railroad was transferred to a new bridge somewhat to 
the west, and afterwards the old structure, being nearly ruined by 
ice on the Salisbury side, was rebuilt and now appears as an elegant 
open platform, very pleasant and graceful indeed. 

After this outline description of the bridges, and river passages 
of the county, we pass naturally to a further view of its highways 
themselves. In the century from 1700 to 1800, they had improved 
from mere bridle-paths, in many cases, up to the grade of excellent 
public thoroughfares, mostly wide and convenient, and built of mate- 
rials, and with a degree of care and skill that made them the admira- 
tion of all who knew them. Especially was this true, as it still is, of 
the roads in the southern section of the county. Northward, the 
extensive terrace-lands bordering the Merrimac on both sides, consist 
of sandy or gravelly material, usually re-arranged, and having but 
little of cohesive property remaining. Ways constructed of this, 
though soft and easy for foot passage, or for beasts, prove too yielding 
for the pressure of heavy wheels, and extensive and frequent repairs 
are necessary, even where macadamizing is resorted to. For in the 
region of the river a broad formation of slaty rock occurs, which, 
while it is too soft for a substantial track is yet, in most cases, the 
only rock within practicable reach. But in the southern townships 
the rock has a very different constitution. The south-west affords a 
hard, angular porphyry, or felsite, breaking down almost sponta- 
neously, into a material known as " blue gravel,'' whose binding or 
cohesive power is perhaps greater than that of any other stone. 
Roads of this substance, laid on a firm foundation of large, coarse 
stones, well bedded, are able to resist almost any of our severe-t 
frosts ; and at most seasons of the year offer a surface for driving 
nearly as hard as a pavement, and as smooth as a plank floor. Such 
ways are common in Saugus, Lynn, Swampscott, and Marblehead. 
Eastward from this the rocks are found to range throush the wide 
series of diorites and metamorphic granitoid types, which break easily 
for the purposes of road-making, and settle to a firm condition with 
nearly as much of durability and evenness as the preceding. These 
styles appear in Nahant, Salem, Beverly,. and eastward to Cape Ann, 
also northwardly, near the coast, as far as Newbury. 

The middle section of the county rests much upon rocks of horn- 
blendic character; which, though working to a good form, and bind- 
ing well in a roadway, are yet somewhat too soft for a very durable 
surface. Yet the roads thereabout are mostly excellent, being kept 
up by constant and intelligent attention. Lynn field, Middleton, and 
Boxford are here included. There is still another small belt of terri- 
tory, lying between the last and the Merrimac terraces, and particu- 
larly including Andover and North Andover, which has for a founda- 
tion a strong, well-characterized gneiss, as well suited to this purpose 
as the best of granite. Its influence on the style and condition of the 
highways is immediately seen on arriving upon it. A large share of 
this material seems to be employed in and about Lawrence, as the 
rock itself is for building ; and hence the streets, though really lying 
on the Merrimac gravel, have a solidity not otherwise obtainable. 

From these facts of natural provision, joined to the well-proved 

disposition of her citizens for the thorough and substantial execution 
of all work related to the public interest, it has come about that the 
roads of Essex Count y have always enjoyed an enviable fame for 
directness, hard and even surface, and easy grades. It is true that 
there are no mountains, and but few large hills to interrupt the best prog- 
ress of the engineer, and the traveller after him ; that there are few 
spring floods felt here, aud sudden torrents do not, at any time, make 
serious aggressions on the lines of communication ; yet the construct- 
or has an antagonist that if silent and slow, is yet not less able, at 
times, to put him to his last resort for defence against him. The 
heavy and uncontrollable frosts of this region, penetrating, not rarely, 
seven or eight feet below the surface in the winter time, are often 
able to shake and shiver the firmest bedding that a road can have, 
moving stone upon stone, and leaving the best-rolled gravels, at the 
break-up of spring, only a mass of uncertain consistence, loose as a 
honey-comb, and disappointing to all the hopes of an engineer, almost 
as the progress of subterranean tires. 

Yet all the natural hindrances existing in the case, whether as cli- 
matic or geological, did not answer to deter the people of New Eng- 
land from attempting, about the beginning of this century, the con- 
struction of a still higher style of roads than had yet been enjoyed, 
or from putting thereon a more rapid, commodious, and improved 
form of transportation than any before iu use. The energetic and 
celebrated merchant of Salem, William Gray, with the almost as cele- 
brated Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, and the eminent Nathan Dane, with 
two or three more, determined on a better mode of communication 
from Boston to Salem. Turnpikes were then not unknown in Europe ; 
but they had not been thoroughly perfected, even there ; and in Amer- 
ica the instances of any such construction must have been rare indeed. 
Neither Macadam nor Telford were in the field, nor yet for some years 
afterward ; but the merchants of Salem determined to see what could 
be done toward a better-built and more direct road than any one else 
seems to have imagined. They therefore obtaiued an incorporation, 
March G, 1802, as the " Salem Turnpike and Chelsea Bridge Corpora- 
tion," and began their work at Salem, near "Pickering's Pen," June 
7, 1802. The whole route was worked in about sixteen months; and 
the material and tools, left over, and sold at auction after completion, 
October 27, 1803, realized $3,200. The road was fairly opened for 
travel, September 22, 1803, when, for the first time, a man could 
drive his carriage from the head of Kssex Street, Salem, to Charles- 
town Square, by a liue almost mathematically straight, over a 
distance of 12 miles and 256 rods. The whole work had cost 

Not a great deal of deep cutting was done on this route, but the 
tilling was heavy in some parts of the Great Pasture, requiring em- 
bankments with stone facings, many yards in height and many rods in 
extension. Yet the difficulty that caused most anxiety was the cross- 
ing of the marshes of Lynn and Saugus, where few believed a firm 
road-bed could ever be made and preserved. But it seems as if, in 
the absence of fresher counsel nearer home, the projectors turned to 
the example of the Hollanders, and adopted the same foundation for 
their road as the others for their long-enduring dikes. At least a 
similar method was employed, and cords upon cords of brushwood 
were laid down upon the soft and yielding marsh soil, for a basis for 
the ponderous embankment that was afterward piled upon them. No 
material amount of sinkage was ever observed, though the marsh was 
known to be little more than a sponge, aud one witness swore to hav- 
ing thrust a pole into it twenty-five feet perpendicularly. For this 
construction, gigantic for that day, the hills of Chelsea furnished 
abundance of gravel ; and the cutting through these is about all to 
be found on the route. 

Three tolls were collected between the extremes of this road ; gate 
No. 1 being in the Great Pasture, some two miles from Salem ; No. 
2 at the "Halfway House" on Breed's Island, in Saugus: and the 
third on the long bridge over Mystic River, at Chelsea. Not many, 



probably, of the ordinary travellers, bad occasion to pass all these 
barriers ; but many from Lynn and its numerous villages found them- 
selves obliged to make two offerings before reaching Boston. It 

© © © 

was such an unexpected demand that fell, one raw November after- 
noon, on the ears of Samuel Mulliken and Jeremiah Bulfineh, who 
had ridden from Lynn on business, mutually sharing expenses. It 
was but for six cents, yet neither would pay it, nor half of it, either; 
and after long contention they turned and rode home, chilled through, 
but each glorying in having had his own way. 

The charter of the Salem Turnpike provided that the road should 
be free when the receipts amounted to a certain sum, and the bridge 
at Chelsea at the expiration of seventy years. Before the expiration 
of the full time, however, the belief obtained that not only this but all 
the roads and bridges in the county ought to be made free of charge 
to the people, and the feeling culminated in the passage of the statute 
of 1868, chapter 309, which declared them thus free, and provided for 
an adjustment of expenses among the county and towns. The whole 
business under the Act was completed in a few months, and then — 
6th of November, 1869 — the gates were finally swung open, and the 
lantern at the Halfway House that for sixty-six years had been an un- 
failing beacon to every ni^ht-wanderer over the marshes, swinging in 
storm or shine, so surely to cast its yellow ray all night long over the 
tedious miles of level roadway, the true old lantern itself failed and 
shone no more and no longer. But to temper the poetic sadness of 
the thought came the far grander consciousness that even in this loss 
was the greater gain of free travel to every soul throughout the county, 
the more beneficent abolition of the toll-rates and charges over every 
road and bridge in the domain of the fathers of Essex. For these 
tolls had amounted to no trifling sum. During the year 1805, there 
were received at Gate No. 1, near Salem, tolls to the comfortable 
figure of $5,300. 

The Salem Turnpike was only one of a vast number of similar 
enterprises, whose predominating popularity gave character to their 
particular day and time. Such, more or less similar, were to be 
found at that time all over New England, and, doubtless, all over the 
United States. Two more such splendid roads were chartered the 
next spring. One of these was part of a still larger operation, 
intended to connect all the eastern country with Roston by the best 
turnpike facilities. A great road of this kind was laid out from New 
Hampshire, through Methueu, to Andover Bridge, thence through 
Andover and Reading to Boston. At the bridge, however, a large 
branch was divided, which ran south-easterly through North Andover 
and Middleton to Danvers, and thus entered Salem, bringing a col- 
lateral share of all its benefits to the lap of the ancient settlement. 
This road is yet in excellent condition, and seems to have been 
remarkably well constructed ; but the facts of interest in its history 
seem few, and not now readily obtainable. 

Another turnpike, more remarkable in some respects than either, 
was chartered nearly at the same time with the last. It was remark- 
able for its daring projection, for its persevering execution, and its 
almost total want of usefulness afterward.. Perhaps it was meant as a 
sort of offset to the Andover Turnpike ; for being chartered to come 
from State Street. Newburyport, to Maiden Bridge, "by as nearly a 
straight line as practicable," it might have hoped to bring more of the 
eastern trade and patronage to Boston than the other could divert 
from it. But no such hope was ever realized, whether entertained or 
not. Great expectations had been raised to induce subscribers to take 
up the stock ; but after the road had been once finished, all faith in it 
seemed to expire, and the only sale of shares ever made afterward, it 
is said, occurred when the president, very indignant at the discourag- 
ing remarks of a stockholder, pompously offered to take his invest- 
ment off his hands, and was quickly taken at his word. The road is 
yet in being, and it is said that the section nearest Newburyport did 
indeed pay tolerable earnings ; but the rest, neglected and disused, 
now looks a "modern ruin" for miles and miles, suggesting some 

' O© © 

greatness, certainly, but so vaguely, that one can hardly guess what 
the greatness may have ever been. 

This road, some thirty miles in length, was truly made as "straight 
as practicable." This seemed the ruling idea. With the projectors, a 
straight route was a near route ; and thus, though they found good 
even grades in Saugus and Lynnfield, they forced their way over the 
steep hills of Topsfield, resolutely surmounting grades that were really 
frightful. Four great ridges were there passed over in close succes- 
sion, besides many others of less note, in utter forgetfulness that the 
distance over a hemisphere is just equal to that round one side of its 
base, and many times harder for any species of travel. It is singular 
to observe, at this day, what splendid plans were included under the 
working of this road. A large hotel was built at South Lynnfield, 
the road was there, for about a mile, laid out of double width, to serve 
for a trotting-ground, and ample sailing facilities on Suntaug Lake 
were added to the attractions. Similar works were projected at other 
points, but not, perhaps, ever fully brought forth ; for the basis of all 
success was to be the stage travel, and this fell flat at the very outset. 
A single wintei's experience was enough to warn any driver to beware 
of the dangers of those enormous grades ; and even in the best days 
of summer, a stumbling horse or a broken axle, while descending one 
of those declivities, was not to be thought of without a shudder. 
Several accidents did happen, and at length it proved impossible to 
engage drivers who would attempt to go over the whole route. And 
now the stranger passes along its track for miles, wondering why so 
good a road was ever made where there were no more people ; what 
patronage tfiere ever could have been for those great hotels, and what 
could have ever paid for the beautiful stone arch that spans the Ips- 
wich River, or the equally substantial structure that brings it across 
the Parker. The grass, in many places, springs between its ruts; the 
bushes are every season encroaching on its margins ; and thus it lies, 
right through the centre of the county, a long line of admonition and 
counsel, teaching all to beware of ill-considered enterprises, and not 
to risk the fruits of honest industry for the dazzle of a fancied scheme, 
or the glitter of a happy possibility. 

The only other turnpike in the county, to which notice need be 
given, is the short one by which access was secured for the public 
from Newburyport to Plum Island. It is only a few miles in length, 
terminating at the hotel on the island, but includes in that distance a 
bridge of considerable length and importance, spanning Plum Island 
River, not far from its opening into the Merrimac. This road was 
first opened to the public in July, 1805, and was really a work of 
enterprise and credit. 

Before leaving the subject of turnpike roads, it is necessary that 
something should be said of the peculiar style of travel they were 
devised to accommodate and promote. The stage-coach was, in its 
day, as great an advance, perhaps, upon the prevailing modes of tran- 
sit as the railroad-car was, in later time, upon the stage ; at all events, 
it thoroughly revolutionized all extended travel, and gave an aspect, 
never before observed, to all the world of out-door civilization. The 
first stage-coach in the county, drawn by four horses, was established 
in 1774. It was set up by Ezra Lunt, and connected Newburyport 
with Boston, via Salem. It made three round trips per week, leaving 
its termini on alternate days. There was a smaller coach, drawn by 
two horses, that had then been running two or three years between 
Boston and Portsmouth, N. H., but the proprietor's name is .not 
remembered. But, according to Rantoul, "systematic staging began 
here about 1796, and in this business Benjamin Hale, of Newburyport, 
seems to have been a pioneer." Judge Henry Elkins, of Wenham, 
Dr. Nehemiah Cleveland, of Topsfield, and others less known, are 
named as early promoters of this great and growing industry. In 
1818, an incorporation was obtained as the "Eastern Stage Company," 
and this from the State of New Hampshire, though the business was 
really to extend under the wings of two States beside. They had a 
capital of four hundred and twenty-five shares, of $100 each. They 



ran the coaches on the old plan of alternate days, leaving Portsmouth 
for Boston at nine, A. M., reaching Topsfield by dinner-time, and Bos- 
ton by night. Next day they returned by the same route, which ran 
in part over the famous Newburyport Turnpike, and otherwise through 
Danversport and Salem. Again, we hear of driving through Rowley 
and Ipswich, and probably both lines were used, according to some 
plan not now recollected. Topsfield thus became a place of import- 
ance, either that or Wenham being the "halfway " from Xewburyport 
to Boston. Large meetings were often held in this heart of the 
county, and John Adams writes of a great Topsfield caucus, in 1808, 
that opposed the embargo. 

The Eastern Stage Company were an acknowledged power for a 
long time. Once they said to the Xewburyport Turnpike that they 
might accept $700 per annum for tolls, or they would send their 
coaches by the Old Town Bridge. AVith them, we may almost say, 
originated the notorious phrase and doctrine, "All baggage at the 
risk of the owners,'' for they announced it by vote in April, 1819, 
and again in 1826 and 1829. But, after a while, they found that law 
could not sustain them without something like personal service in 
every case, and as the best thing they could think of, they posted their 
notice in every tavern, and actually served it on every bank president 
in the region. 

The company met with all success. They had no accidents, and 
committed few blunders. Their property, both real and movable, 
largely and rapidly increased, and the year 1833 saw them free from 
debt, and with a business that needed and employed five hundred 
horses. In October, 1834, the stock was worth $202.13 ; par value, *100. 
The next year they were paying eight to nine thousand dollars yearly 
tolls, adding constantly to their landed property, and feeling secure 
against all competition. At that time, the present centres of travel 
and intelligence were, perhaps, not heard of, or were lying, like 
latent buds, waiting for the coming influence to awaken them: while 
another class, the eminent positions of that day, were swelling in their 
conscious importance, and not staying to think or fear that anything 
could ever arise to change or set aside their title to the best of local 

And yet it was even then coming. While the stage company, with 
its confederated brethren from other sections, were rejoicing in full 
prosperity : while they were junketing at their business meetings, and 
looking over the grand roads they occupied, and grand hotels they 
patronized, "Oilman's and the Wolfe at Xewburyport, the Sun Tav- 
ern and the Lafayette Coffee House at Salem, the Ann Street Stage 
House, and the City Tavern in Boston," and Breed's well-noted hos- 
telry in Lynn, where twenty-three stages stopped per day, going to 
Boston, and, perhaps, as many returning, and where faithful old True 
Moody, the sable hostler, gathered a competency and purchased a 
home with the ninepences stored in his mouth while changing horses ; 
while all this was going on, the air was beginning to tremble, in the 
shadowy and unknown distance, with the roar and screech of the rail- 
road train and its unearthly whistle, — sounds of doom, indeed, for 
all that pertained to the glory of that ancient regime ; sounds of judg- 
ment that, when uttered, should reverse the currents of public transit, 
should create new cities in the forest, and feed them with the life- 
blood of every old metropolis. The iron-horse soon came riding into 
Essex, as those old-fashioned stage-worthies must have thought, like 
a very fiend in armor, and all their glory began to wane, and their 
prosperity to melt away before their eyes. The Eastern Stage Com- 
pany faced the invasion bravely, and tried every expedient to prevent 
being thrown from their feet ; tried to sell horses, to sell real estate, 
to reduce wages, — everything, but without effect ; and finally, in Feb- 
ruary, 1838, broke up the corporation, and sold their remaining assets 
for the most they could get for them. The official existence ended June 
26, 1838. Yet they had not done so very ill. " During twenty years,'' 
reports the president, Col. Henry Whipple, "the holders of stock 
received eight and one-third per cent, in dividends annually, and after 

paying all debts, between §66 and $67 on each share. It does not appear 
that a passenger was ever killed or injured." The number of coaches 
despatched was often prodigious. June 1, 1813, when the unfortu- 
nate action of the "Chesapeake" and " Shannon " occurred, one hun- 
dred and twenty stages, crowded full, went up from Salem to 

But we have at leugth traced this investigation down to the point 
where the impatient spirit of a growing people refused longer to be 
satisfied with any arrangement that could be made for their transpor- 
tation by animal muscle. The demand was for speedier movement, 
especially for the longer routes ; and hardly less for a broader accom- 
modation, by which a greater number could find carriage at a given 
hour. Had the question been only one of short distances, the chance 
for the new mode would have been much less flattering : but so it was, 
that the short distances were worth little more to the stages than 
to the railroads. It would have been easy for the stages to scatter 
their routes among rural towns, where their antagonist would never 
pursue them, and thus keep themselves in modified activity ; but this 
would never support the enterprise. Only the "through lines" were 
of much use to anybody ; and on these the quickest time and the 
largest accommodation were sure to command and control the track, 
and so the event proved. 

Yet, curiously enough, the railroad did not, at first, invade any 
stage route of importance. The Eastern Stage Company, in its latter 
despairs, had offered to make joint effort with others, and sell five 
miles of the Xewburyport Turnpike for a railroad bed ; but all without 
success. Indeed, it seemed not so easy for the new system to make 
immediate entry over the track of the coaches in the more important 
lines; but the Boston and Lowell Railroad, that had at last found a 
foothold in Middlesex County, first pierced the flank of Essex by a 
branch track, that ran up through Wilmiugton and entered Andover. 
This was March 15, 1833 ; by April 7, 1835, it had crept on toward 
its inevitable destiny as far as Haverhill ; April 5, 1837, it had crossed 
the town to the Xew Hampshire line, and obtained the name of the 
Andover and Haverhill Railroad Corporation. Meanwhile, the stroke 
of fate was even more plainly felt in Xew Hampshire, whose Legisla- 
ture, June 27, 1835, had incorporated the "Boston and Maine Rail- 
road," and given it such a location as enabled a ready junction with 
the advancing line in Massachusetts. And this was really effected, 
February 22, 1841, when the latter, which had been re-christened as 
the " Boston and Portland Railroad Corporation," April 3, 1839, was 
definitely united with its eastern co-workers, and thus fully accom- 
plished the fact of an active and influential existence. 

But the advocates of railroad improvement in southern Essex were 
not goiug to be left behind by their fellows at the north. At length, 
April 14, 1836, they obtained a charter for the "Eastern Railroad," 
from Boston to Salem. The choice of routes was not easy. They 
could go by the line, nearly, of old Boston Street ; passing Lynn by 
the Strawberry Brook valley, and entering Salem from the west. 
They could easily secure the Boston end of the Salem Turnpike, and 
either diverge at Lynn, or go through Great Pasture by a series of 
elevated grades. Either of these would have entered Boston without 
water-carriage : but they were not so firm in the saddle as not to prize 
a valuable ally, and the good-will of the East Boston Land Company 
was very much of this kind. It was thus decided to occupy a route 
still nearer the shore ; and after deep-cutting the troublesome hills of 
Chelsea, to risk the long and tedious exposure of an cmbaukment 
across the marshes of Saugus and Lynn to a solid, though uninviting, 
position at Breed's Wharf, near Axey's Point in the latter town. 
From this, eastward, the advantages of this route were no doubt real 
enough, both as to the passage of the "Great Pasture," and the entrance 
of the city of Salem itself; but the marsh section was long, much in 
danger, and wholly incapable of productiveness, while the terminus at 
East Boston compelled an entrance into the metropolis by a ferry-boat, 
which, even at that day, had not become the safe and well-managed 



thing afforded by the present day. And, indeed, the doubt may well 
arise whether the eligibility of the approach to Salem on the south was 
not more than neutralized, when the road came to be extended, by 
the peculiar difficulty of leaving it on the north. It finally, as is well- 
known, had to be effected by a long and costly tunnel, laid through one of 
the most busy streets and under another, and inevitably interfering 
with and narrowing the comfortable use of the thoroughfare through 
which it passed. Nor indeed, were the hopes well realized, that by the 
near-shore line the amount of land-damage would be peculiarly small ; 
for it happened that the route selected cast them upon lands owned or 
controlled by parties in the interest of the turnpike and the stage com- 
pany, and these were not in haste to forget that it gave them an 
opportunity against their destroyer they never might have again. 

But it was carried through, and opened for travel August 27, 1838. 
A new era of travel dawned at once on the wondering eyes of the 
shore-people of Essex. A stage could only carry twelve, or possibly 
fifteen ; but here were half a dozen such stages, or cars, holding as 
many, coupled together, with a single machine, scarcely bigger than a 
good-sized horse, taking them along at a pace that Peter Ray, with his 
annual load of Harvard graduates, had never thought of attaining. 
The hundred and twenty coaches of the sad Chesapeake day had carried, 
probably, not far from eighteen hundred persons, and the day's work 
was monstrous. But the cars took eleven hundred the first day, with 
no fatigue to anybody, kept it up day after day, and in about a month 
ran it up to sixteen hundred, while crowds of curious spectators 
gathered near the depot at each arrival and departure. The daily 
average for the first three months was three hundred and forty-eight 
persons. And these were taken into Boston, even across the ferry, 
in not more than forty minutes, with the confident hope of bringing 
the time down to thirty-two minutes; which, however, has hardly 
been realized. 

So began the Eastern Railroad, "that giant," as Henry F. Durant 
once expressed it, "that has stretched forth its arm, and laid, 
literally, a hand of iron upon the bosom of Essex County." 
The cars were at first short and small, for the present long car 
was not yet invented. But when, as it soon happened, twelve or 
fifteen cars had to be put into one train, it quickly appeared that room 
could be economized, and with it wheel-gear saved and comfort ampli- 
fied. So the cars were made longer, with platforms and steps, and 
doors in the ends ; and by another year the trains looked singularly 
unlike what, at first, they had been. And then began the day of ex- 
tension. Marblehead was a place of importance ; she had wealth to 
put in the scale ; she must be secured. A branch road to Marblehead, 
by way of the Forest River Mills, put in operation December 10, 
1839, made the trip to the home of stout old Mugford and Gerry, 
almost as quick and short as it had ever been over the ferry at Naugns 
Head. Previously a communication had been held by a stage 
running from a small station in Swampscott, near the Stetson 
farm. Eight days after, December 18, 1839, the cars ran through 
the Salem Tunnel and to Ipswich. There they halted awhile ; for 
the strongest powers of Essex South were all propitiated. But the 
road was growing, like the gourd of the prophet. By the next sum- 
mer, June 19, 1840, it had its cars running to Newburyport ; and the 
same season, November 9, 1840, it had overleaped the Merrimac, 
bridging the stream on the piers of the old structure, over the heads 
of the few, slow-rolling stages that yet crept in, dispiritedly, from the 
north, had run across the plains of Salisbury, and made its entry into 
New Hampshire in triumph, fifty-four miles from the Massachusetts 

For something like six years no particular developments in railroad 
matters were made in the county. While the Eastern was pushing its 
way with rapidity, over the marshes and sands, to gain an entrance to 
the yet distant communities of Maine, the antecedent line, derived 
from the Boston and Lowell, and now provided with the more signifi- 
cant title of the Boston and Maine, had been definitely united with the 

other sections of the same road in New Hampshire and Maine, by Act 
of the three Legislatures, March 24, 1843. They had graded from 
Andover to Haverhill; and since August, 1836, had been steadily 
running as far as Wilmington. But a new idea seemed to arise, 
simultaneously with the perfecting of the old. They had intended, of 
course, to reach Boston for themselves ; and, in 1844, they succeeded 
in getting a charter so enabling them. The next year, 1845, they had 
this section finished, and ran into Haymarket Square. Then it was 
seen that a feasible route lay from Andover Bridge northward ; and 
having obtained an Act for the purpose, September 8, 1847, they 
changed the position of the tracks, and ran up from Andover directly 
to the bridge. No good arrangements seem to have been practicable 
with the proprietors for crossing on this structure, and a new bridge 
was therefore built, just below. Over this the road was vigorously 
carried, and thus triumphantly entered the new town of Lawrence, 
July 3, 1848, about fifteen months after the incorporation of the busy 
colony. The Act enabling the road to cross the Merrimac had also 
authorized its extension to the State line, by passing through 
Methuen ; and this project was immediately realized in connection 
with similar movements in the adjoining State. This, therefore, began 
what was soon completed and brought into full activity, the Man- 
chester and Lawrence Railroad. 

But not even by this time were the limitations and conditions of 
railroad travel fully comprehended. It had not come into full view, 
that short routes and small communities could not as well contribute 
to the support of a line, as would larger populations at greater dis- 
tance. And therefore, as the margins of the county were all now 
reached, the interior towns were not inclined to bear neglect. They 
wished for accommodation as well. Then it occurred to the mind of the 
Hon. Stephen C. Phillips, of Salem, that a line from the old seaport 
to Lawrence, with the coal trade of the two, and the way travel 
between, could be made to pay its way, and something better. His 
plans were put into execution, resulting in the incorporation of the 
"Essex Railroad," March 7, 1846. By January, 1847, the road was 
opened from Salem (where it connected at the station of the Eastern) 
to Peabody Square.* It did not develop very powerfully ; it was more 
than a year, or till July 1, 1848, before it had progressed to Danvers, 
though it only needed till September 5, 1848, to carry it the rest of 
the way to Lawrence, connecting various points in Middleton and 
North Andover ; and to make a freight branch, to connect and ter- 
minate at Phillips's Wharf in Salem, only required till July 2, 1849. 
But the last section showed considerable difficulty ; the track of the 
Eastern had to be crossed at grade, a long distance of pile-bridge 
built, and the Bridge Street embankment cut through and also bridged, 
the difference of grades being nearly twenty feet. This road was 
therefore ready to test the problem of interior transit, but unfor- 
tunately, the pleasant hopes that had nourished the scheme were not 
sustained. The road continued to live in a doubtful state for some 
years, and finally passed into the possession of the Eastern Railroad, 
where it has since been operated under the name of the Lawrence 

Another interior road was projected, and incorporated in 1848, called 
the Salem and Lowell Railroad. It was arranged to start from the old 
terminus of the Wilmington Branch, or near it, through Reading, 
Middleton, and Peabody, to Salem. It was fast becoming apparent, 
that the old home of Endicott aspired to become a railroad centre of 
the modern day. The new road was not open for travel till August 
1, 1850, when it established its terminal station on the North River 
side in Salem, and went into operation under a lease to the Boston 
and Lowell corporation. By them it is continued ; yet, like the other 
interior line, it has never had the reputation of being a very successful 
or well-paying enterprise. 

The multiplication of railroads had now become a passion of the 

* Thou South Danvers. 



people. The capitalists of Newburyport were not so well engrossed 
by the growing consequence of the Eastern, Init that they were willing 
to consult with the people of Georgetown, to whom, as yet, no such 
favors had fallen, and devise a short road to reach their part of the 
country. A charter was therefore obtained in the course of the year 
1848, and ground was broken January 15, 1849. It hardly seems 
that very rapid progress was made; for it was not until May 23, 
1850, that passenger trains began to run over it, from Newburyport to 
Georgetown. Not far from the same time, a branch road was located 
through the denser parts of Bradford and Groveland, which connecting 
at the west end with the Boston and Maine, at their bridge in Haver- 
bill, ran south-easterly about six miles, and joined the Newburyport 
Railroad at its terminus in Georgetown. 

But the old and important town of Danvers had not yet its iuterests 
well satisfied. The Essex Railroad gave it only a communication 
with Salem ; every other line passed it at a distance. Again, the 
heart of the county, stage-famous Topstield, had as yet only leave to 
hear afar, but not to see, the trains that were bringing help to all her 
shoreland sisters. Something must be done for Topstield and Dan- 
vers. and Boxford stood opportunely to turn the scale as to what and 
how. The Danvers and Georgetown Railroad came into existence 
May 7, 1851, and as the branches to Newburyport and Bradford had 
naturally fallen into the hands of the Boston and Maine, so this as 
naturally followed the same lead, and fell in as part of the same system ; 
especially when, not long after. March 15, 1852, by the inducement of 
the company themselves, it may be, the concluding section of the road 
was authorized and built through Lynnfield and Peabody, tapping the 
Boston and Maine at Wakefield, and giving the people of the old stage- 
towns almost as easy access to the capital as could be furnished by the 

The interior wants of the county were now fully satisfied : perhaps 
further than was profitable. But a single form of industry appears to 
have compelled the adding of one more road to the list. The large 
ice-harvests from Pentucket Pond and its fellows in Georgetown had 
found a profitable outlet by the new road in the three directions of 
Newburyport, Lawrence, and Boston. So, also, the equal or greater 
cutting on Suntaug Lake in South Lynnfield had already demanded as 
much opportunity to reach a market. The first effort was toward 
Boston; but so good a chance for a "through line" could scarcely 
be neglected, and the result, finally, was the incorporation of the 
South Reading Branch Railroad, April 26, 1848, with one end in 
Peabody, and the other in Wakefield. And a very curious road it 
proved to be. Perhaps in no other instance in New England have 
there ever been such singular features of railroad policy exhibited ; 
for, not very long after, arose a long and bitter controversy between 
the two great lines, and competition and rivalry for a great while were 
the animating principles of both Eastern and Maine railroads. For 
some unexplained reason, the South Reading Branch became a 
bone to be picked between them ; and so sharp was their practice 
upon it, that before long each owned nearly one-half the stock. Thus 
each was, in respect of any plans to be realized, completely check- 
mated by the other. This continued for a period not now definable ; 
and the bystanders observed, with no little amusement, that while, 
under such an armed neutrality, the two were willing to run the road 
together, yet neither would allow an employee to ride free over it, 
and both the presidents, in such cases, had to pay fare like common 

In fact, neither road could afford to quarrel over this little accom- 
modation line, which probably never did much more than pay its 
bonds, and sometimes, very likely, not that. The Eastern soon after- 
wards purchased the majority of the stock, and thereby obtained control 
of the management of the road, which is now operated as the South 
Reading Branch. A very important branch had been brought up, first 
from Gloucester, but afterwards, by extension, from Rockport, and 
running through Manchester, had obtained connection with the main 

line at Beverly. Another, by no means inconsiderable, demanded 
attention in Salisbury, branching off westward to bring the local trade 
of Amesbury Mills. And more, and perhaps more troublesome than 
all, was the famous branch that, with vigorous movement, set out to 
divide the patronage of Lynn, and enter Boston from thence inde- 
pendently, or with slight privilege from the Boston and Maine. 

This was the remarkable Saugus Branch Railroad. It originated in 
the feeling of the people of Saugus, Everett, and Maiden, that their 
local accommodations by rail were disproportionately small. A line was 
therefore devised, to start from a point near the famous old stage- 
house. Breed's Hotel, in Lynn, to run to East Saugus, the Centre 
Village, Sweetser's Corners (then first named Cliftondale), and the 
Franklin Park Trotting Ground ; then entering and passing through 
Maiden, and tapping the Boston and Maine road at the Edgcworth Fac- 
tories, and running into Boston over their track. The best efforts of 
such men as Benjamin F. Newhall, of Saugus, Joshua Webster, of Mel- 
rose, and Charles Porter, of Maiden, were given to it, and it was 
finally built. The cars began to run to Boston, February 1, 1853, 
Andrews Breed, of Lynn, being superintendent. After a short period 
of activity, the company found themselves involved in several expen- 
sive suits for land damage, while a serious accident at the Cottage- 
Strcet crossing, by which Dr. Abram Gould was nearly killed, plunged 
them yet more in costly litigation. This gave opportunity to the 
Eastern to absorb the declining shares, and after a time, through the 
alleged defection of Edward Crane, to obtain such a quantity of the 
stock as gave them control of the road. It was, not long after, for- 
mally turned over to the Eastern, which built two short sections from its 
termini to their own track, adding a station at Everett. Since then, a 
portion of the trains of the Eastern road have been regularly run 
over the Saugus Branch, which has thus acquired all the conse- 
quence and usefulness it could have procured for itself otherwise. Its 
long and crooked route has gained it the popular name of "Round the 
Horn," and its fifteen way stations between Lynu and Boston give 
great accommodation to the country, but marked annoyance to every 
"through " passenger who happens to get this trip incorporated into 
his journey. 

Two other branches of considerable importance have been welded 
to the main line of the Eastern at periods later than the above. One 
of these is known as the Swampscott Branch. The strong influence 
of the summer residents on the Swampscott and Marblehead shore 
was secured, and the road was built, and opened for public use Oct. 
21, 1873. The other, diverging from the main line at the Wenham 
Station, passes eastward, and carries its blessings to the before un- 
visited town of Essex. It was not generally welcomed there : as one 
of the citizens remarked to a stranger, "Yes, the road has got here: 
we've fought it off for thirty years, butit has come after all, and I 
suppose it will stay." 

Some years after the absorption of the Saugus Branch, the Boston 
Land Company undertook the marketing of extensive and vacant tracts 
in East Boston, Winthrop, and Revere. For their full facility of work- 
ing, a ferry was necessary to reach the Boston side ; and this once 
settled, a communication with towns to the east was seen to be a 
most obvious and natural auxiliary. After much deliberation, there- 
fore, and much probing of Lynn to find what assistance could be there 
secured, a "narrow-gauge road" was determined on, and was 
rapidly built along a line nearer the shore than it had been supposed 
possible to construct one. A tunnel was necessary at East Boston, 
and a trestle-bridge over Saugus River; but these were built with 
the greatest energy, and the cars of the "little wiggler." as some 
sneeringly called it, began to run between Lynu and Boston July 
29, 1875. Great enthusiasm was felt in Lynn. When the building 
of the road commenced, a large body of old and venerable men 
assembled, led by Perry Newhall and Darius Barry, and under com- 
mand of Col. John Nichols, and marched with music to the marshes, 
where they worked half an hour on the road-bed. The route ran from 



East Boston through Revere, and directly over the extensive and 
attractive beach in the latter town. This had long been a famous 
pleasure resort, but was difficult of access, and the new road proved 
a great convenience to the people. 

It is unnecessary to pursue further the movements and fortunes of 
the steam railroads of Essex County. All the different lines, found 
in operation at the Centennial year, have been described, and this 
fully advances to the condition of the present day our history of the 
means and manners of travel and transportation. 

But there was yet one more thing to be done in the line of passen- 
ger conveyance. The stage-travel of sixty years before had not 
yielded wholly in one direction. That portion of it that lay, as it 
were, inside of the denser communities, had been bequeathed in suc- 
cession to the cab, the omnibus, the hack, and the barge ; and these, 
with greater or less accommodation, and a rate of speed about in 
inverse proportion to their resemblance to their honored ancestry of 
the turnpike. But a forecasting spirit easily perceived, that if to a 
light style of carriage the advantage of the railway could be conjoined, 
an amount of travel could be served, with a given expenditure of force, 
greater than had yet been seen. 

Considerations like these led to the contriving of the horse, or 
street railroads of the most modern day. They had their origin, 
practically, about 1855, which cannot be far from the date of the first 
lines opened in Boston. And as a large and influential class in Lynn 
were all the time kept on the alert by their opposition to the Eastern 
Railroad, so they were not long in seeing that a horse railroad could 
be brought from the capital, through Chelsea and Revere, and prove 
no small or weak regulator of the freaks and follies of the great steam 
corporation. Efforts were immediately begun to obtain a charter, 
but very stout opposition was met, more, probably, than any one had 
looked for. Yet it was at last secured ; and then the opposition shifted 
its ground, and contested the path by the inch. For the charters of 
these roads had included a provision not before employed : that the 
road should not proceed in or through any town till its location had 
been approved by the municipal authorities. And in the present case 
it happened that a line, perhaps intended as a rival, had also been 
prayed for through Maiden and Saugus, and some attempt at a 
mutual understanding had been had during the pendency of the bills, 
both of which were finally passed, that of the Lynn road dating 
April 6, 1859. But these attempts seemed to end in poor success ; 
for no sooner were the two in the field, than the managers of the 
Cliftondale road used such influence in fc'augus, that the selectmen 
there refused a location to the Lynn and Boston road over that part 
of the turnpike within their limits. The others retaliated by a similar 
effort with the town of Revere, by which the Cliftondale line, which 
desired to cross a small corner of the town, was driven to locate round 
it, being thus compelled to build a costly track through an extensive 
swamp, and steer yet wider of all chance of paying neighborhoods. 
Meanwhile, the Lynn road was built close up to the lines of Saugus, 
though with constant opposition from that town; and from that time 
till a conciliation was at last effected, a set of omnibuses stopped the 
gap, and carried the passengers from one waiting car to the other. 
The track was located over the old Salem Turnpike, from a point in 
Chelsea to Lynn Hotel, from thence over the Common to Park Square, 
and so through Market, Broad, and Lewis streets, to a termiuus at the 
foot of Ocean Street. The turnpike had to be somewhat widened for 
the purpose ; and altogether offered so many unpleasant features to 
the case, that it was claimed, and almost admitted, that only the por- 
tion inside the city of Lynn would ever pay ; yet this proved to be an 
illusion. The passage to Boston was of a kind quite welcome to a 
large class ; and patronage to. the whole road was found to take very 
encouraging proportions. The first regular cars ran on June 1, 1861 ; 
Isaac Stebbins, Esq., of Chelsea, being president of the road, which 
had been built under the care of Charles Porter, of Maiden. The 
Cliftondale road, its natural and iuborn autagonist, struggled with 

adverse fortune for a few years ; but nothing seemed to be in its favor, 
and at length it ceased its trips altogether. After a time, the Lynn 
road was made sensible of many and urgent applications from the 
north-eastern sections of the city for a branch accommodation, to cover 
the lines of communication so well occupied by coaches of all descrip- 
tions. The company did not show itself over-anxious to respond to 
such calls; yet after a time, a branch was indeed located and built 
through Union and Chestnut streets from Central Square, and a one- 
horse car set to run upon it. This, though well so far, was only 
such a concession as stimulated the feelings of the Woodend people 
still further ; and before long, the formation of a new company was 
announced, under a charter dated April 19, 1873, and granted to 
M. V. B. Mower and others. They proceeded to locate and build 
from the branch terminus, at the old " Wood Corner," through Essex, 
Chatham, and Maple streets, to the church at Gravesend. Arrange- 
ments were also made for the use of the branch track in Union Street, 
and the main one in Market Street ; and the Lynn and Boston 
cars were withdrawn, and the "Lynn City Street Railway " began 
operations with commendable vigor. They soon carried an additional 
track to the boundary line of Swampscott, and continued to prosecute 
their business with good fortune and success. 

AVe have dwelt somewhat at length upon the circumstances at- 
tending the commencement of this horse railroad, partly for the sake 
of exhibiting a good example of the general fortune of these enter- 
prises, and partly because this was the special case of their first intro- 
duction into Essex County. For the other corporations of like sort, 
successively established in other sections, a less detailed account 
must be held sufficient. In 18(32, an Act of incorporation was ob- 
tained, and a horse railroad built from Salem to South Danvers, now 
Peabody, and the first car to the latter town was run July 8, of the 
following year. Immediately the road was extended to Beverly, and 
was opened October 28, 1863. A branch was built to South Salem 
(Ward V. of the city), in the following year, and was opened May 
10; a branch to North Salem (Ward VI.), in 1869, and opened 
June 4 of that year. An extension to Salem Neck and " the Willows," 
a pleasure resort, about a mile and a half from the heart of the city, 
was opened for travel June 10, 1877. The entire road is now 
operated by the Naumkeag Street Railway Company, which was 
incorporated in 1875, and assumed the lease of the Salem Street 
Railway, March 1, of that year. The capital stock of the Naumkeag 
is $70,000, and of the Salem $150,000. A. C. Goodell is president, 
and Dr. William Mack, treasurer of the leasing corporation. 

The "Merrimac Valley Horse Railroad" was chartered in 1863, 
with a renewal obtained in 1866. The company organized with 
William A. Russell, president, and James H. Eaton, treasurer, and 
these have never been displaced. The road was first built from 
Lawrence to Methueu, and opened for travel in 1867. Then an 
extension in the other direction became necessary, and the road was 
carried through to North Andover in 1868. Durins; the next eight 
years, the steady growth of population and business on the south side 
of the river came at last to the making of an urgent call for an exten- 
sion in that direction. This was finally made in 1876. The road has 
since been running all these routes, mostly with half-hour trips ; and 
though subject to much cost in their construction, has paid all indebt- 
edness, and at length become able to divide profits with the share- 

Three other roads exist on the Merrimac, of which, however, we 
can only give brief descriptions. The "Newburyport and Ames- 
bury Horse Railroad Company" obtained a charter February 29, 
1864, issued to Col. Eben. F. Stone, of Newburyport, and others. 
Authority was given for locations in Newburyport, Salisbury, and 
Amesbury, according to local permission ; this has thus far only 
been applied to a route crossing the river from the first-named place, 
and thus reaching the villages of Salisbury Point and Amesbury Mills. 
The line of this road can hardly be surpassed for beauty and general 



charm of scenery, running as it does a part of the distance by the 
Newburyport ship-yards, and along the banks of the Merrimac. aud 
then crossing it over the Chain Bridge into the little manufacturing 
towns on the north side of the river. 

Next we have the "Merrimac Street Railway Company," incorporated 
June 3, 1870. The corporators in this case were Franklin Brickett 
and others, having leave to build, as might be located, in Haverhill, 
Groveland, aud Bradford. This road, which really passes through 
portions of all these towns, has also a remarkably choice and lovely 
surrounding, as, indeed, almost any route must have, near the fine old 
river of Essex County. 

The last is the "Kenoza Street Railway Company," incorporated 
April 2i, 1873. This gave Alfred Kittredge and others, corporators. 
leave to build from the Boston and Maine Railroad Station, in Haver- 
hill, to the Soldiers' Monument, thence to Kenoza Lake, aud to any 
other point in the city, and not beyond the State line. 

We do not need to note carefully the many scattered and only 
partly successful efforts for the establishment of new and additional 
lines. An important extension has been long debated iu the city of 
Lynn, and will probably be realized before long. So of others in all 
the denser municipalities. We have discussed, with some care and 
much sincere research, the progress and development of travel and 
transportation in the count}-. We have shown how, from the ancient 
settler, paddling his canoe on the Ipswich or Merrimac river, to carry 
his wife, or bring home his corn or pumpkins, to the horse-car, shoot- 
ing along with its load of fifty, or the steam-train, with its load of 
three hundred — how in this wonderful change there is shown the 
mental and social development of a great, broad, and advancing people, 
and iu a clearer and more convincing light than perhaps iu any other 
phase of their civilization. For so we must regard it ; and if one shall 
ask if yet there may not be further advance, — as great as this, that 
condenses Eudicott's two days' travel into less than an hour, — we will 
only answer, that as Eudicott foresaw nothing of the kind in his day, 
so now, no more can we. 



Our historical sketch of Essex County will not have full or sym- 
metrical perfection, without some remark being devoted to the growth 
and welfare of those public institutions here located, that have a 
breadth of purpose and a scope of working beyond the limit of any 
single township or community. 

The first of these broad, public organizations, is seen in the 

Essex Agricultural Society, — an institution which, as says its elo- 
quent historiographer, Dr. George B. Loring, in his address of 1868, 
has been " identified with almost every active movement for the 
advancement of Essex County for the last fifty years." 

The origin of the Essex Agricultural Society was, primarily, in the 
mind of that truly great man, Timothy Pickering. He had been 
deeply engaged in all the proceedings that led, through the Revolu- 
tion, to the establishment of American liberty. He came to the day 
of his country's deliverance, with a keen sense of her need iu all 
things belonging to the development of her resources, and the utiliza- 
tion of her products : and he wisely judged that no stronger agency 
could be appealed to for an improving influence in these directions, 
than that of association, and of joint exertion in each locality for itself. 
He would, therefore, see the first class of all, the farmers, and those 
of his own county, combined together in one solidified effort for the 
best advancement, improvement, and elevation of American agriculture. 

Filled with this idea, the spirit of Pickering moved upon the hearts 
of those within his counsel, aud the result of his advice and his admo- 
nition was, that on a day, namely, Feb. 16, 1818, there came 
together at the tavern of Cyrus Cummings, in Topsfield, the old 
central town, then in the glory of her stage-coach celebrity, "a 
meeting of farmers and others, inhabitants of the county of Essex," 
intent on forming a society for the promotion of such objects as those 
above indicated. Ichabod Tucker and David Cummings, both of 
Salem, were made moderator and secretary, aud iu the permauent 
organization that immediately succeeded, Col. Timothy Pickering 
became president, aud thus the visible, as he already was the poten- 
tial, head of the new institution, and the man who, of all others, 
would, for the love of it, give himself to the labor and the care that 
all its interests demanded. Several vice-presidents were set iu his 
company : William Bartlett, of Newburyport, Thomas Kittredge, of 
Andover, John Heard, of Ipswich, and Ichabod Tucker, of Salem. 
Leverett Saltoustall, of Salem, was made corresponding secretary, and 
David Cummings remained in charge of the records, while Neherniah 
Cleveland, of Topsfield, became the first treasurer. 

Launched in this style on the sea of exertion and of usefulness, the 
society immediately received from all parts of the county the most 
encoura<rinir evidences of £ood feeling and assistance. Public exhibi- 
tions were not at once projected ; for it seemed as if the members 
desired first to know themselves fully, before attemptiug any official 
acquaintance with the public. Thus, the president gave an address 
before them. May 5, 1818; and again, Feb. 21, 1820, he spoke 
before them, according to a vote of the trustees. But the next 
autumn, Oct. 5, 1820, they undertook a veritable "Cattle Show," and 
canied it out with so good and well considered a plan, that it has 
never been found necessary to alter or amend it. This show was 
held (as where else should it have been) iu the same old, time-hon- 
ored town of Topsfield. A prudent affair it was, too; offering no 
premiums outride the line of strict agriculture, nor making these so 
large as to excite cupidity or stimulate corrupt effort. The whole 
amount offered in premiums was only $182, divided among four 
classes of competitors: 1. Working oxen aud ueat live-stock. 2. 
Fat oxen and swine. 3. Indian corn and potatoes. 4. Manures. 
But we shall be glad to notice that while the entries were no doubt 
somewhat numerous, and widely distributed, prizes were actually 
taken in Newburyport, Ipswich, Salem, Middleton, Saugus, Newbury, 
Danvers, Marblehead, Beverly, and Byfield Parish. The address on 
this occasion was delivered by Dr. Andrew Nichols, of Danvers. 

This was the model marked out then and only very slightly varied 
from since. The list of classes has, indeed, been materially enlarged ; 
but the principles on which the awards have been made, and the 
avowed relation of the institution to the public and its interests, have 
uever changed at all. The dairy and forest trees were first put into 
the competitiou iu 1821 ; domestic manufactures in 1822, thus enlist- 
ing the sympathy and co-operation of the women of the community ; 
while horses were not thought best to be admitted till 1832. Three 
prizes were set before them that year, of $20, $15, and $10; and the 
first one taken was by an " iron-gray colt, three years old, of John O. 
W. Brown, of Newbury.'' 

The influence of this society and its proceedings on the farming 
industries of the county, from that time to this, cannot but have been 
powerful and beneficent. The talent of almost the best brain in the 
county — as good as any, certainly — has been constantly engaged in 
its active forces, and in commending and demonstrating the worth of 
those forces to the people. Among its presidents we find, constantly, 
such men as Leverett Saltoustall, James H. Duncan, John W. Proctor, 
Allen W. Dodge, Joseph How, and William Sutton ; among its sec- 
retaries and other officers, such as Daniel P. King, Daniel A. White, 
Benjamin Merrill, Andrew Nichols, Joseph Story. Henry Column, 
George B. Loring, and Francis Peabody. The greatest and best 
of the couuty have never stood aloof, but seem always to have felt 



that if this field contained any duty suitable for them to do, it was 
nothing short of an honor to them to be allowed to do it. 

Certain peculiarities have always appeared in the policy and man- 
agement of this society. Unlike almost every other of its kind, it 
has never admitted, at its exhibitions, any trial or show of the speed 
of horses. No trotting or racing has ever been considered at all, nor 
at all allowed. Horses have been shown for breed, and for beauty, 
but never for speed. This has not been adhered to without some 
contests, for the lovers of the race have felt no little regret at being 
debarred in Essex, from what they enjoyed so freely in other counties. 
But the wisdom of the course thus far insisted on, has appeared in 
several good results : notably in this, that the funds of the society 
have been enabled to accumulate to a comfortable capital, under which 
they need not fear to attack any high and worthy enterprise proposed 
for the good of agriculture ; while it is quite as sure, that of the other 
societies that have gone into the business of the turf as part of their 
policy, not one can be found that is not now heavily involved, to say 
nothing of having no margin for useful operations. 

The singular fidelity of this society to its county and its general 
advancement is also seen in the circumstance, that out of the fifty- 
nine successive orators who have stood before the members on exhibi- 
tion day, to instruct or to encourage them, not one has been called 
from any point outside the county. Every one has resided in Essex, 
and the greater part have been native to her soil. And to-day not a 
boy in any of her high schools but may feel that whatever other for- 
tune may betide him in the future, he may at least hold this as his 
birthright, that by even chance it may come to his turn finally, to sit 
with the farmers of Essex, at their harvest festival, and stand before 
them as the orator of truth, of hope, and of a pure and lofty ambition. 

To some extent, this society has to face the danger of a possible 
separation into northern and southern portions. Many, no doubt, 
would favor such a division to-day ; but good reasons have thus far 
been found, sufficient to influence the majority to keep the venerable 
framework unbroken in its excellence. It is unquestionably true, that 
even in our dense community, the movement of a large agricultural 
material across the breadth of the country, is often troublesome; but 
it ma} r always be prudently inquired whether, in case of division, a 
worthy exhibit would be seen on cither side, and whether the real use- 
fulness of the institution would not be practically gone. 

With these thoughts we leave this excellent foundation of the 
fathers, on which the sons so" well are building. Through a long day 
of usefulness and honor, it has indeed been guided to the present ; 
and no good citizen can fail to trust, that, through a day yet longer 
and more blessed, — a day far reaching under the skies of the future, — 
it may continue to be borne forward, full of symmetrical beauty, full 
of the praise that comes by noble and worthy effort, full of the high 
esteem and affection of all who stand by the way, and are witnesses 
of its jjoinffs. 

By a chance not often to be enjoyed, we are able, legitimately, to 
grasp at once quite a number of the institutions of the county in a 
single history, and present a satisfactory showing of their own origin 
and progress, while we proceed to sketch that of the 

Essex Institute. — After the death of the Rev. William Bentley,D.D., 
of Salem, in December, 1819, it was found that he had, for forty 
years, continued to collect and store up documents and material of 
historical information relating to this part of New England. Mr. 
George A. Ward, of Salem, with some others, conceived the idea of 
saving this material by the means of an association ; and Dr. Bentley's 
executor appearing to favor such a plan, a society was formed April 
21, 1821, which took the name of the Essex Historical Society, with 
Dr. E. A. Holyoke, of Salem, as its first president. Measures were 
soon taken to procure incorporation. Twenty-six prominent citizens 
of Salem signed the petition, with the venerable Dr. Edward Augustus 
Holyoke at the head ; and an Act was passed in response, approved 
June 11, 1821, incorporating Dr. Holyoke and his associates under 

the above society name. On the definite organization under this 
charter, Dr. Holyoke became president, and the annual meeting was 
fixed on the date of Endicott's first landing at Salem. The applica- 
tion for the charge of the Bentley papers having now been made, met 
with disappointment ; for the executor, under some influence not 
favorable to the new organization, listened rather to different voices, 
and the papers were distributed elsewhere. But the society was not 
dismayed, but began to develop as a thing of much energy. They 
went on collecting documents, manuscripts, and data of all kinds bear- 
ing on local history, having first their storehouse in Essex Place, then 
in the Salem Bank Building, and again in Lawrence Place. Mean- 
while they signalized their being and their objects by an occasion of 
very rare interest. In September, 1828, occurred the two hundredth 
anniversary of the landing of Endicott. Arrangements were exten- 
sively made, and on the 18th of that month the day was grandly 
celebrated by the society, with a procession with military escort, cere- 
monies at the North Church, and a banquet at Hamilton Hall. The 
Hon. Joseph Story pronounced an oration on the occasion, and the 
attendance was noticed of many strangers, and some of the first dis- 
tinction in the land. 

At a date a few years later than the above, there arose in Salem a 
strong feeling in favor of the more definite and organized study of 
natural history. This, at length, culminated on Saturday, December 
14, 1833, when, at a meeting of those favorably inclined, there was 
first formed the 

Essex County JYaiural History Society. — Dr. Andrew Nichols, of 
Dan vers, was made president, and Mr. John M. Ives, of Salem, secretary, 
a constitution adopted, and a circular, appealing to public sympathy, 
ordered for circulation. The next spring, April 16, 1834, they met 
in Topsfield, to complete the working organization, when an interesting 
occasion was had, specimens being freely exhibited, with apparatus, 
&c. Dr. Andrew Nichols, Mr. William Oakes, of Ipswich, the Rev. 
John L. Russell, of Salem, and many others contributed to the interest 
of the day. Before long, the advantages of incorporation were seen, 
and an Act for this purpose was procured, being approved Feb. 12, 
1836. It provided for a capital of $10,000 real, and $20,000 per- 
sonal, property. The activity of the society was good, and the col- 
lections speedily increased ; being first kept in Essex Place, then in 
Franklin Building, then in Chase's Building, and afterward in Pick- 
man Place. And here, as to a closely correlated branch of study, 
the attention of the society became drawn to the delights of horticult- 
ure ; and this led, very soon, to the arrangement of a public exhibition 
of fruits and flowers, which was held July 11, 1834, and these ex- 
hibitions were continued weekly during the summer seasons, for many 
years afterwards. The first general exhibition, which continued for 
several days, occurred on Tuesday and Wednesday, September 14 
and 15, 1841. 

Soon after this, the society began the editing and printing of some 
of its more extended essays and discourses, making the "Journal of 
the Essex County Natural History Society." One volume only was 
issued, in three numbers, dating in 1836, 1838, and 1841. These 
contain valuable matter from John L. Russell, Henry Wheatland, 
William Prescott, Andrew Nichols, and Thaddeus W. Harris ; and 
lectures and other allied efforts were continually made. It had fre- 
quently been suggested that the Essex Historical Society, which had a 
collection of books, portraits, and other relics, could as well perform 
its legitimate work, united with the Natural History Society. The 
thought pleased both sides. It was studied carefully through 1847, 
a joint committee appointed, and their report concurrently accepted, 
Jan. 14, 1848. A new incorporation, approved Feb. 11, 1848, was 
accepted as a basis, March 1, 1848, and the constitution being pre- 
pared and adopted March 8, 1848, the result was the definite formation 
of the society first named, the Essex Institute. 

We have not space for a history of the various activities and pro- 
ceedings of this organization during the thirty years since the above 



commencement. They are sufficient to fill a volume. It must here 
suffice to say. that, under the existing constitution, the society has its 
operations in four departments : viz., those of history, natural history, 
horticulture, and fine arts. The president is one; but a special vice- 
president is assigned to each department, and there are under each of 
these as many curators as the department is found to require for its 
wood and successful conduct. The method of the whole is exhibited : 

1. In a Museum, comprising all collections of history or science. 

2. In a Library, embracing not only books, but manuscript documents 
and newspapers. 3. In Meetings, which are either regular meeti 

on one or two fixed evenings per month, or " field meetings," held in the 
summer, at times and places appointed. 4. Iu Lectures, which are 
arranged from time to time, by courses or otherwise. 5. In Publica- 
tions, of which there are a large list, priced and for sale, touching 
almost every topic of science or histoiy, and by some of the best 
authors of the region. 

The library has grown to proportions of mngnificence. At the for- 
mation of the Institute it contained about 1,500 volumes ; but, by the 
statement of the society in 1872. it had then gone up to more than 
27,000 bound volumes, and 100,000 pamphlets, not reckoning dupli- 
cates. The museum has many antiquities, coins, medals, paintings and 
ensravinsrs, all assigned to history and art. The scientific collections 
were, in May, 1867, deposited with the Peabody Academy of Science, 
and then contained over 125,000 specimens. 

A wealthy lady of Salem, Miss Caroline Plummcr, having lost a 
beloved brother, bequeathed, at her death, $30,000 to the Salem 
Athenamm, to erect a memorial building to his honor, to be used for 
meetings of literature and science, and the deposit of works of art 
and productions of nature. The Es>ex Institute secured accom- 
modations, under this arrangement, in the very fine building which 
was dedicated Oct. 6, 1857, and bears the title of Plummer Hall. 
Here is arranged its library and various collections, except those of 
natural history, which are deposited with the trustees of the Peabody 
Academy of Science, in the East India Marine Hall ; and here are car- 
ried on ail the other operations of the Institute. The membership is 
large, numbeiing about five hundred, both resident and correspond- 
ing, only the first of whom pay clues, and those but three dollars per 
year. These are privileged to read all books in the library, and to con- 
sult freely, on the premises, all those in the library of the Athenamm. 

By a single feature, however, the institute has distinguished itself 
from all other scientific societies, and proved the great liberality and 
democracy of its system. This feature is what we have already 
alluded to as the field meeting. This is the special channel through 
which the society itself approaches the general people. It is, more- 
over, the readiest of all vehicles by which it brings the truths and 
charms of science to popular notice and common comprehension. 
And to pass at once to a clearer statement, a field meeting is an 
occasion managed on this wise. A locality is pitched upon, almost 
always within the county, rarely beyond, near which are known or 
supposed to be more or less objects of scientific or historical inter- 
est. Proximity of railroad carriage is always desired. Public notice 
is given, and the people, without distinction, are informed that who- 
ever uses the railroad to attend the meeting, can return over the same 
route frc-e. Sometimes a ticket with a coupon is sold at the usual 
price, the coupon being used to return with. Often large companies 
of people thus assemble, bringing whatever of apparatus they please, 
as well as their baskets of satisfactory provision. Arriving, explor- 
ing and excursion parties are made up, guides being generally in 
attendance, and the forenoon is spent in rambling in all directions in 
search of facts and specimens. Rendezvous is ordered to be at about 
1.30, p. M. : aud wheu all come in, the baskets are put into common 
stock, a picnic table spread, aud a choice entertainment usually suc- 
ceeds. This may be in some large room, or iu a shady bit of woods, 
or wherever else seems fit. After this, iu a larger hall, or in the 
village church or vestry, or possibly in the same cool srove, a formal 

meeting is called to order, the president of the day, after a brief 
introductory, calls up such speakers as may be in attendance, whether 
townsmen of the place, members of the institute, straugers from a 
distance, or whoever they may be, so as to secure the greatest amount 
of instructive and agreeable entertainment. The afternoon is thus 
spent, and every one reaches home in good season. 

Iu this delightful way, nearly, if not every town in Essex Count}-, 
has been visited and examined, and many of them again aud again. 
The company is always of the best and most intelligent ; both sexes 
attend, young and old. Professors aud teachers are glad to lend a 
day and a five-minute discourse : clergymen open their churches, 
selectmen their halls, well pleased to do it many times. Railroad 
companies grant extra trains cheerfully ; for they say the cars never 
come back dirty. And thus science and history have been, for thirty 
years, with small interruption, carried here and there, in popular 
style, to every village and town, giving the old and feeble, the school- 
children and the farm-hands, opportunities to hear and learn the prin- 
ciples and truths of science, in manner aud degree as was never done 
before, or elsewhere. 

This must answer for an outline of the history and character of the 
E--ex Institute. A more peculiar institution it would be hard to find : 
to discover one more free from faults and better calculated for popular 
usefulness, might be impossible. Bright names arc recorded on its 
calendar : Daniel A. White, Asahcl Huntington, Francis Peabody, and 
Henry Wheatland as presidents ; aud, in other capacities, John G. 
King, Johu Lewis Russell, John Fisk Allen, John C. Lee, Alpheus 
Crosby. John M. Ives, Benjamin F. Mudge, Allen W. Dodge, Jacob 
Batchelder, Robert Manning. The world knows these names. And 
these, and other such, have thus labored together for almost half a 
century to bring sound instruction to the people, and have had the 
satisfaction of seeing the people awaken responsively, aud give 
pleasing heed to what they chose to say. And such is the Essex 
Institute, and such its usefulness and its honors. 

In the Peabody Academy of Science, located at Salem, Essex County 
has a substantial remembrance of the wise liberality of the late George 
Peabody, the famed London banker and philanthropist. Under date 
of February 26, 1867, Mr. Peabody addressed to Francis Peabody, 
Esq., of Sakm, Prof. Asa Gray, of Cambridge, the Hon. William C. 
Endicott and George Peabody Russell, Esq., of Salem, Prof. Othniel 
C. Marsh, of New Haven, Conn., Dr. Henry Wheatland and Abner 
C. Goodell, Jr., Esq., of Salem, Dr. James R. Nichols, of Haverhill, 
aud Dr. Henry C. Perkins, of Newburyport, a letter, inclosing an 
instrument of trust, naming them as trustees of a fund of $140,000, 
"for the promotion of science and useful knowledge in the county of 
Essex." After naming the trustees and the amount given, the letter 
read as follows: "Of this, my native county, I have always been 
justly proud, in common with all her sons, remembering her ancient 
reputation, her many illustrious statesmen, jurists, and men of science, 
her distinguished record from the earliest days of our country's histjry, 
and the distinction so loug retained by her as eminent in the education 
and morality of her citizens. I am desirous of assisting to perpetuate 
her good name through future generations, and of aiding, through her 
means, in the difl'usion of science and knowledge ; aud after consultation 
with some of her most eminent and worthy citizens, and encouraged 
by the success which has already attended the efforts and researches 
of the distinguished scientific association of which your chairman is 
president,* and with which most of you are counected, lam led to hope 
that this eift may be instrumental in attaining the desired end. I 
therefore transmit to you the enclosed instrument, and a check for the 
amount therein named, one hundred and forty thousand dollars, with 
the hope that this trust, as administered by you and your successors, 
may tend to advancement iu intelligence and virtue, not only in our 
good old county of Essex, but iu our Commonwealth and in our 

* Essex Institute. 



common country." According to the instrument of trust, $40,000 was 
applied to the purchase of the East India Marine Hall in Salem, con- 
taining the extensive and valuable museum of that society, and of land 
under and adjoining that building. The $100,000 forms a permanent 
fund. Arrangements were soon made for the transfer of the collections 
of the East India Marine Society, and the natural history collection of the 
Essex Institute, to the charge of the trustees of the Peabody Academy 
of Science ; and these two valuable museums were combined in one, 
and re-arranged in the hall of the East India Marine Society, which had 
been refitted for the purpose. An Act of incorporation was granted to 
the Peabody Academy by the State Legislature, April 13, 1868. 
Prof. F. W. Putnam was elected director of the museum; and asso- 
ciated with him in the great work of re-arranging and properly classify- 
ing the collections, Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., Prof. Aipheus Hyatt, 
Prof. Edward S. Morse, and Mr. Caleb Cooke, all curators in the 
natural history department of the Essex Institute. 

From the organization of the academy, its work has been steadily 
progressive. From 1868 to 1876, the "American Naturalist," a 
monthly magazine, devoted to science and natural history, was pub- 
lished under the auspices of the Peabody Academy. It has since been 
transferred to a Philadelphia publishing house. The museum has been 
open free to the public six days in each week, thousands visiting it 
each year. No better general collection exists in the county ; and in 
some departments, it is unrivalled. During the last two seasons, a 
"Summer School of Biology," under the direction of Dr. A. S. 
Packard, Jr., and assisted by a corps of scientific gentlemen, including 
Mr. James II. Emerton, Mr. John Robinson, the Rev. E. C. Bolles, 
and Mr. Caleb Cooke, has furnished to students in natural history 
valuable facilities for the conduct of their studies. 

Essex County Teachers' Association. — In latter years, the profession 
of the public teacher has come to be a thing much more pronounced 
and distinct than formerly ; and out of this has gradually arisen the 
desire for self-improvement and self-protection among such, as a class. 
Such feelings induced a meeting of about three hundred teachers and 
friends of education, at Topsfield (where every liberal and intelligent 
effort of similar kind in the county is almost sure to have begun), 
June 23, 1830; which meeting discussed the subject, and raised a 
committee to further consider and report at a future assembly. 

The meeting re-assembled at the same place, December 3, 1830, 
and made a complete organization, besides listening to several interest- 
ing lectures. Since then, semi-annual meetings have been regularly 
held, from place to place, though for the first eight years the society 
did not remove from Topsfield. Persons of high esteem in the county 
gave sympathy and assistance to this effort, as well as some of the 
most prominent and celebrated of the instructors. Of the former, 
may be mentioned the Rev. Gardner B. Perry, of Groveland, David 
Choatc, Esq., of Essex, and Dr. Xehemiah Cleveland, of Newbury; 
among the latter, Benjamin Grecnleaf and Oliver Carlton, and, in a 
later day, Aipheus Crosby and Timothy G. Senter. 

The primary object of these associations (for they have been copied 
into all the counties) is understood to be the improvement of the ait 
of teaching by the consideration of all new helps applicable thereto, 
and the mental improvement of the members themselves, as the great- 
est of all contributions to this same end. This association, like most 
of the others, enjoys the patronage of the State, granted under the 
statute of 1848 ; which provides that any county teachers' association, 
formed for the improvement of common schools, which shall hold 
semi-annual meetings of at least two days each, may receive fifty 
dollars per year from the State. For the importance of such asso- 
ciations, and their good effect on the general welfare, seem admitted 
by all the community ; and among them all, it seems that the asso- 
ciation of Essex holds an honored place. 

Several religious associations exist in the county, devoted to the 
interests of different denominations. That connected with the Ortho- 
dox Congregational faith is operated in two memberships, called the 

Essex North and Essex South societies. We have not space to elab- 
orate their special histories, which would, after all, rather interest the 
denominational than the general reader. We are, however, permitted 
to say that the Rev. S. J. Spaulding, of Newburyport, and the Rev. 
E. S. Atwood, of Salem, are respectively possessed of full information 
touching these organizations, and may properly be addressed in regard 
to them. 

The Essex County Unitarian Conference fulfils a similar service for 
the churches of that denomination through the county. It is of 
considerably later origin than the preceding. 

Hie Essex Congregational Club, embracing in its membership 
prominent ministers and laymen, in the Trinitarian Congregational 
churches of Essex County, had its origin in the meeting of the 
"American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions," which 
was held in Salem in 1871. The arrangements for that meeting were 
in the hands of a committee from various towns and cities in the 
county. After the session of the "Board," the committee assembled 
for a social evening; and at that meeting a committee was chosen to 
take measures for the formation of an Essex County Congregational 
Club, in order, in the words of the resolution, "to perpetuate the 
pleasant intimacies formed, and to promote better acquaintance among 
the churches of the vicinity." For various reasons no further steps 
were taken until Nov. 12, 1872, when a meeting of representative 
Congregationalists was held in the South Chapel, Salem, all prelimi- 
naries arranged, and a constitution drafted. The first regular meeting 
was held in the Grand Army Hall, in Central Street, Salem, Jau. 6, 
1873. The constitution adopted, was, with two or three slight altera- 
tions, the same as that of the "Boston Congregational Club," which 
was organized in 1869, and was the pioneer association of the kind in 
the United States. The exercises of the club are a supper, a brief 
social meeting, and a formal session, at which carefully prepared 
essays on practical topics are read, and the reading is followed by a 
general discussion. Although the club is organized on a denomina- 
tional basis, it is widely catholic in its spirit, and from time to time 
the presence and utterances of men of all varieties of religious faith 
have been welcomed. The representatives of the local and metropoli- 
tan journals are uniformly present ; and the public press has given 
wide currency to papers that were considered of special importance. 
Its growth in strength and usefulness, and its extended reputation, 
entitle it to be ranked as one of the institutions of Essex County, and 
an institution that exerts no small influence for good over the relig- 
ious communions that are represented in it. It holds six meetings a 
year, usually on the second Monday of alternate months. 

The Salem Baptist Association was formed in 1826, and was then 
composed of nineteen churches, made up of 2,178 members. Its first 
session was held at Lynn in 1828. It now includes twenty-four 
churches, composed of about 4,500 members. In the year ending 
October, 1877, the sum of $67,257 was collected. 

The Salem Pastoral Union is an organization of thirty-five years' 
standing, and is intimately connected with the Salem Baptist Associa- 
tion, its members consisting of pastors of the churches composing that 

The Essex North District Medical Society was organized Nov. 3d, 
1841. At a preliminary meeting held September first, at the Merri- 
mac Academy, Bradford, Dr. Dean Robinson, of West Newbury, pre- 
siding, it was resolved that application be made to the counsellors of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, to form the fellows of that society 
residing in the following towns, viz., Andover, Amesbury, Bradford, 
Boxford, Georgetown, Haverhill, Lawrence, Methuen, Newburyport, 
Newbury, West Newbury, 'Rowley, and Salisbury, into an association, 
to be entitled the Essex North District Medical Society. The 
request having been granted, the society was organized at a sub- 
sequent meeting, as above stated. Dr. Jonathan G. Johnson, of 
Newburyport, was chosen its first president; Dr. Rufus Longley, of 
Haverhill, vice-president; Dr. F. V. Noyes, of Newburyport, secre- 



tary ; Dr. Isaac Boyd, of West Newbury, treasurer ; and Dr. J. 
Spofford, Grovcland, librarian. 

Among the earlier presidents of the society, after Dr. Johnson, 
were Drs. Longley, George Cogswell, Bradford; H. C. Perkins and 
Enoch Cross, Newburyport ; and J. Spofford, Groveland. Dr. Isaac 
Branian, Georgetown, succeeded Dr. Noyes as secretary, serving until 
July 11, 1843, when he removed from the district. Dr. Martin 
Boot, By field, was chosen his successor, and continued to hold the 
office by annual re-election, until his declination, May, 1*74. His 
service extended over a period of thirty-one years. 

Eight counsellors are annually chosen, who, in connection with those 
appointed by the other district societies in the State, constitute the 
board of counsellors which conducts the affairs of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. 

Five censors are also elected annually, whose duty it is to examine 
all applicants for admission, as to credentials, character, and profes- 
sional qualifications. This examination must be satisfactory to at 
least three of the censors. 

Mated meetings are held quarterly. The annual meeting at Haver- 
hill on the first Wednesday in May, and other meetings in August, No- 
vember, and February, at such places as may be determined. The 
society numbers, at present, about sixty members. 

The officers for the current year, are president, Dr. W. II. Kimball, 
Andover ; vice-presideut, Dr. J. Crowell, Haverhill: secretary and 
treasurer, Dr. G. W. Snow, Newburyport; librarian, Dr. S. Drink- 
water, Haverhill. 

Essex South District Medical Society. — Of the seventeen district 
societies that form the venerable Massachusetts Medical Society, this 
is one of the oldest. It was organized on the 4th of November, 1805, 
by ten physicians who met in the Sun Tavern, Salem. Dr. Edward 
A. Holyoke, of Salem, who died in 1829, in his hundred and first 
year, was elected president, and Dr. John D. Treadwell, of Salem, 

This society was formed for the benefit of medical men living in 
Beverly, Danvers, Gloucester, Hamilton, Ipswich, Lynn, Lynnfield, 
Manchester, Marblehead, Salem, Topsfield, and Wenham. The later 
incorporated towns of Essex, Middleton, Peabody, Rockport, and 
Swampscott have been added to the above list. Originally, meetings 
were held quarterly, for many years, in the Sun Tavern, and after- 
wards in the room hired for the library ; but recently they have been 
called every six weeks, at Plummer Hall, Salem, and City Hall, Lynn, 

At these meetings papers are read, clinical cases of interest are 
reported, and questions of medical science and ethics are discussed. 
At present, there are seventy-one members, not all of whom are in the 
active practice of their profession. 

At the first meeting of the society, it was voted to establish a 
library, and the collecting of books was immediately begun. By lib- 
eral donations of money and books from past and living members, 
there is now in the society's room at Plummer Hall, the largest medi- 
cal library in the State, outside of Boston, — with one exception. 

It embraces over two thousand four hundred bound volumes, and 
seven hundred magazines and monographs. Several of these works 
are of great value, it being no longer possible to procure them. None 
but fellows of this district society are entitled to the privileges of the 

Officers for 1878 : — Dr. Amos H. Johnson, of Salem, President; 
Dr. Reuben F. Dearborn, of Lynn, Secretary. 

The Essex County Homozopatlnc Medical Society was organized in 
June, 1872, and has since been in successful continuance. It is 
formed of physicians in regular standing, of the homoeopathic school, 
and now has a membership of fifty-one. Its meetings are held 
monthly, the members being guests of some one of the society. Dis- 
cussions are held ou topics of interest to the profession, an effort 
being made to keep the newest and most importaut developments 

and discoveries before these sessions. This society has attracted 
considerable notice outside its own borders, and is quite as flourish- 
in? as any similar organization in the Commonwealth. 

The Merrimae Valley Dental Association is not an Essex County 
organization, though its roll of membership includes the names of 
several surgeon-dentists of Newburyport, Haverhill, Lawrence, and 
other places on the borders of the Merrimae River. Its members are 
mostly New Hampshire dentists. Occasionally, sessions of this asso- 
ciation, and also of the Massachusetts Dental Society, are held in this 
comity. In the latter, Essex County practitioners have always taken 
a prominent part, and have held high offices. 

The Veteran Odd Fellows? Association of Essex County was organ- 
ized April 10. 1876, and is composed of members of the order, who 
have been such for twenty-five years or over. Its objects are the 
promotion of the principles of Odd Fellowship, and the perpetuation 
of fraternal regard and respect. Its membership is about seventy. 
At the date of organization Thomas Burr, initiated in March, 1828, 
was the oldest member. 

Essex County Courts. — From a very early period indeed there 
was a court held in Essex County, mostly or wholly at Salem, 
called the Court of Quarter Sessions. It was an institution of 
great importance, including within itself many functions besides 
the trials of cases, and such as are now distributed to other offices. 
Much later there was erected ou the foundation of this the court that 
gained more, perhaps, of the affection of the people than any other 
before or since, the Essex Court of Common Pleas. It met at Salem, 
afterwards at Ipswich also, finally at Newburyport and Lawrence as 
well. At its bar were seen engaged the best legal talent that ever 
pleaded in New England ; while its bench was competent to revise 
the opinions of man}- more pretentious tribunals. It was at length set 
aside, like its fellow courts, by the new statute that substituted the 
Superior Court in its place. Sessions of this court are held at New- 
buryport, Salem, and Lawrence. 

The Probate Court of the county is also an ancient and well-worthy 
institution, through whose records there lies spread along much of the 
best history of the region. Its records were formerly kept entirely at 
Ipswich : but when the centeringof all travel fell upon Salem a* its focus, 
the Probate Court was carried thither also. The learned and venerable 
Daniel A. "White presided over it for years, and did a great deal to 
make it an institution bolden very near the popular heart. This char- 
acter is well maintained by his successor, Judge George F. Choate. 
This court has circuit sessions at Lawrence, Haverhill, Newburyport, 
and Gloucester. 

The Essex County Ear has numbered among its members some of 
the foremost jurists and lawyers of the country. The names of Story 
and Choate, and of many other distinguished men in the profession, 
have been enrolled in its lists, men whose brilliant talents and pro- 
found learning gave them a reputation far beyond the limits of the 
county, and made the Essex bar famous in the annals of the profession. 
In the histories of the cities and towns which follow these opening 
chapters, will be found a notice of some of the most prominent among 
its members. 

Botany. — A few words in regard to the Botany of Essex County 
will give fitting termination to this chapter. 

To the botanist, Essex County offers an excellent field for study. In 
a comparatively small area are found the plants peculiar to the vicinity 
of salt water, as well as those of more inland regions, while it also 
seems to be the meeting ground for many northern and southern 
species ; added to these, the waters of the bays contain a large number 
of seaweeds, many of which are quite rare and very beautiful. 

From data furnished by the Peabody Academy of Science, the num- 
ber of species of plants in the county appears as follows : Flowering 
plants, including the Sedges and Grasses, 1.200 ; Ferns and Lycopods, 
50; Mosses and Liverworts, 230; Lichens, 200 ; Alga? (the seaweeds 
only), 150. Total, 1,830. If the 1,100 Fungi, which may probably 



be found, are added, this list will be increased to 2,930 species. Of 
the 1,830 species of plants usually collected, the academy has 1,300 
already in the herbarium, and it is intended to publish, before long, a 
full list of county plants, with many valuable notes upon the intro- 
duced species and rarer forms. Along the cold northern and eastern 
shores of Cape Ann may be found the Pearl wort (Sagina nodosa), 
the White Mountain Potentilla (P. tridentata) , so abundant near the 
summit of Mount Washington and the higher peaks of New England, 
besides other northern plants. In the belt of land extending from 
the Essex and Manchester woods to Georgetown and Andover, are 
many localities very similar to the region at the base ot the White 
Mountains, near the Glen House, or Crawford Notch. 

On the southern side of Cape Ann is the famous locality of the 
Magnolia Glauca, which is not found elsewhere north of New York 
City. Among the lower forms of plants, the Red-snow (Protococcus 
nivalis), so frequently mentioned by Arctic travellers, has been 
detected at Nahant. 

The early settlement and rapid growth of the county have led to the 
introduction of many plants, which have become so thoroughly estab- 
lished that they appear to the eye of the casual observer as native 
species. The Woad- waxen (Genista tincloria), at first thought a 
valuable plant for the dyer, has now sole possession of hundreds of 
acres of land in the region of Danvcrs, Lynn, and Salem. The 
White-weed (Leucanthemum vulgare) has become in its adopted 
soil vastly more prolific than in its native European habitat ; and the 
Barberry (B. vulgaris), is so very much at home along the roadsides 
and in rocky pastures, that few persons realize it to be a plant intro- 
duced from Europe. These serve as illustrations only of the two 
hundred, or perhaps more, adventitious plants, which have made their 
appearance since the first settlement. Whence they came, and for 
what purposes many of them were intentionally introduced, would 
furnish material for some years study and research, the publication of 
which would form a volume of no little interest. 

In 1G29, Higginson, noticing certain plants in the vicinity of 
Salem, mentions the Flowering Raspberry andCherril. The localities 
referred to were carefully investigated some fifty years since by Dr. 
Charles Pickering, and the plants still found to exist, and in 1877 the 
Raspberry still flourished in the same place. Thus we are enabled to 
identify the locality of a certain species for about 250 years, quite as 
long a period as such plants arc traced back in Europe. 

In 1795, the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Hamilton, published in the 
Proceedings of the American Academy some account of the plants of 
New England, which may be considered as the first Essex County 
botanical work. 

About the year 1823, Charles Pickering and William Oakes, then 
young and enthusiastic botanists, were searching the county for rare 
plants. The memoranda then made by the former serve to perpetu- 

ate the flora of localities in many cases now covered by buildings, or 
under cultivation, while the beautifully prepared specimens collected 
by the latter formed the nucleus of the present Essex County Herba- 

Mr. William Oakes was born in Danvers, 1799, afterwards living 
in Ipswich. He died in 1848, and deserves to be remembered as 
Essex County's most eminent botanist. 

Dr. Charles Pickering was born in Pennsylvania in 1805, and died 
in Boston, March, 1878. Being educated at Harvard, he passed 
much time at the residence of his grandfather, Col. Timothy Picker- 
ing, in Wenham. He was naturalist of the Wilkes' U. S. Exploring 
Expedition, and has written many works of great value, prominent 
among which are "The Races of Man," and "The Distribution of 
Animals and Plants.'' Although not a native of the county, yet much 
of his early work was accomplished here, and attachments formed 
which lasted throughout his life, and it is but fair to claim a share of 
the honor due this distinguished botanist. 

The only attempt at an enumeration of the county plants was made 
by Mr. Cyrus M. Tracy, of Lynn, in. his "Essex Flora." The small 
number of species there given (546) is accounted for, as no attempt 
was made to include the lower orders of plants, or to perfect the list 
much beyond the towns in the neighborhood of Lynn. 

So closely do the paths of the botanist and horticulturist follow 
each other, it is not surprising that a region so well known to botan- 
ists should be famous for its horticultural products. 

It is impossible to estimate the effect of the introduction of even the 
" Endicott Pear-Tree," yet it must have called attention to horticult- 
ure almost as soon as the county was settled; and judging by the 
accounts of early writers, the native fruits of the land were among the 
first things to which attention was given. 

Particularly in the older towns, the gardens have been noted for 
their flowers and fruit, and although now no longer able to compete 
with the gardens around Boston, where new land has been placed 
under cultivation, and where the large establishments of the profes- 
sional gardeners centre, as being nearer to a market, yet it can be 
pointed out with pride, that in the pomological garden of the late 
Robert Manning, were once growing two thousand varieties of fruit- 
trees, and that an Essex County man — the late J. Fiske Allen — 
cultivated successfully the great Water-Lily of the Oronoco ( Victoria 
regia), producing the first specimens seen in New England. 

Even if the county can no longer claim pre-eminence in horticult- 
ure, the many local exhibitions, now so common in almost every 
town, prove that there is no falling off in the quality of the fruits dis- 
played, and is suggestive of a healthy change, as indicated by the 
fact that a large number of cultivators are each raising small quanti- 
ties of fruit and flowers, instead of large amounts being produced by 
a few persons. 


This town is one of those resulting from the limitations of the 
patent granted by Plymouth Council to Rose well, March 19, 1G28, 
which originated the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The northern 
line of that patent was located three miles north of Merrimac River, 
and this has always been, constructively, adhered to, though the gen- 
eral trend of the river, ascending from the beaches, is nearer south 
west than otherwise, and the effort to follow the stream with some 
fidelity has broken the line into innumerable zigzags. In anywise, 
the line could thus be carried only as far west as Tyngsborough, where 
the change of the river to an almost meridian course put an end to 
that arrangement. The strip of Massachusetts territory thus indicated, 
was later divided between the counties of Essex and Middlesex, and 
the portion assigned to the former has been distributed into five 
towns, of which the second from the coast forms the present subject. 

The original boundaries of Amesbury are very simple indeed. 
Easterly the line is that of Powow River, which, crossing the whole 
width from New Hampshire, separates it from Salisbury : northerly it 
follows the old patent line, now the boundary of the State, till it 
reaches the summit of Brandy-brow Hill : thence, by a straight line, 
running south-easterly, and dividing it from Haverhill, to a point 
established on the Merrimac River ; thence, by that river, to the 
mouth of Powow River at Salisbury Point. This gives a territory 
differing little from fifteen square miles in area, with an extreme 
length east and west, from Brandy-brow Hill to Salisbury Point, of 
about six and a half miles. From this extent the new town of Merri- 
mac tabes very nearly one-half, leaving the old name hereafter to be 
borne by only the eastern section. 

The formation of this territory, geologically speaking (at least, of 
the eastern part, with which this sketch is more especially concerned), 
is similar to that usually met with in the neighborhood of large rivers. 
An underlying basis of rock, indeed, exists, of that group in the mica- 
slate known as the Merrimac schists, but it quite seldom reaches the 
surface. Its form is often highly contorted, with fine, separable lamina? 
strongly suggesting some of the chloritic series. But from the east- 
ern boundary to the middle of the township, embracing the large area 
known, formerly at least, as the "Pond Plain," outcrops of any kind 
are rare ; and the ground, though largely diversified with strong ele- 
vations, is yet almost wholly diluvial, ranging from firm, bedded clays 
to coarse gravel, nearly always re-arranged, and hills of finer sand, 
abundantly marked with traces of alluvial action. The evidences of a 
lower continental level at some ancient age are here everywhere 
around, as in most such districts in New England, pointing in this 
case to the movements of a broad estuary, reaching far inland, of 
which the Merrimac of to-day is probably only the diminished repre- 
sentative. This heavy overlay of gravel makes it impossible to inves- 
tigate the sub-formation to any extent, or to say much as to the 
minerals that may accompany it ; but it seems that few species, 
indeed, have ever been detected in the town. 

The water-system of the township is distinguishable into three 
divisions. First, the Merrimac River. This noble stream makes 
the entire southerly boundary, along which it flows for about five 
miles for the old town, or two and three-fourths for the present one. 
Its width slightly varies, of course, yet is, on the whole, pretty uni- 
form at about one-fourth of a mile. It is freely navigable to this 
point for light-draught vessels, schooners and the like, and steamboats 
ply regularly from its mouth to stations considerably higher. Accept- 
able wharfage is had at the several villages along the shore, and the 

commerce thus encouraged has always been a prominent form of 
industry. Secondly, the Powow River. This stream, as has been 
stated, enters from the north, first crossing the line of New Hamp- 
shire from the town of Southampton. After making a considerable 
detour by south-east and north-east, it again enters the other State, 
from which it re-emerges a half-mile further east, still in Southamp- 
ton, and takes a tolerably straight line to the Merrimac on a mean 
course of say south 35° east, which it follows for about three miles, 
having Salisbury on its east bank, and finally enters the Merrimac at 
Salisbury Point, very nearly six miles from the ocean. The flow of 
this stream is, of course, different at successive points ; but at the 
Mills Village, which is about midway, it may be fairly estimated at 
180,000,000 gallons per day. Here, also, are found its principal 
falls, consisting of a series of irregular descents, by which, in a dis- 
tance of some fifty rods, a change of level of about seventy feet is 
obtained. Much of the stream at this spot, however, is covered and 
concealed by bridges and otherwise, and one may pass through with- 
out suspecting it : yet it affords very important water-power to several 
large factories. Most of these are on the Salisbury side. In other 
parts of its course the river traverses a series of romantic valleys, 
flanked by bold and picturesque hills, which, from the loose and 
unstable formation of the rock, are green to the tops, and beautifully 
covered with foliage. Thirdly, we reckon Kimball's Pond. This 
sheet of water lies almost in the centre of the original township, and 
both the old line of parish division, and that now separating the town 
of Merrimac, pass across a part of its surface, leaving, however, at 
least three-fourths of the area in Amesbury. It gathers from quite 
an extensive water-shed on all sides, and on the north-west is sup- 
plied by Back River, which is large enough to afford good mill- 
power, and which arrives from Newton, N. H., by a south-easterly 
course of about two miles. Kimball's Pond must stand for the second 
body of water in Essex County in point of magnitude, only inferior to 
the Great Pond in North Andover. That has an area stated at 450 
acres, while the Amesbury lake reckons 408 acres, or more than five- 
eighths of a square mile. Its outlet is northerly, by a long arm or 
channel, at the end of which it pours its waters into Powow River, 
which at that place approaches within a singularly short distance. 
The proximity of the two has suggested the opening of an artificial 
communication, especially since the establishing of a dam at Tuxbury's 
Mills, by which the flow of the upper part of the river was restrained. 
By the new channel a larger draught is made on the pond to equalize 
the supply below. This pond, like many others inland, has a consid- 
erable altitude, which is stated at ninety feet above the sea level. A 
variety of highways pass near it, and farms and homesteads are visible 
all around. 

The management of the stream at the Mills Village is somewhat 
peculiar, there being neither pond, dam, nor canal at any of the eleven 
factories so closely set together. The fall of the river being so rapid, 
just admits of the introduction of a series of locks, that distribute the 
water right and left to the -wheels it is to move, and the excess passes 
over in manner of an ordinary canal. Within a few j-ears, indeed, there 
has been a lanre and massive dam throwu across the stream one or two 
miles above the village, by which the waters are detained and stored 
in great quantity, flowing back nearly to the State line, and covering, 
by estimation, more than three hundred acres. This has overflowed 
at least one ancient manufacturing site, familiarly known as " Joppa," 
and perhaps one or two of lesser importance. 



Iu one part of the outlet of Kimball's Pond was formerly an artifi- 
cial work, consisting of an arched tunnel, built with common bowlders, 
through which the water found its way outward. It Avas a very sin- 
gular work, and no tradition has ever been found running back to its 
origin, or pretending to explain its existence. Some have ascribed it 
to the Indians, but this is very improbable. A better conjecture 
would assign a still older race as its builders. 

The civil and political history of Amesbury has but little of compli- 
cation about it. It is a town of the second rank as to antiquity ; that 
is, one derived from an original settlement by the first immigrants. In 
1638, Dennison, Bradstreet, and others, procured a grant from the 
Massachusetts Court of all the territory north of the Merrimac, from 
the sea to the present limit of Haverhill. On this they established 
their plantation, which, called "Colchester" at first, was incorporated 
October 7, 1640, as "Salisbury." Very soon it became evident that 
further colonization must be had, to properly improve the territory 
whose settlement had been undertaken. Finally, November 11, 1642, 
a meeting held in Salisbury voted that thirty families should remove 
to the west side of Powow River before March 1, 1645. They were 
to have all the common lands on that side laid out to them, and after 
a decided settlement were to remain barred of all further rights upon 
the other, or in the original town. Removals undoubtedly commenced 
at once ; yet we find no further notice taken of the matter in a 
public way till January 14, 1654, when a formal agreement, com- 
prising articles of separation and adjudication, was drawn up and 
executed. It was signed, on the part of the new colony, by 
Thomas Bradbury, Thomas Macy, and others, to the number of 
twenty-nine in all. 

The agency of old Salisbury was not wholly set aside at once, how- 
ever, for she had to take concern in the question of boundary for some 
time. It would hardly seem to have been difficult or troublesome ; 
yet not before another year did they fairly get at it. December 2, 
1657, George Brown and Thcophilus Shatwell were deputed from 
Haverhill to join with Salisbury in defining the line between the two ; 
and however well their work was done, it seems not to have reduced 
the matter to entire quiet, for almost ten years later, May 15, 1667, 
the General Court heard and determined the case, and gave it final 

"Salisbury New Town" was not yet, however, a town by itself, or 
anything more than a colony. Yet they managed their internal affairs 
as if their constitution were perfect, and we find that they chose their 
first selectmen January 15,' 1666, being Thomas Barnard, Lieut. 
Challis, John Weed, Robert Jones, and John Hoyt. This anticipation 
was not excessive, nor, probably, imprudent; for May 23, 1666, the 
General Court advanced them to an incorporation, so far at least as 
granting them "the liberty of a township," which might be supposed 
to have seated their freemen in the Court with others, but does not 
seem to have done so. Next, we pass two years, when, April 29, 
1668, another grant was made, by which they received the name of 
Amesbury. It has been said that this name was adopted from a town 
near the English one of Salisbury. This is probable enough, not only 
because the practice certainly prevailed of naming towns in this man- 
ner, but yet more, because the name of Ames is not prominent among 
the early families here, and, indeed, can hardly be found at all, so that 
the title can hardly have been derived from any such. A curious cir- 
cumstance in this connection is, that for many years the name was in 
an uncertain form, and may be found on the record as Amesbury, 
Amisbury, Almisbury, and especiall}', Almsbury, which prevails over 
all others for a considerable period. 

Representatives had been sent to the General Court ever since 1634 ; 
but there seems to have been none chosen by Amesbury till June 3, 
1689. Then Samuel Colby was chosen, being the first on the record. 
It is not impossible that up to this time they had acted on the plan 
occasionally adopted elsewhere, and "voted not to send," but such 
votes, even, are certainly unrecorded. This is not strange, for the 

records are not by any means complete, and many things are con- 
stantly omitted that cannot be supposed to have been undone. Thus, 
it is not till March 12, 1704-5, that a record appears that "Thomas 
Currier was chosen Town Clerk," notwithstanding the existence of 
records for years before ; yet the election of Joseph Pregctt as clerk 
of the market on the nineteenth of the same month, may point to a 
newly-created office. 

Very little more appears to have been done of a public nature till 
some time in 1725, when the feeling, so common in the other settle- 
ments, fully appeared in this, that this township was too large for all 
the inhabitants to attend either one church or one school. The divi- 
sion into districts was of course inevitable; and as two appeared to 
answer all need, a line was run from the Merrimac River to the south 
side of Kimball's Pond, and thence obliquely to the State line, thus 
making a western and an eastern district. It will be noticed that this 
line is almost or exactly identical with that by which the new town 
of Merrimac was at length set off. 

The town was thus in a condition of general prosperity. Many inter- 
nal improvements had been successfully undertaken, an almshouse had 
been in operation since May 18, 1763, and the town was spending not far 
from £150 per annum for public purposes. Then the dark cloud of the 
Revolution spread over and shut down on the whole country ; and these 
quiet farmers of Amesbury found themselves involved in one common 
trouble with their brethren, north, south, and west. The first action 
of the town was July 21, 1774, when they voted £2 8s. Id. to be paid 
to the Committee of Correspondence. We have no doubt that the 
patriotic feeling rose as high and sincerely here as in other towns, but 
the farmers were more men of deeds than words, and took but little 
time for writing on the record books beyond what was necessary, 
whence the literature of the period is indeed pretty scanty. Nothing 
more is heard till January 24, 1775, when Isaac Merrill, Esq., was 
chosen a representative to a Continental Congress to be held at 

There are some reasons, in fact, for suspecting that the Tories were 
here as well as in towns further north. Very soon came the call for 
minute-men, and the town met, March 13, 1775, to consider it. But 
those whose way it is to "vote early" at least, appear to have rallied, 
and on the first presentation of the question, met it with the squarest 
of negatives, refusing to raise any minute-men at all. Unquestionably, 
if we could go back to those old days of stormy partisan feeling, we 
might hear again the angry discussion that prevailed everywhere 
through the following week; but it had its result, for another meeting 
was called, March 20, 1775, when the vote of the week before was 
triumphantly reconsidered, and the town voted to raise fifty men. 
Nor were they satisfied with being in the field only, but bravely kept 
their place in the forum also. When the Provincial Congress was 
called at Watertowu, Capt. Caleb Pillsbury was sent, May 25, 1775, 
to take his place as a representative among them. And the patriotic 
current did not stop here, either ; but as the men of Newburyport had 
undertaken to put obstructions in the mouth of the Merrimac, the 
Amesbury farmers were prompt to respond to their call for assistance, 
and voted them £20 in logs and timber, to help to stop the way against 
the possible incursions of British cruisers. The same spirit held the 
reins through the year apparently ; for Aug. 15, 1775, the town voted 
to buy sixty-nine coats, and other proper equipments, to furnish the 
soldiers. But in the next spring the Royalists may have gained a little 
ascendancy ; since April 30, 1776, when the Newburyport people un- 
dertook to fortify Plum Island, they again applied to the upper towns 
for assistance ; but Amesbury distinctly refused to lend any hand to 
the enterprise. But this is about the last time we find any manifesta- 
tion of unpatriotic feeling, save in the votes subsequently had, where 
the strong minorities still reveal the existence of much Tory sentiment. 
But when, July 1, 1776, instructions were voted to their representa- 
tives in the Continental Congress, they assured them "that the town 
would" abide by and defend the members of the Continental Con- 



gress with their lives and fortunes, if they think it expedient to declare 
the Colonies independent of Great Britain." 

The next year the town followed up these brave words with steady 
and appropriate action. Their quota was fixed at fifteen battalions, 
and they voted to fill it up promptly. Doubtless, it was done, for 
after this, which was May 19, 1777, we notice many and frequent 
votes for procuring men and paying bounties, such as indicate an 
active state of feeling existing in the little, quiet community. By the 
next year the success of the Colonies became somewhat well assured, 
and early in the spring a convention was ordered for the forming of a 
State Constitution. To this body the town elected Caleb Pillsbury, 
Esq., Feb. 3, 1778, and gave him some instructions as to their views 
in the premises. A somewhat similar vote appears next year. May 
17. 1779, as if some interruption or delay might have occurred in the 
matter: and again still, the next }'ear, when a vote was taken, partly 
divisionary, upon the Bill of Rights and the form of government, 
May 29, 1780. Here, again, we catch a glimpse of the minority sen- 
timent that must have watched and waited in the town, for though 
the rest of the Bill of Rights had eight votes for, to two against it, the 
third article called out thirteen yeas, to which fourteen nays responded. 
The form of government did not fare much better, being barely accepted 
by twenty-one yeas to nineteen nays, and they distinctly voted besides 
to send no more delegates to the convention. About this time 
(Dec. 14, 1778), the town was raising £3,000 for current annual 
expenses. The first State election took place, Sept. 4, 1780; but the 
vote was very slender. By the preceding figures there seem to have 
been about forty voters in town ; but Hancock only could call out 
fifteen, to five for Bowdoiu and one for dishing. But in some things 
they took a far deeper interest : for the temper of the Amesbury farmers 
appears to have been quick and sharp enough when the practical mat- 
ters of life came within range. When they gave instructions to their 
representative, Jan. 17, 1782, they bade him, positively, to use all 
influence to have the right of the United States to the fisheries made 
an indispensable article of the treaty with England. Beyond doubt, 
they thought that question might be settled in a much shorter period 
than the whole of the matters comprehended under the negotiations, 
and would have been disgusted if assured that it would be one of the 
very last things to become quiet, not ceasing to trouble the people for 
more than a hundred years. And it surely did not cease to trouble 
the men of Amesbury, even for a time ; for, in 1796, they sent a memo- 
rial to Congress, praying for the strict performance of all the treaty 
provisions in regard to this absorbing subject. 

We do not find them flagging long in their attention to national 
matters ; for in 1798, pleased with the attitude of President Adams in 
reference to French affairs, they charged their selectmen to forward to 
him an address of approbation, expressive of their gratification with 
his course in that behalf. Teu years after, they were not in so com- 
fortable a frame, for Jefferson's embargo was cramping all Xew Eng- 
land, and the coasters and fishermen of the Merrimac desired to see 
the end of all such unnatural restraint. In 1808, they held a meeting 
and voted to petition the president to suspend at least the operation 
of the Embargo Act, on account of its great unpopularity with the 
people of the neighboring region. 

But the national cauldron, instead of cooling, grew rather to boil. 
The war of 1812 was the culmination of an evil influence that had been 
a long time arising and increasing. The declaration of war did not 
please the rather strongly Federal feelings of the Amesbury people ; 
and though they entered actively into the preparations for the conflict, 
it was hardly with much of heartiness. They drilled constantly, and 
there was much excitement; many soldiers enlisted, and there was a 
good deal of drafting, which last fact did nothing to quiet popu- 
lar feeling. But the end of the war came at last, and this did very 
much more. We rind no sign of anything disturbing the general 
peace and prosperity for many years. In 1817, President Monroe 
passed through the town, and expressed a pleasant interest in its 

industries ;' but it did not create a very enthusiastic admiration for 
him, since we find, when he stood again as a candidate in 1820, the 
Amesbury people cared so little for his election as to cast sixteeu 
votes. They felt their spirit kindle far more when the friend of 
America, Lafayette, arrived in their vicinity. For though he came 
no nearer than Newburyport, yet they would not lose the joyful 
opportunity, but flocked thither by hundreds to greet the patriot of 
two worlds. 

The clouds of war had now all rolled away, and the people, even of 
Xew England, first began to feel that they no longer were 
dependent on, or had connection with, any foreign power. Their atten- 
tion, therefore, turned still more to interior matters ; and here we find, 
in 1826, a proposition coming before the town for 'them to join in the 
formation of a new county within the old one of Essex. No doubt 
this was an early outflow of the same feeling, since observed so often, 
putting uneasiness, and perhaps distrust, between the northern and 
southern towns ; but be this as it may, the Amesbury people took 
little interest in the scheme, and gave it no sympathy at the meeting. 

The next occasion of public auxiety in this town was of a very 
different character ; yet the alarm was, perhaps, even greater than had 
ever been caused by the British. The mortal fear of Asiatic cholera, 
in 1832, reached, and deeply affected even this little inland town. 
We do not hear of a single case occurring, — indeed, it could hardly 
be possible ; but the foe was new, and not well understood, and, 
therefore, feared all the more unreasonably. Town meetings were 
held. Health officers were chosen and charged to take all possible 
precaution, and the health committee were impowered to establish a 
hospital if needed. The general faith pointed to thorough cleanliness 
as the best of all protections, and a complete purification of houses 
and premises, both public and private, was the result of such a con- 
viction. Preventive measures like these could not be criticised ; yet 
in the light of present understanding on the subject, it becomes doubt- 
ful whether there was any real danger at all to a community situated 
as was that of this town. 

The town, next year, 1833, are seen betraying their feelings, on 
religious questions, by a single vote ; for the constitutional amend- 
ment abolishing compulsory support of preaching being on the ques- 
tion of acceptance, they voted for it, 135 to 2. Evidently, there was 
uo disposition here to encourage ecclesiastical rulership. The popula- 
tion was now increasing rapidly, owing to fresh efforts in manu- 

In 1837 came the curious problem to Amesbury, as to all other 
towns, — what to do with their share of the surplus revenue. Par- 
ties naturally arose on it, and the contest lasted all the year, with 
Treat bitterness on both sides. Meeting after meeting was held, but 
the year ran out with no solution of the difficulty, and it was not till 
1838 that they finally decided " to deposit the money with the inhab- 

Then came the memorable season of 1840, with the excitement of 
the presidential canvass overriding busiuess, religion, education, 
everything almost, in the wild tumult over " log-cabins," and "hard 
cider." The largest vote ever cast in the town was brought out. The 
anti-slavery feeling had begun to spread, and here its advocates suc- 
ceeded in bringing to the polls eleven votes. 

. A large share of public attention, in a town of this sort, must always 
be absorbed by the roads and highways. A new road had been laid 
out in 1831, and came to be known as the " Middle Road." Now, ten 
years after, in 1841, large improvements were made in the road to 
Haverhill, and a new section was opened by which one of the "Pond 
Hills" wis avoided, to the increased comfort of travellers. The next 
year, 1842, the Poor Farm was condemned as unfit for public service, 
and accordingly sold. This had been the refuge of the poor since 
1825, when the primitive plan of boarding out the paupers was first 
abandoned. At that "time, this farm was bought and put in condition 
for their reception, but had declined ever since. Indeed, the people 



seem to have risen to the perception of several important public 
wants ; among others, that of a town house, which they finally built 
at "Pond Hills" in 1843. The situation was, indeed, central, accord- 
ing to territory, but it fell in a very thinly-settled and unattractive 
-region. This year was also signalized by the annexation to Amesbury 
of a small portion of the older town, called "Little Salisbury," and 
also by the rebuilding of the bridge at the ferry, over the Powow 
River. The new structure was made of stone, and was very sub- 

The strong local feeling that is so common in country places, 
appears to have been active here from almost the first, causing jeal- 
ousies and oppositions between the East and West Parishes. In 
1847 it rose so high as to produce a definite effort to divide the town ; 
but the day for such a project had not arrived, and a large majority 
defeated the undertaking. Next year, in 1848, we fiud the meeting 
engaged in regulating police, restraining dogs, and memorializing 
Congress against the freeing of United States stocks from taxes. 
Then affairs go on quietly again for a couple of years ; and, by 1850, 
they are ready to buy another and better farm for the poor, at what 
is called the "Lion's Mouth," and to spend $2,000 for four fire-engines, 
one of which finds a location in each of the villages. 

The conservative character of the town was shown soon after this, 
in 1851, by the strong vote they gave against calling the constitu- 
tional convention of that year. But this rather seems in contrast 
with their course in 1852, when, during a great strike of the opera- 
tives in the Salisbury and Amesbury mills, they not only voted the 
strikers the public sympathy, but actually appropriated the sum of 
$2,000 to relieve and sustain them. Again, on the presentation of 
the new Constitution to the towns for acceptance, in 1855, they gave 
it 25 yeas to 5 nays, although they had discouraged it so much be- 

The "Know Nothing" wave of popular excitement, went over the 
town like a sweeping flood. The campaign of 1856 was as bitter and 
hot as any ever known there, and the presidential electors received 
the largest vote ever cast in that town. Gov. Gardner's vote was 
428, while all others had only 153. 

Nothing further demands special attention, until we reach the ever- 
memorable year 1861, — the year of the great outbreak of rebellion, 
and the greater uprising of patriotic and loyal enthusiasm. Then the 
town met, April 27, 1861, took measures to raise volunteers, and 
appropriated $5,000 toward the expenses arising. Among the reso- 
lutions passed on this occasion, was the following : — 

"Resolved, By the citizens of the town of Amesbury, in legal town- 
meeting assembled : 

"That we pledge our united aid and assistance to our beloved Com- 
monwealth, and to His Excellency the Governor, to the utmost extent 
of our ability, both with men and money, to enable him to respond 
promptly and efficiently to the present or any future requisition of the 
Government of the United States, to put down rebellion against its 
authority, and to enforce the laws of the land." 

The whole policy and practice of the people agreed with such pro- 
fessions as the above. Additional pay was given, and every induce- 
ment that could be offered to recruits was freely put forth. One 
company had already organized, and were marched to this town-meet- 
ing in good style. They were commanded by Capt. Joseph W. Sar- 
gent. They continued drilling till July 5th, and were then mustered 
in and attached to the 14th Massachusetts Regiment, which did duty 
near Washington for a long time. Next year, 1862, the effort to 
raise men continued, and not the less for the difficulties and checks 
that were encountered here, as almost everywhere. The amount of 
bounty offered was finally run up to $300 for three years men, and 
$150 for nine months men. This seemed to meet the purpose well ; 
but by 1863 came another call, and the bounties had to be advanced 
before the men could be persuaded to enlist. The quota was at length 
filled. Another year came, and it was still harder, in 1864, to 

raise men than ever before. A draft was ordered, with the inevitable 
result. The whole town was alarmed ; and, at a meeting held in May 
of that year, they made a new appropriation of $10,000, to help in 
securing the number of men wanted : this seemed to prove sufficient. 

One more year, and in 1865, the soldiers "came marching home," 
while every one cried out for joy. Lee had surrendered, and no one 
regretted the exertion that had brought about so happy a result. On 
reviewing the war history of the town, it was found to stand some- 
what thus : — 
Whole number in service, including men drafted who paid fee or 

found substitute, ....... 406 

Whole number drafted, ...... 27 

Paid fee, $300, 11 

Fouud substitute, ....... 16 

— 27 

Of the town's entire force, 20 died of sickness, 7 were killed, 
13 were wounded, and 6 were more or less time in prison at 
Andersonville. One man was in twenty battles, besides being a 
considerable space in the prisons of the rebels. The town fur- 
nished one colonel, one major, four captains, seven lieutenants, 
and one sergeant-major. It is scarcely possible that a perfect reck- 
oning can ever be obtained, as many foreigners were enlisted as sub- 
stitutes and otherwise, who never rendered any account of themselves. 
But the town had done its best to sustain the nation in its struggle for 
liberty, and also to encourage and assist those who were willing to 
peril their lives in sharing the great effort. 

The great and terrible strain of the war being over, the town fell 
back to its accustomed quiet industry and prosperity. A few streets 
were laid out; the bridges on the Merrimac were, in 1868, made 
free and supportable by the towns; and, in 1869, a railroad was pro- 
jected, from the Mills Village to West Amesbury ; but the charter 
having a proviso that the town might take stock therein, and the town 
decidedly refusing, the enterprise was abandoned. The roads, in 
fact, were always a subject of great care on the part of the town ; in 
1872 they tried the experiment of a board of commissioners to man- 
age them, but their labors were not satisfactory, and after a year they 
were set aside. 

Next year, the claims of the Amesbury Railroad were again urged 
upon the town, and this time with rather more success, for the friends 
of the road did procure a vote of assistance to the amount of $50,000. 
But this was not all that was wanted, apparently, for the road failed 
to be constructed. And now, almost for the first time, something 
like a calamity fell on the place, for, Nov. 3, 1873, being the night 
before election, the town house took fire, and was burnt to the 
ground. The election was held, however, without interruption, the 
ballot being at the house of the town clerk, Joseph Merrill, only a 
short distance away. 

The year 1874 is only to be noted as by the decision of the town 
to erect a monument to the memory of the fallen soldiers. The work 
was placed in the cemetery, and an appropriation of $500 was made 
for its cost. And here it may be observed, that, in 1868, the East 
Parish Cemetery had been enlarged by the action of the county com- 
missioners, a peculiar proceeding, of which the examples appear to 
be very few. 

And now, on the centennial year, the town of Amesbury reached 
the first considerable crisis in its existence of two hundred and ten 
years. The people of the West Parish had long been more or less 
disaffected, and no doubt wished for many things which the townsmen 
of the East Parish were not disposed to grant. Several efforts of a 
radical character had been made, to some of which allusion has been 
had, looking to a re-arrangement of municipal affairs ; among others a 
consolidation of Amesbury and Salisbury was authorized (Stat. chap. 
154), April 2, 1870, with some attendant provisions that were hoped 
to be effectual. But this had no success. Now, the case was directly 
urged for a new town to be made of the West Parish ; and, at last, 



an Act Betting it off was passed, and signed by the governor, April 

11. 187G. The new town received the name of Merkimac, aud, 
under this title, will be found described in future pages. 

The separation took from the parent town not far from twenty-five 
hundred inhabitants, or about two-fifths of the whole, and almost the 
same proportion of the valuation. 

But the parent town had enjoyed much prosperity. Wealth had 
accumulated in the place, the highways were commodious and easy, 
the public buildings numerous and creditable, the private dwell- 
ings patterns of comfort and domestic enjoyment. Communication 
with the greater lines of travel, and with the sea-board, had been 
greatly facilitated by the Amesbury Branch of the Eastern Rail- 
road, giving passage from the Mills Village to Newburyport 
by quick trains several times per day ; aud also by the New- 
buryport and Amesbury Horse Railroad, which, crossing the Mer- 
rimac by the -Chain Bridge, and passing through Salisbury Point 
Village, reached the west side of the Powow by the stone bridge, and 
ran up on that side to the Mills Village. This had been in operation 
since its charter, February 29, 1864, and proved a delightful form 
of travel between' the towns. The broad bosom of the river had 
always been a magnificent highway to the sea, on which the men of 
Amesbury had claimed their full share of place aud patronage. A 
steamer had begun to ply on its waters in 1829, and from year to year 
this kind of transportation had more and more increased. And 
though the division of their territory had reduced the capital stock of 
their municipality, the town was still prosperous aud thriving, with 
every prospect of a worthy and honorable future. 

A little space must now be given to a consideration of the industries 
and business methods of this town. Apparently, the first settlers 
were not mechanics to any considerable extent, but farmers, who, as 
a collateral occupation, engaged pretty largely in lumbering. Thus, 
almost at the first outset of town life, we find a contract made with 
Thomas Macy and Richard Currier to saw all the timber that should 
be brought them. The work was to be done "at the halves/' and £6 
per year, payable in boards, was to lie given the town for the privi- 
lege. This was January 19, 1656 : but the location of the saw-mills 
is not assignable to-day, though several eligible spots may be sup- 
posed. There are reasons for understanding the lumber business to 
have soon occupied more than one establishment; for the uses of 
sawed timber for ordinary building did not long remain the onlv one. 
A certaiu Capt. Harvey had leave from the town, February 10, 1709, 
to build vessels at "Jamaco," which was the early name of the present 
"River Village/' and from that time forward the building of small 
-els, and even some of large tonnage, was prosecuted with much 
energy and success. Richard Currier, perhaps the same with the 
owner of the saw-mill, obtained leave, March 1-1, 1719-20, to build 
•Is at the mouth of the Powow; and March 8, 1724— 5, Capt. 
Currier (the same again ?), Jacob Rowell, and Samuel Lowell had 
leave "to build a wharf on Powow River," no doubt somewhere near 
its confluence with the Merrimac. 

By 1803, the Ferry District, as that about the mouth of the 
Powow was called, had so prospered in its ship-building as to be the 
most populous part of the town. This was not, indeed, the exclusive 
business of the people there, since many were engaged, very naturally, 
iu the kindred callings of coasting and fishing; but it bad the lead, 
and probably was as profitable as any. In 1810, ship-building was 
extremely good all along the river. The whole account is said to 
be 21 ships, 13 brigs, 1 schooner, and 7 ^mailer craft built that year 
ou the river. Not all, indeed, were the product of Amesbury ; but a 
considerable share were so, there being at that time six or seven ship- 
yards iu full operation in the town. The business continued in suc- 
cessful condition for many years after ; and iu 1817, President Monroe 
expressed much interest in it, as he passed through the town. But 
the next year, March 4, 1818, occurred a great freshet on the river, 
which did great damage, and undoubtedly to the ship-yards among 

other places. There was nothing fatal in it, however; for when, in 
1827, the Newburyport Bridge Company undertook to lower their 
bridge, the Amesbury town-meeting remonstrated, since their exten- 
sive boating and other similar business would be interfered with and 
damaged. But from this date we hear little or nothing of any more 
ship-building in the town; and, certainly, as there were no returns of 
any such business iu the census of 1875, it may be inferred that the 
ancient calling has as good as disappeared. 

There were other craftsmen quite as busy, however. As early as 
March 13, 1709-10, a proposition was made to the town by John 
March. John Barnard, Joseph Brown, and Jarvis Ring, that they 
would build and carry on certain iron-works at "Powow Falls." 
The record does not, indeed, declare, though it is natural enough to 
suppose, that they desired some public encouragement for their enter- 
prise. At all events, they so received it, for the town not only per- 
mitted the erection of the works, but voted they should be "tax free." 
How long this important exemption was to last, is not indicated, and 
it mav be that the laxity of the Errant caused embarrassment thereafter, 
as in so many other like cases ; but the works were certainly built 
and kept in operation for a great while. The location was within the 
present "Mills Village," but somewhat above the factories. Soon 
after 1800, a nail factory was added in connection, and there was a 
large grist-mill there also. Indeed, the saw-mills and grist-mills were 
common in many parts of the town. But in 1805 there happened a 
great fire at the Mills, by which the nail factory was destroyed, 
as also the grist-mill, and some three hundred cords of wood. The 
machinery was built by the celebrated Jacob Perkins, of Newburyport, 
and was very valuable ; and the whole loss was reckoned at $80,000. 
After this, the iron-works appear not to be heard from, or at least, 
not as a concern of much activity. 

At what time the manufacture of boots and shoes was first intro- 
duced into town there are no means of deciding; but the business 
was advanced to a great prosperity by 1836, aud was an important 
branch of industry. The product was then spoken of as ''immense," 
the work being carried on almost all over town ; but by 1865, it was 
probably very much increased, and certainly stood higher than it has 
since; namely, at a value of $52,607. The following decade onl}' 
showed, in 1875, si 2,000 as the value of this industry. Yet this is 
not small iu proportion to many other kinds of business. 

The calling that has probably given more celebrity to Amesbury 
than any other, is that of carriage-making. It is also the oldest 
industry in town, save ship-building and farming. We first hear of it 
in 1800, when it was begun at West Amesbury in a rather moderate 
way. It made itself a good footing there, and has steadily advanced 
in importance from that day. It was first started at the Mills Vil- 
lage iu 1855, by Mr. J. R. Huntington, "a young man of great 
energy.™ Its success was immediate, and it has much increased there, 
both in the uumber of factories, and the value of the work done. Of 
this we will only make a single statement, from the census of l v 
which shows the value of carriages manufactured to have been, iu that 
year, $393,200 The Amesbury work is very celebrated, being known 
in every part of the country, almost, and always noted for elegance 
and durability. 

Wool hats have, in latter years, become a manufacture of very 
much consequence in Amesbury, as likewise in nearly all the other 
Merrimac towns. The value reported in 1875 was sl41.500 

But, very naturally, the importance of the woollen manufactures, 
reckoned as cloths, is greater than that of any other, or almost all 
other branches together. This industry is also of high rank in town, 
as regards priority of establishment. It commenced at the Mills 
Village, in 1812, when the first factory was built there by a small 
company, consisting of Ezra Worthen and others. The next year, 
1813, Ensign Jonathan Morrill put up a second factory there : and by 
1820, the business had very largely increased. There were then two 
substaulial companies engaged, one represented by Joshua Aubiu, 



and the other by James Hoi'ton ; aud several new mills had been 
erected, so that the way seemed open to great prosperity. A wholly 
separate mill of the same kind was built about 1863, at a place known 
as "Patten's Hollow," where a small stream, peculiarly situated, fur- 
nished a light water-power. It seems in some respects to have been 
more fortunate than its more costly fellows, as it is still running, under 
management of Robert Bleakie & Co., while the mills on the Powow 
have been entirely out of use for a long period. Of course, it will 
not be forgotten that a large share of the mills last mentioned are 
located on the Salisbury side of the stream ; yet with this precaution 
in reckoning, we still find the value of woollen goods manufactured 
in 1865 to have been no less than $1,413,922; and in 1875 this had 
gone up to $1,432,542. We are not well prepared to describe the 
particular styles of goods made at the various establishments; it will 
be enough to say that the investment is large and liberal, and the 
style of construction is throughout suited to an ample and worth}' 
description of product. 

After this rather cursory view of the industrial history and charac- 
ter of Amesbury, we conclude our notice by a brief retrospect of 
religious and educational matters in the town. 

The town had been ten years settled, when, Jan. 4, 1664, the first 
action of the people in a public way, as to religious affairs, appears 
in a vote, that "a Meeting House should be built by next midsum- 
mer;" and Thomas Barnard, John Hoyt, and Richard Currier, were 
chosen a committee to carry out the object. Then, afterward, April 
3, 1665, Lieut. Challis and John Hoyt were "to treat with Capt. 
Pike, and obtain his help in the ministry." There soon appeared 
quite a material reason for such action, for when the General Court, 
May 23, 1666, incorporated the township, it also freed them from 
parish taxes in Salisbury as soon as they had a minister of their own. 
But this was not, at first, au easy thing to accomplish. There arc 
some reasons for thinking that a certain Mr. Brakenbury was preach- 
ing here under some kind of arrangement, about 1667 ; but we hear 
no more from him. A more definite record appears of Mr. Hubbard, 
of Kittery, who was certainly called Dec. 5, 1668. The probability 
is at least good, that he officiated here, in one way or another, till 
March 12, 1678, when, with no indication beforehand, we find Mr. 
Thomas Wells in the same position. He is usually spoken of as the 
first minister, and he certainly was the first to stay any considerable 
time. He was also the town schoolmaster, earliest of all, even at 
March 13, 1681-2. But no definite action seems to have been had as 
to any salary for the minister for a considerable period ; indeed, not 
until Dec. 8, 1690, when it was voted that he should have fifty pounds 
per annum. This was certainly not exorbitant, especially when we 
observe, as about 1708, that the interest in schools had remarkably 
increased, and probably the minister had both callings to attend to. 
As soon as April 12, 1714, the time had come for sectional interests 
to be heard making demands ; aud it was then that " Jamaco Village," 
desired a church by themselves. At first, it was ordered to be built 
there ; but other counsels afterwards prevailed, and the new church 
was ordered to be upon some of the "Parsonage land, near Ed. 
Hunt's." This decision was not reached, however, till the 24th of 
the next January. 

But these matters were not very quietly settled in the town for 
a long time. Mr. Wells had rnairy misunderstandings with the 
town, and both church and school appear to have languished. July 
13, 1778, the town had been presented at the Court of Sessions for 
having no grammar school, and Isaac Merrill, Esq., aud Capt. Wil- 
liam Bayley were sent to Salem to make the town's defence. 

It hardly seems as if the town were inclined, in these days, to great 
liberality in matters of knowledge, either secular or spiritual. As 
witness the following vote, that has all the appearance of having been 
passed with earnestness and determination : 

" 7 June, 1784. Being informed that David Tuxbury, Thos. 
Boardman, Jos. Adams and. others are about to erect a house for 

public worship in this town, and as the meeting houses are sufficient 
to accommodate all the inhabitants for public worship — Therefore, 
Voted ; that the Selectmen remonstrate with the said David Tuxbury 
and others against their erecting said house for public worship, as 
illegal, and tending to disturb the peace and good order of the regu- 
lar and legal religious society in this town, and as we apprehend, 
contrary to the peace of the Commonwealth." 

This, we suppose, may have been a Presbyterian society, that so 
threatened the "peace of the Commonwealth." At any rate, in a 
short time, Jan. 23, 1786, the town appears remonstrating vigorously 
against the incorporation of a Presbyterian society, and it is reason- 
able to think that it may have been the same. Nor had they unbroken 
peace at home, for among the ministers they dealt with was the Rev. 
Thomas Hibbert, and with him there was a good deal of tedious and 
embarrassing difficulty. It may be suspected that this was really the 
same with " Mr. Hubbard, of Kittery," who had once preached for them ; 
if so, there may have been unsettled accounts of some kind between 
them. Meanwhile, "David Tuxbury and others" died hard, for in 
1796 they come again into view, petitioning the Legislature for incor- 
poration as a religious society ; but true to their instincts and decis- 
ions, "the town strongly opposed it." We hear no more of this 
religious contest ; aud it is possible that Tuxbury and his friends gave 
it up, or retired to some more congenial region. 

By this time, the town had been in some way districted for school 
purposes, and there were several school-houses in different parts. In 
1796, however, that at the "Ferry District" had become dilapidated, 
and was replaced with a new one, costing £200. Next year, 1797, 
the districts were all revised. 

At this time, or for some time previous, the First Church had been 
under charge of the Rev. Ebenezer Cleveland ; but in 1799 he was dis- 
missed, and the Rev. Stephen Hull became his successor. Yet, though 
Mr. Hull is said to have been "settled" at the above date, he was not 
"ordained " till 1802, when the East Parish meeting-house had been 
"thoroughly repaired" in the year previous, and things probably 
looked more encouraging. The West Parish experienced a change 
of pastors about the same time ; the Rev. David Smith having been dis- 
missed by a council in 1800, and the Rev. Samuel Mead installed in his 
place, in June, 1804. 

Education now received a stimulus of a new and gratifying kind. 
Certain parties in town, conceiving a desire for a higher grade of 
instruction than that of the common schools, formed themselves into 
an Academy Company, and built an edifice for school purposes in 
1805. It continued to be a successful enterprise, operating well for 
many years, for we do not hear that the town ever opposed its move- 
ments, though they could hardly have been in very close accordance 
with those of the common schools. 

But there was no more repose for ministers and their churches in 
this town than in most others. Mr. Hull had worn his attachments so 
threadbare at the First Church by 1812, as to be dismissed that year ; 
but it was four years longer, or not till 1816, that a successor was 
found for him, and the church succeeded in installing the Rev. Benjamin 
Sawyer in his place. Aud, as was very natural, restlessness in one 
point led to the like in another ; and, in 1819, the Rev. Moses Welch was 
ordained over the Second or West Parish, taking the place of the Rev. 
Samuel Mead, who went we know not where. 

Up to 1820, no record appears of any appropriation for support of 
schools, or, at least, not for a long time previous. But, that year, 
there was a definite appropriation of $800, which, considering the 
probable number of schools at that time, gave but slender gains to 
such as undertook to instruct the coming generation. If the ministers 
were no better supported, it is small wonder that, by 1826, Mr. 
Welch's service of seven years was over at the West Parish, and they 
had ordained the Rev. Peter S. Eaton as his successor, on the 20th of 
September. Aucl now there was another religious incoming, against 
which the town does not seem to have remonstrated, though it was of 



a kind more foreign to the old faith than Presbyterianisni could 
be, and a vast deal more dangerous and subversive of it. This was 
the then rapidly spreading Unitarian sentiment, which had gained 
favor euniigh among the people to form an independent society, and 
to build a church. Over this new mission the Rev. David Damon was 
installed as pastor, June 25, 1828. In the same year, the inhabitants 
of the Mills Village had become numerous and influential enough to 
decide that the old First Church, which stood at the place called 
" Sandy Hill,'" was out of the way and inconvenient; therefore, they 
formed a new society in that village, and left the old one to its fate. 
They did not, however, get fully at work for some six years longer: 
but finally, March 5, 1834, they obtained an organization from a 
regular council, and installed their first pastor, the Rev. J. H. 

School matters had now beguu to improve a little. The appropria- 
tion crept up. in 1S30, to $1,000; and, in 1831, the school committee 
were considered to render annual service worth six dollars, which was 
voted to each member. 1836 saw the school appropriation carried up 
to $1,500, and 1837 witnessed a vigorous effort on the part of the 
friends of education, to get possession of the " surplus revenue," for 
the creation of a permanent school fund. They did uot finally suc- 
ceed, and, doubtless, the final result was much better than if they had ; 
for experience shows clearly that such funds only tend to remove the 
interests of good education from the care and affection of the people 

The town was now in a growing and expanding condition in almost 
all respects. Auother church was called for in 1835 ; this time at 
Salisbury Point Village. That is, they proposed to locate on that side 
of the river, and. indeed, did so; but a large part of the congregation 
dwelt on the Amesbury bank, and the enterprise belonged essentially 
to the development of this town. They succeeded in settling a pastor at 
once, being the Rev. John Gunnison ; but he only stayed something like 
two years. And now, Mr. Sawyer, who had served at the First, or 
Sandy Hill Church, since 1810, ended his ministry there, ami left the 
old church, but not to a successor. He was the last one who ever 
officiated in the old pulpit. By a little while after this, it was time 
for auother change in the Second Parish, and Nov. 1, 1837, the Rev. 
Lucius W. Clark was settled there, the Rev. P. S. Eaton having been 
dismissed May 10 preceding. The new minister at the Salisbury 
Point Church, the Rev. James B. Hadley, arrived a little earlier, and was 
settled in Mr. Gunnison's place, September 20, in the same year. 

No further services were held in the old Sandy Hill Church after 
Mr. Sawyer's retirement ; and, at length, in 1848, the house, that had 
witnessed the varied fortunes of eighty-seven years, was sold and 
demolished. Scarcely now will the place that knew it remember it 
more, after the lapse of thirty years since its disappearance. So pass 
away the landmarks of the ancient day and people, and the children 
forget where they were, and even doubt the voice of antiquity, when 
it seeks to call them again to recollection. 

Improvement now seemed the order of the day, and that in earnest. 
In 1851, the old school-house in the Ferry District was taken down, 
and a new and better one erected. Iu 1854, the appropriation for 
schools went up to $2,500, having thus more than trebled itself in the 
thirty-four years since 1820. Then arose the most important school 
question proposed for a long time; such as had not, indeed, been 
heard of since the founding of the academy. For, in 1859, the prob- 
lem of a high school, so troublesome at first to every municipality, 
was thrust, whether they would or no, before the eyes of the voters of 

Amesbury. Of all the debates that went to occupy the whole of that 
year, making the subject to be like a shuttlecock between the con- 
tending parties, we know nothing now. It is not needed that we 
should; for, by auother year, a decision was arrived at, and, in 1860, 
having increased the school appropriation to $3,100, they yielded to 
the march of improvement, and declared the high school established. 

Then the perilous days of the Rebellion came, aud little could be 
done or thought of save to be ready at every call for the country's 
service. But when these had passed by, in 1866, a method was 
adopted in regard to schools, that arouses a suspicion that one high 
school was not quite a satisfactory thing to every one. For we find 
them ordering, that the four grammer schools iu the several villages 
should be made equal to high schools, and that teachers should be 
employed capable of teaching all branches required in a high school of 
the first class. It is difficult to see how anything better could have 
been done for any village than this, especially if the subordinate 
schools were brought to the same standard. And yet it was not long 
satisfactory, or, rather, additional measures were very soon required. 
The school fund weut up, in 1867, to $5,000, and, in 1869, to $6,000. 
Then the old districts were abolished, aud a new system of accommoda- 
tion entered on with great vigor. West Amesbury brought the first 
plea for relief, alleging that her house was poor, and her space but 
narrow. A special town-meeting was called to consider the case, 
which ended the matter by appropriating $8,000 to erect a high-school 
building in the petitioning neighborhood. The house was an easy 
thing to obtain when once the money was given and it was built and 
put in occupation during the same season. 

A second claimant now stood ready in the person of the " Fern- 
District. " These urged their condition, iu 1870, in a way that 
could uot be resisted, though the fund, by that time, had mounted to 
the figure of $6,600. The Ferry people carried their vote for a new 
high-school house in their neighborhood also, though, by favor or 
necessity, they were fain to be satisfied with one costing only $7,000. 
With this sum they built an elegant structure, said to be an ornament 
to the village. 

Time now ran on till 1873, when, with the school fuud at $8,600, 
the case of the Mills Village was put in, showing that the increase of 
scholars there was very rapid, and larger accommodations must im- 
mediately be had. And, as before, the applicants were well considered 
by the town, and a new school-house directly rewarded their exertions, 
at a cost, this time, of only $5,000. We are left to suppose that the 
fourth district, or village, was the oue first blessed with a house of 
this description, and had thus no special need of further application. 

"And now," says the worthy annalist of the town, "since the four 
high schools were established in 1866, we have had most excellent 
schools indeed. A system of gradation has been introduced, a course 
of study adopted, and diplomas awarded to all who completed the 
course. We now have several excellent teachers in town, from among 
our own citizens." 

Here we conclude our rather rapid notice of the pleasant couutry 
town of Amesbury. Xone of our facts or figures will give the impres- 
sion that it is a large community, or that it pretends to be. By the 
census of 1875, it only reckoned 3,816 for its population, and these 
dispersed over a somewhat expauded territory. Yet, like many other 
of the lesser municipalities in New England, its enterprise and its 
thrift have been constant and substantial, and Amesbury has, to-day, 
an honorable and encouraging place among her seniors as well as her 
juniors, in the worthy old family of the towns of Essex. 


This town is a beautiful specimen of a truly New England town. 
It is situated on the westerly border of Essex County, and formerly 
included within its limits so much of the city of Lawrence as lies 
south of the Merrimac River, also the present town of North An- 
dover, and was nearly the largest town in the county. It contained, 
in 1830, 37,738 acres of land. The boundaries at that time were as 
follows; viz., Bounded on the north north-west, ten miles, 307 rods, 
on the Merrimack River, the dividing line between Dracut and 
Methuen ; north-east, 14(3 rods, by the town of Bradford, — seven 
miles and 241 rods by Boxford ; south-east, three miles and 66 rods 
by the town of Middleton ; south, four miles by Reading (now North 
Reading), — two miles, 285 rods by Wilmington; south-west, six 
miles, 197 rods by Tewksbury. 

Its original bounds were the Merrimac River, Rowley, Salem, 
Woburn, and Cambridge, which included Billerica and Tewksbury. 

When the early colonists were searching for places in which to 
locate, Merrimac River was thoroughly explored, and found attrac- 
tive to the explorers. The earliest record we find concerning the 
locality known as Andover, was in the following order of the Court, 
dated Sept. 24, 1634, only four years after the settlement of Boston 
and Charlestown. "Those of Newtown complained of straitness for 
want of land, and desired leave of the Court to look out either for 
enlargement or removal, which was granted; Whereupon they Sent, 
men to Agawam and Merrimac, and gave out they would remove" &c. 

During the same year, we find a record as follows; viz., "It is 
ordered, that the land about Cochicewick shall be reserved for an in- 
land plantacon, and whosever will goe to inhabite there shall have 
three yeares imunity from all taxes, levyes, publique charges, & ser- 
vices whatsoever (military dissipline onely excepted) John Win- 
throp, Rich : Bellingham, & Will™ Coddington, Esq are chosen a 
committee to licence any that they thinke meete to inhabite there, & 
that it shall be lawful! for noe pson to goe thither without their con- 
sent, or the major pte of them." 

At what precise date the people of Newtown took up their abode 
there and commenced a settlement, does not appear. The following 
names of the first settlers are found upon the town records, and near- 
ly in the order of settlement: Mr. Bradstreet, John Osgood, Joseph 
Parker, Richard Barker, John Stevens, Nicholas Holt, Benjamin 
Woodbridge, John Frye, Edmond Faulkner, Robert Barnard, Daniel 
Poor, Nathan Parker, Henry Jaques, John Aslett, Richard Blake, 
William Ballard, John Lovejoy, Thomas Poor, George Abbott, John 
Russ, Andrew Allen, Andrew Foster, Thomas Chandler. Some of 
these men had families, and others had no wives. 

They first settled near the "Cochicewick," a name given by the 
natives to a brook leading from Great Pond northerly to the Merri- 
mac, and hence the locality was known as "Cochicewick." 

The order of Court reserving the land at this place, was very gen- 
eral in its character, like those which had passed previously, as in 
case of "Tri-Mountain" should be called "Boston"; "Mattapan" to 
be called "Dorchester"; and the town on "Charles River," " Water- 
town," &c. These grants or reservations made by the "Company of 
Massachusetts Bay," sometimes termed "India-Rubber Grants," were 
simply little more than a right to purchase of the natives, and then 
the Court confirmed the bargain. For, while the company under 
their charter had exclusive jurisdiction over, and general property, in 
the soil, yet the colonists recognized the prior claims of the occupants 
of the lands, and usually purchased of the leading chief of the tribes 

the lauds, by bill of sale or deed of release of the property. It 
seems the land at Cochicewick, forming the present towns of Andover 
and North Andover, and that part of Lawrence south of the Merrimac 
River, were purchased in the usual manner, by John Woodbridge, in 
behalf of the inhabitants, as appears in the following record of the 

•'At a Gen' all eo'te, at lioxton, the 6/A, Wi m., 1646. 'Cntshamaehe sagomore of 
ye Massachusets, came into yo Co'te, & acknowledged yt for ye sume of £6 and a 
coate, he had already received, hee had sonld to Mr John Woodbridge, in hehalfe 
of ye inhabitants of Cochichawick, now called Andover, all his right, interest, & 
priviledge in ye land 6 miles southward from ye tonne, two miles eastward to Rowley 
bounds, be ye same more or lesse, northward to Merrimac Ryver, pvided yt ye Indian 
called Roger & bis company may have Ilb'ty to take alewifes in Cochicawick River, 
for their oune eating; bat if they eithr spoyle or steale, any come or other frnite, to 
any considrahlc value, of ye inhabitantes there, this librty of taking fish shall forever 
cease ; & ye said Roger is still to enjoy foure acres of ground where now he plants. 
This purchase ye Corte alowes of, & have granted ye said land to belong to ye said 
plantation for e,vr, to be ordred <Sc disposed of by them, reserving liberty to ye Corte 
to lay two miles square of their southerly bounds to any tonne or village yt hereafter 
may be erected thereabouts, if so they See cause.' 

" Cntshamaehe acknowledged this before ye magistrates & so ye Corte appveth 
thereof, & of the rest in this bill to be recorded, so as to piudice no former grant." 

We next find the following statements concerning the town, only 
two years after the foregoing grant : — 

"This year 1648, John YVinthrope Esquire was chosen Governor and Thomas Dudley 
Esquire Deputy Governor and John Kudicott Esquire Major General all three as they 
were the former year, the number of freeman added were about i)4. About this time 
there was a Town founded about one or two miles distant from the place where the 
goodly river of Merrimac receives her branches into her own body hard upon the river 
of Shawshiu which is one of her three chief heads; the honored Mr Simon Bradstreet 
taking up his last setting there, hath been a great means to further the work, it being 
a place well tilted for the husbandmans hand, were it not that the remoteness of the 
place from Towns of trade, bringeth some inconveniences upon the planters, who are 
inforced to carry their corn far to market; This Town is called Andover, and hath 
guild .stoic of land well improved for the bigness of it, they soon gathered into a church, 
having the reverend Mr Woodbridge to instruct them in the waves of Christ, till be 
returned to England, and since have called to office the reverend Mr Deynes, for further 
encouragement, the promises of the Lord for protecting, providing, increasing & con- 
tinuing even the very least of his Churches goiug on, according to his precepts, are 
abundantly manifested in his Word 

" Thou Sister young, Christ is to thee a wall 

Of flaming fire, to hurt thee none may come 
In slippery paths, and dark wayes shall they fall, 

His Angels might shall chase their countless sum, 
Thy Shepheard with full cups and table spread, 

Before thy foes in Wilderness thee feeds, 
Increasing thy young lambs in bosom bred 

Of Churches by his wonder-working deeds : 
To countless number must Christ Churches reach, 

The days at hand, both Jew & Gentile shall 
Come crowding in his Churches. Christ to preach, 

And last aye, none can cause them to fall." 

The colonial government occupied a twofold position in its dealing 
with the settlers upon the unoccupied lands, one by which a title to 
these lands was granted, and the other in the powers which they con- 
ferred, and in the duties imposed upon them as bodies politic. 

Grants of land were often made in anticipation of an early settle- 
ment, and, when formed, certain corporate powers were conferred 
upon them, in very brief acts ; acts of incorporation to specified 
localities were granted conditionally, and certain obligations were 
imposed upon them, such as the support of the gospel, maintenance 
of highways, support of free schools, &c. 

Whenever a person moved into town and became a resident, the 
town sold him land by vote, and he became a "commoner" or pro- 



prietor. The land was divided among the first settlers in proportion 
to the taxes paid by each, and their divisions recorded in the town 
records. Thus matters were arranged till 1715, when the proprietors, 
considering themselves distinct from the town, they began to keep 
their records as "Proprietors." The first divisions of land were 
small, very few exceeding ten acres. Ploughlauds were granted at a 
distance in small lots on the plains, and were easy of tillage : swamp 
or meadow for hay ; and woodland at a distance, which rendered the 
farms very inconvenient. 

The first proprietors raised their town rates on their lots until 1681. 
Then they agreed among themselves, and all that were then house- 
holders, to raise all town charges by heads and their ratable estates ; 
and every man was to possess all town privileges, and also to have an 
interest in the common lands, according to what tax he paid. On the 
eighth day of March, 1702, a committee was appointed by the pro- 
prietors, in general town meeting, for settling and revising the agree- 
ment of the proprietors, and making a correct list of the names of the 
proprietors, as these were not placed on the records in 1681. The 
following persons constituted the committee : Capt. Christopher Osgood, 
Lieut. John Osgood, Lieut. John Barker, Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, and 
Ensign John Aslebe. Here follows their report, which was accepted 
and passed at the town meeting. 

" Whereas, There was formerly a vote of the town upon the alter- 
ation of the way of collecting our town rates, that all such as were 
then house-holders shall upon the consideration of the proportion they 
bear to said charges, be privileged in all regards as free commoners in 
the Town of Andover, and to enjoy all the privileges upon all divisions 
of land or other occasions according to the burthen of their particular 
taxes ; and whereas the vote not being duly entered in the records of 
our town, it has been since irrecoverably lost ; It is now voted and 
passed that those whose names are underwritten be every way advan- 
taged and privileged according to what is above expressed as the sub- 
stance of said former vote. 

"A List of the Xames of the Proprietors, according to the Town Vote: 
Mr. Simon Bradstreet, Capt. John Osgood, Mr. Francis Dane, Nich- 
olas Holt, Sr., Joseph Parker, Richard Barker, Sr., John Stephens, 
Sr., John Frye, Sr., Thomas Chandler, Johu Aslebe, Henry Ingalls, 
Daniel Poor, Nathan Parker, Solomon Martin, Thomas Farnum. Wil- 
liam Ballard, Andrew Allen, Andrew Foster, Sr., John Lovejoy, Sr., 
William Chandler, Sr., Robert Barnard, Mr. Edmond Faulkner, John 
Russ, Sr., George Abbott, Sr., George Abbott, Jr., Thomas Poor, 
Thomas Johnson, Ralph Farnum, John Frye, Jr., Samuel Blanchard, 
Mark Graves, Thomas Rowell, Johu Johnson, Robert Russell, John 
Stevens, Jr., Timothy Stevens, Andrew Foster, Jr., Stephen John- 
son, Nathan Stevens, Job Tyler, Johu Bridges, Joseph Parker, 
Christopher Osgood, Ephraim Foster, William Barker, Alexander 
Sessions, Lawrence Lacy, Joseph Robinson, Johu Faulkuer, Samuel 
Ingalls, Ebenezer Barker, John Maston, Jr., Henry Ingalls, Jr., 
Edward Whittingham, alias William Abbott, Nicholas Nichols, John 
Prestou, John Abbott, George Abbott, William Blunt, Zachariah 
Ayer, alias Robert Russell, Joseph Wilson, Lieut. John Barker, John 
Parker, John Mastou, Sr., Lieut. John Osgood, John Farnum, Sr., 
Timothy Johnson, Stephen Barnard, Nathaniel Dane, Thomas Abbott, 
Ephraim Stevens, Joseph Stevens, Stephen Parker, John Granger, 
Benjamin Frye, Samuel Frye, James Frye, Walter Wright, Hugh Stone, 
Joseph Ballard, Samuel Holt, Henry Holt, John Russ, Jr., Samuel Mar- 
ble, Joseph Marble, Samuel Preston, Daniel Bixby, James Holt, John 
Chandler, Nicholas Holt, Jr., Samuel Phelps, William Johnson, William 
Lovejoy, William Ballard, Jr., Robert Gray, Hope Tyler, alias Joseph 
Parker, Samuel Hutchinson, John Lovejoy, Jr., and Moses Haggett." 

We again find an additional list of names to the above proprietors, 
as follows: "At a legal Town Meeting, ordered by a warrant from 
one of her majesty's Justices of the Peace, in order to the voting in of 
more proprietors in the town, which was on the 28th day of January, 
iu the year 1713-14 — 

" Whereas. The original purchase of the land of this towu was made 
by Mr. John Woodbridge in behalf of the inhabitants of said town, 
and confirmed to us by the General Court in the year 1646 : and 
whereas the said town at all times since their first settlement laid out 
and divided at their several meetings, managed regulated, settled, 
and disposed of the land as they saw meet, as may be seen by the 
votes and records of the said town, and more especially as there was 
just cause and reason, enlarged and added to the number of proprie- 
tors or the inhabitants to be invested in the common land of the said 
town, as may be seen by a record of the said town voted in the month 
of March, 1702. The said town now taking into their consideration, 
that there are a considerable number of inhabitants and freeholders of 
the said town, that were not at the meeting aforesaid admitted or voted 
proprietors who on many accounts deserve claims and are justly enti- 
tled thereunto; The said town do therefore now see cause to vote in 
and add to their former list of proprietors the persons whose name< 
are iu the list underwritten, — These were voted to be privileged in all 
regards together with those that were voted in March the 8th 1702. 
William Foster, Samuel Osgood, William Chandler, Ebenezer Five. 
Timothy Osgood, Zebadiah Chandler, James Bridges, Nathaniel Abbott, 
William Lovejo}', Jr., Samuel Peters, Benjamin Abbot, Jonathan 
Abbot, Joseph Chandler, Francis Dane, Joseph Chandler. Jr., Henry 
Chandler, Richard Barker, Joseph Osgood, Josiah Chandler, Stephen 
Barnard, Benjamin Russell, Nathaniel Abbott, Jr., James Barnard, 
Henry Holt, Jr., Joseph Preston, Robert Barnard, Paul Holt, Daniel 
Kimball, Samuel Preston, Jr., Nathaniel Frye, John Carleton, Jr., 
Joseph Parker, Ralph Farnum, Henry Farnum, Thomas Holt, Edward 
Gray, Simon Stone, Braviter Gray, John Russell, Samuel Phelps, 
Joseph Phelps, Hezikiah Ballard, Josiah Ingalls, Richard Barker, Jr., 
Thomas Chandler. Robert Gray, Jacob Maston, Thomas Carrier, Sr., 
Thomas Carrier, Jr., Thomas Abbott, Jr., John Holt, Johu Poor, 
Daniel Poor, Thomas Russell, Daniel Faulkner, Samuel Austin, Ham- 
borough Blunt, William Ward well, Samuel Barker, Joseph Ballard, 
John Abbott, Jr., John Osgood, Jr., Joseph Emery, Joseph Wright, 
John Barnard, Uriah Ballard, Oliver Holt, Moses Holt, John Ingalls, 
John Farnum, Jr., James Stevens, Nathan Stevens, Jr., Abiel Stevens, 
Benjamin Stevens, Jr., David Stevens, Daniel Robinson, Samuel 
Stevens, Ebenezer Osgood, Jeremiah Osgood, Joseph Maston, George 
Abbott, Jr., Joseph Osgood, Mephibosheth Bixby, John Barker, Jr., 
Nehemiah Abbott, Jonathan Farnum, John Abbott, Jr., Daniel Abbott, 
William Barker, Jr., Hannaniah Barker, Johu Barker, Sr., Samuel 
Barker, Jr., Nicholas Holt, Jr., Jacob Preston, Timothy Moar, James 
Holt, Ebenezer Russell, Josiah Holt, Samuel Blunt, Johu Carlton, Sr., 
George Holt, John Foster, Ebenezer Lovejoy, Joseph Lovejoy, Jon- 
athan Blanchard, Samuel Farnum, David Abbott, Ephraim Foster, Jr., 
Samuel Smith, Ephraim Abbott, Henry Lovejoy, John Chandler, Jr., 
Thomas Chandler, Jr., Thomas Johnson, Jr., Ezekiel Osgood, Tim- 
othy Abbott, James Farnum, Joseph Abbott, Joseph Foster, Phile- 
man Chandler, and Christopher Lovejoy." 

Thus we find the town, in 1714, with nearly two hundred propri- 
etors ; and a careful examination will reveal the fact that many of the 
names in this list have descendants residing iu the town, many whom 
are scattered throughout the couutry. 

Indian History. 

" There was a time when red men climbed these Lilts, 
Ami wandered by these plains and n 
Or rowed the light canoe along yon river, 

Or rushed to conflict armed with bow and quiver, 
Or. 'neatb the forest leaves that o'er them hung, 
They council held, or loud their war-notes sung." 

When the little band of settlers removed from Newtown to Cochi- 
cewick, the territory was occupied by the red men of the forest. It 
was a very favorable resort for their mode of living. The laud on the 
bauks of the rivers furnished corn aud beans, while the Merrimac and 



its tributaries furnished them with fish, find the forest the game. No 
better location could have been provided by nature than the spot 
where Roger and his company pitched their tents. The} 7 were free, 
roamed the land at pleasure, ate its fruits as spontaneously produced, 
spending but little time in cultivating maize and roots, their chief 
living coming from their hunting and fishing. 

The new-comers gave an equitable consideration for whatever they 
obtained of the natives, and dealt with them kindly, with justice and 
humanity, so that they suffered but little from the Indians for upwards 
of thirty years. The inhabitants quietly pursued their business of 
clearing the forests, erecting their new homes, and tilling the land, 
till the breaking out of Philip's war in 1675, when it became neces- 
sary to erect garrison-houses for their protection. These were usually 
made by filling bricks between the studding, or making them of thick 
timber, and sometimes they were surrounded by a stockade, a watch 
being kept during the nights. In the time of war, there was a 
garrison-house in every neighborhood in the town, one of which is 
said to be standing at the present time on the west shore of Haggett's 

The first violence or damage occurred to the inhabitants on the nine- 
teenth day of April, 1676, just one hundred years before the battle of 

Mr. Ephraim Stevens discovered the enemy about a mile this side 
of Bodwell's Ferry, but escaped upon his horse, and alarmed the 
inhabitants. The Indians pursued and passed along the main road 
without doing any mischief, till they came to the south part of the 
town, where they killed Joseph Abbott, and took Timothy Abbott. 
These were the sons of George Abbott, Sr. Joseph was stout and 
resolute, and probably made resistance ; and there is a tradition that 
he killed one or more of them before he was slain. He was in his 
twenty-fourth year. Timothy was in his thirteenth year, and was 
kept several months, and was brought back by a squaw who knew 
the family, and was friendly. He had been treated by the Indians as 
well as circumstances would admit; but, as Hubbard says, "was 
greatly pined with hunger." 

At the same time Mr. Faulkner's house was burned, Roger Marks 
was wounded, and his horse killed ; they killed some cattle, but "had 
time only to cut out their tongues, being fired upon by the people in 
the garrison." A few months after, a small party of the enemy sur- 
prised and captured Mr. Haggett, and two of his sons. 

In 1688, the Indians commenced another war with the English. 
Andover suffered more in this than in the preceding war. In August, 
1689, John Peters and Andrew Peters were killed by the Indians ; 
and in the same year, Lieut. John Stevens, Benjamin Lovejoy, Eleazer 
Streaton, and Robert Russell died in the war at the eastward. In 
August, 1696, John Hoit and William Peters were slain. 

But the most severe and distressing shock which Andover ever 
suffered from the Indians, was on the 5th of March, 1698, — "When 
between thirty and forty Indians surprised the town, killed five 
persons, burnt two houses and two barns with the cattle in them — 
set another dwelling house and the meetinghouse on fire; but the 
fires were happily extinguished before they had done much damage." 
The persons killed were Simon Wade, Nathaniel Brown, Penelope 
Johnson, aged nineteen, daughter of Timothy Johnson, Capt. Pas- 
coe Chubb, and Hannah his wife, daughter of Edmond Faulkner. 
Capt. Chubb had been a captain at Pemaquid Fort two years previous, 
when he had treacherously murdered two chiefs of the Indians, and 
had greatly irritated them ; and his death afforded them as much joy 
as the taking of a whole town, because they had taken, though by 
accident, their revenge on him for his barbarity and perfidy to their 

They took Col. Dudley Bradstreet and family, and carried them 
about fifty rods from his house, when they halted and dismissed their 
prisoners without offering them the least injury, a singular instance of 
mercy in a people who had always shown themselves to be cruel, and 

to have no mercy. The tradition is that one Waternummon, an In- 
dian who lived at Newbury, and is supposed to have had a particular 
regard for Col. Bradstreet, undertook to conduct the Indians to his 
house upon these conditions, that the}' should " neither kill nor cap- 
tivate any of his family." They took Abiel Stevens, a lad, who 
feigned himself lame and kept behind : the Indians hastened, expect- 
ing to be pursued, he turned, ran, and made his escape, though fired 
upon by the Indian who took him. 

No assault was made by the Indians upon Andover after this time, 
although other towns in the vicinity had suffered severely. The in- 
habitants were obliged to use caution, and often to repair to garrisons 
for safety. Block-houses became necessary near the Merrimack, to 
secure the fields and laborers. In the spring of 1704, four block- 
houses were built at the expense of the Province, for £8 8s. 10d., by 
Christopher Osgood and John Barker. It w r as very necessary to have 
a block-house in Shawshine fields, as there was no garrison or dwelling- 
house near, and many of the inhabitants raised corn and rye in these 

In September, 1722, the town voted "that there be a new block- 
house builded against Henry Bodwell's, and the other three block- 
houses in said town shall be repaired, all at the town's expense." In 
1735, the block-house in Shawshine fields was sold for 20s. to John 

This was a time that tried men's souls. The inhabitants lived in 
constant fear, their labors being interrupted by the cowardly attacks, 
from behind some tree, or, when least expecting trouble, a group of the 
armed foe would suddenly spring upon the settlement, and destroy 
houses, barns, cattle, and pillage their fields. They had to carry fire- 
arms into the fields when at work, and also to and from their house of 
worship, and while at church, keep a sharp lookout. In short, they 
had ever to be on the alert for any emergency, night and day. 

" Alas for them ! their days are o'er; 
Their fires are out on hill and shore." 

Revolutionary War. 

The history of the Revolution is always read with interest, and as 
the town of Andover was active and zealous in protecting the interests 
of the Colony, and opposing every form of oppression by the mother 
country, it is proper to give a short statement of the part she took 
in the war. In 1765, the famous Stamp Act was one that awakened 
a general indignation throughout the country, and called forth from 
her citizens the strongest kind of resolutions, in view of the threatened 
injuries and abuses, from riotous assemblies, &c. The selectmen, 
militia officers, and magistrates of the town were directed to use their 
utmost endeavors to suppress all such, and the representative to Gen- 
eral Court, Samuel Phillips, Esq., was instructed "not to do any act 
that would signify any willingness to submit to any internal taxes, that 
are under any color imposed by any other than the General Court of 
the Province"; also, he was instructed to join in any remonstrance to 
the king and parliament, to have the Stamp Act repealed. 

In 1768, the new Act, imposing a duty on tea, papers, painter's 
colors, and glass, caused still greater dissatisfaction than the Stamp 
Act, and it was, "Resolved, that it was the duty of every friend of 
liberty, and to the British constitution to prevent, if possible, the exe- 
cution of said Act." The town also voted that they do all in their 
power to support and encourage the non-importation of foreign goods, 
and encourage frugality, industry, and the manufactures of our own 
country, and that "we will not make use of any foreign tea, or suffer 
it to be used in our families (except in case of sickness) until the act 
imposing a duty shall be repealed and a general importation take 
place." Also, resolved, that any person who should under any pre- 
tence whatever, be engaged in vending tea, should incur the displeasure 
of the town. It was also, " Resolved, — That it is the duty of this town 
to conform and firmly adhere to the Association of the grand American 



Continental Congress, and to the resolve of the Provincial Congress of 
Dec. 5, thereto relating," and a committee was appointed to see these 
resolves are strictly observed. 

In December. 1774. it was resolved, "that one quarter part of all 
the training soldiers of the town enlist themselves ; and for their en- 
couragement they are promised pay for every half day they shall 
exercise in the art military." 

Accordingly, two companies were raised in February, 1775, under 
the command of Capt. Benjamin Farnum and Capt. Benjamin Ames, 
which, with others, were regimented under Col. James Five, and 
called minute-men. On the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. these 
companies were ordered to Cambridge. From thence they were 
detached for duty to take possession of Charlestown Heights on the 
16th day of June, and the next day were in the Battle of Bunker Hill. 
There were fifty-eight men in Capt. Ames's company, more than fifty 
of whom were from the South Parish (Andover). in the battle. Three 
were killed and seven wounded. Capt. Farnum was wounded, and 
some of his company. Two of Capt. Charles Furbush's volunteer 
company were killed, Lieut. Samuel Bailey and a private named Corey. 

In 1777. there were four militia companies in the town, which, with 
the alarm-list, consisted of 670 men. There were 187 men under 
command of Capt. Samuel Johnson ; Capt. Nathaniel Lovejoy, 161 
men; Capt. John Abbott, 158 men; and Capt. Joshua Holt, 164 

The service rendered by Capt. Nathaniel Lovejoy "s company 
amounted to 2,127 months, or 175 years and 7 months: and a total of 
the four companies in Andover, 737 years, — equal to 98 men in con- 
stant service during seven and a half years that the war continued. 
This does not include the officers. The amount of money expended 
in the service amounted to $10,671 in specie, and $14,960 in paper, 
somewhat depreciated. Besides the wages paid the soldiers, and the 
extra bounty paid by the town, the mothers and sisters were busy at 
home making stockings, shirts, blankets. &c., for their comfort, and 
the families of absent soldiers were supplied with necessary provisions, 
which was no small expense. The officers who were in in actual ser- 
vice, during the war, were Col. James Frye, Capts. James Beujamin 
Ames, Benjamin Farnum, Samuel Johnson, Charles Furbush, John 
Abbott, and Stephen Abbott. 

Twenty soldiers died during the war, from the South Parish. 

Thus was Andover true to liberty and independence, and fulfilled 
all that was demanded of her, and more, during a long and tedious 

Besides the above list of persons in the Revolutionary War. we find 
recorded seventeen men who died at Louisburg, Nov. 9, 1745 ; also 
seven men who died in the expedition to Lake George, in 1758. 
Seven men died in the war, at the West. In 1760, two died, besides 
others from Andover. 


The active participation of Andover in the War of the Rebellion 
began on the 18th of April, 1861. six days after the bombardment 
of Fort Sumter, and three days after the Proclamation of President 
Lincoln for 75,000 men. This first meeting was held in a hall at 
Five Village, in response to a call of only seven hours' notice. John 
Dove was chosen chairman. After remarks by several persons, it was 
decided to await the action of the citizens on Saturday, the 20th inst. 
At that meeting earnest and patriotic speeches were made, and a scries 
of resolutions were offered by Hon. Marcus Morton, which were re- 
ceived with great applause and adopted. The meeting then adjourned 
to Monday. April 22. at which time a committee of twenty-five were 
chosen to carry into effect such measures as they deem expedient for 
the support and defence of our National Government during the present 

This committee consisted of Francis Cogswell, Peter Smith, John 
Dove, William Chickering, Amos Abbott. Joseph Holt, William P. 

Foster, Nathan Frye, Jedediah Burtt, Stephen D. Abbott, Willard 
Pike, Isaac O. Blunt, James Shaw, George Foster, William Jenkins, 
Calvin E. Stowe, Moses Foster, Jr.. Benjamin F. Wardwell, John 
Aiken, Benjamin Boynton, William Abbott, Nathan Shattuck, John 
Abbott, James Bailey, and Warren F. Draper, who were called a 
:nmittee of Twenty-Five." 

At a legal meeting of the town, held May 6. to make arrangements 
for enlistments, the following resolutions were passed : — 

"Resolved, That we will respond to the call of the President of the 
United States for the means to suppress this Rebellion, by encouraging 
volunteers in this town to enlist in the service of the Government, 
and by providing for their comfort, and the comfort of their families 
in their absence, and by such other means as we, as good and loyal 
citizens, shall have the wisdom and the ability to devise and execute; 
and, adopting the language of one of the resolutions passed by this 
town in 17*7, — 

"Resolved, That the inhabitants of the town, of every description, 
but heads of families in particular, are hereby solicited — as thev 
would falsify the predictions and disappoint the hopes of those who 
are inimical to our independence and happiness ; as they would gratify 
the anxious wishes of our best friends, and the friends of freedom in 
general ; as they regard the political well-being of themselves and 
posterity ; as they hold precious the memory of the heroes and 
patriots, and of our own kindred who have sacrificed their lives that 
we may enjoy the fruits of virtuous freedom — to unite in these res- 
olutions, and to exert their utmost influence in every proper way to 
promote the important design of them." 

A military company was immediately organized, and the officers 
chosen April 30, — Horace Holt, captain, George W. W. Dove, 
Charles H. Poor, Moses W. Clement, Orriu L. Farnham, lieutenants, 
with seventy-nine privates, who were drilled daily, till June 24, wheu 
they went to Fort Warren to await orders, and were afterwards mus- 
tered into the United States service July 5. 1861, and designated Co. 
H, 14th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. They left Boston, Aug. 7, 
for Washington, D. C. This was the first company sent to the war 
from Andover. Other levies followed in rapid succession. The town 
furnished for the army during the war, 549 men ; for the navy, 50 
men, over the various calls; total. 599, and a surplus of 116 men. 
The number killed or deceased from this town was 52, which are 
placed in the roll of honor in Memorial Hall. 

Of the nearly six hundred men, twenty were commissioned officers. 
A glance at the tablet in the hall reveals the names of many who suf- 
fered and died of starvation in the prisons at Danville, Andersonville, 
or Salisbury. The amount of money expended by the town, exclusive 
of State aid, was (30,650, to say nothing of the contributions of the 
"Ladies' Aid Society," "Old South Society,"* who were constantly 
furnishing hospital and sanitary stores, clothing, and money, to the 
value of twenty-five hundred dollars, besides their time and labor. 

To the Memory of 

James H. Bailey. 

Died of dista^ at Washington, D. C, Sept. 14 

Enoch O. Frye. 

Accidentally killed at Fort AlbaDV, Va., Oct- 2 

Charles EL Callahan-. 

Died <_: -a, Mass., Y 

Killed at Gai 

Died of disease at Fort Albany, Va., July 25, 1862. 

William Greeley. 

arrollton, L . -- 

Bernard Kavanaogh, 

Died of disease at Philadelphia, l'a., Aog - 

Edward C. Merrill. 

Died of disease at Carrollton, L 

William H. Luke. 

Died of wounds at Mana- - 

Jefferson X. Baymoxd, 

Died of disease at New Orleans, La., Sept. 13. 

our Patriotic Dead. 

Granville K. Cutler, 

Killed at Spottsylvania, Va , May 19, 1S44. 

Jambs H. Easter 

Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1S64. 

Edward Farmer. 

Killed.. - .nia, Va., May 19, 1S64. 

J. 'Nathan A. Holt. 

Killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19, 1564. 

James H. Rothwell. 

- 1S64. 

Enoch M. Hatch. 

Killed i Va., June U 

Bernard McGirk. 

Killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1S64. 

Orrin L. Farniiam. 
Died of wouods at Bryant's Farm, Va., June 17. 

Epaphbus K. Bryant. 

Died of wounds at Washington, D. C, July 3, 1S64. 

William EOSSEIX, 
Died of wounds at Washington, D. C, July 11, 1S64. 



James Russell, 

Died of disease at Fort Albany, Va., Oct 19, 1862. 

Jambs Jaquitii, 

Died of disease at New Orleans, La., Dec. 1, 1862. 

Henry G. Kimball, 

-Died of disease at Newborn, N. C, Jan. 1, 1S63. 

James W. Merrill, 

Died of disease at Newbcrn, N. C, Jan. 20, 1863. 

Joseph Chandler, Jr., 

Died of disease at New Orleans, La., Mar. 10, 1863. 

Newton G. Frye, 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Mar. 28, 1S63. 

Josiah Mason, 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass. Apr. 7, 1S63. 

James Logue, 
Died of disease at Baton Eouge, La., May 11, 1863. 

Newton Lovejoy, 

Died of disease at Vicksburg, Miss., July 9, 1863. 

William H. Wardwell, 

Accidentally killed at Maryland Heights, Md., Aug. 
1, 1863. 

Charles A. Clement, 

Died of wounds at Gettysburg, Pa., Sept. 30, 1863. 

Died of disease at Fort Strong, Va., Mar. 24, 1864. 

Thomas F. Porter, 

Died of wounds at Hampton, Va., April 15, 1S64. 

James Ward, 

Killed at the Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Samuel Aiken, 

Killed at SpottsylvanlB, Va., May 19, 1S64. 

Israel A. BERRY, 
Died of wounds at City FointrVa., April 22, 1865. 

Thomas A. Bagley, 

Died a prisoner at Andersonyille, Ga., Aug. 28, 1864. 

James B. Black, 

Died of disease at Fortress Monroe, Va., Aug. 30, 1864. 

George W. Grant, 

Died of disease in Second Corps Hospital, Va., Sept. 
7, 1861. 

George A. Bailey, 

Killed at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1S64. 

Franklin Hardy, 

Killed at Poplar Grove Church, Va., Oct. 2, 1864. 

Edward O'Hara, 

Killed at Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 27, 1864. 

Charles P. Barnard. 
Died of disease at Annapolis, Md., Dec. 2, 1864. 

James McCusker, 

Died a prisoner at Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 2, 1864. 

Thomas Wardman, 

Died a prisoner at Danville, Va., Dec. 20, 1864. 

John McCullough, 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Dec. 24, 1864. 

■Walter L. Raymond, 
Died a prisoner at Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 25, 1864. 

George E. Hayward, 

Died of wounds at Andover, Ma6S., July 24, 1865. 

Leonard W. Rtley, 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Aug. 30, 1865. 

Lewis G. Hatch, 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Jan. 4, 1866. 

Samuel P. Farnham, 

Died of disease at Andover, Mass., Jan. 12, 1866. 

Andrew K. Patrick, 

Died of wounds at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Early Church History. 

In nearly all the older towns of New England, the history of the 
church and town were nearly the same; every town, in fact, formed 
a paiish, though it managed its parochial affairs by means of its muni- 
cipal organization, and as soon as a church was formed, agreeably to 
the custom of the early churches, the town was prepared to settle a 
minister, whenever their circumstances would allow him the necessary 
support. We rind provision was made for stated and regular church 
worship at Andover at an early date. Hubbard says : "Sept. 19, 1645. 
Two churches were appointed to be gathered, one at Haverhill, the 
other at Andover, both on Merrimack River. They had given notice 
thereof to the magistrates and ministers of the neighboring churches, 
as is the manner with them in New England. The meeting of the 
Assembly was to be at that time at Rowley ; the forementioned planta- 
tions, being but newly erected, were not capable to entertain them that 
were likely to be gathered together on that occasion. But when they 
were assembled, most of those who were to join together in church fel- 
lowship, at that time, refused to make confession of their faith and 
repentance, because as was said, they declared it openly before in 
other churches, upon their admission into them. Whereupon the 
messengers of the churches not being satisfied, the assembly brake 
up, before they had accomplished what they intended." 

"On the 24th of October 1645, messengers of churches met 
together again, when such satisfaction was given, that Mr John Ward 
was ordained pastor of the church in Haverhill, ou the north side of 
the Merrimack, and Mr John Woodbridge was ordained pastor of 
the church of Andover, on the South Side of the same." 

These were the twenty-third and twenty-fourth churches organized 
in Massachusetts. The church of Andover consisted of ten male 
members, including the pastor; viz., Mr. John Woodbridge, teacher, 
John Osgood, Robert Barnard, John Frye, Nicholas Holt, Richard 
Barker, Joseph Parker, Nathan Parker, Richard Blake, Edmond 
Faulkner. A number of others were added soon after. 

Mr. Woodbridire remained with them but a short time, having 
resigucd in 1647, and returned to England. Mr. Francis Dane suc- 
ceeded Mr. Woodbridge, and had a long and successful pastorate of 
forty-eight years. He died Feb. 17, 1697, aged eighty-two years. 
It appears that during his ministry, harmony prevailed among his 
people, and the worship and ordinances of religion were well attended. 

Jan. 13, 1682, the town voted "to give Rev Thomas Barnard a 
call to settle here in Andover for the carrying on of the work of the 
ministry amongst us," with a salary of eighty pounds per annum. 
In 1683, "voted to give Mr Barnard five pounds of his salary, in 
silver during his abode in the ministry." Mr. Barnard was a col- 
league pastor with Mr. Dane fifteen years, with the most friendly 
relations existing between them. His ministry was satisfactory and 
successful during twenty-eight years that he served the town. 

The first meeting-house in the town, of which we have any account, 
was built near the old burial-ground, in the North Parish, near where 
the first settlement was made. It had two galleries, one above the 
other, and a bell. This house stood till 1711, when a new one was 
erected, near the same spot. Up to this date, the people from every 
section of the town repaired to this house for worship, and this was 
the only one for many years in the town. 

About, the year 1707, the parsonage belonging to the town was 
destroyed by fire ; and the town provided a new one, and fortified it 
against the Indians. 

About this time the subject of a new meeting-house agitated the 
minds of the people, and several town-meetings were held to consider 
the matter of location. After much and protracted discussion, and 
no agreement being made among the citizens, the town immediately 
petitioned the General Court for a committee to fix a location. The 
committee, after a thorough inquiry into the subject, judged the town 
able to support two ministers, and on the second day of November, 
1708, that body,— 

"Ordered, That the town be divided into two distinct precincts, 
and that Col [Francis] Wainwright, Major [Stephen] Sewall, and 
Major [HenryJ Somersby, and Nehemiah Jcwett, Esq. be a comit- 
tee to perform that division and make it equal for North and South 
precincts, within the space of two months, next coming, unless in the 
interim the town agree thereon and make it themselves, and that 
thereupon the North Division take the present meeting-house, and 
repair and add to it as they please. 

" That there be forthwith laid out for the minister of the South pre- 
cinct fourteen acres of land for a house lot, and forty acres at a further 
distance, part of it lowland, to make meadow, of the common land in 
said precinct, which will make them equal to the other division, to be 
for the use of the ministry forever. 

" That, the inhabitants and proprietors of the South Division build 
a convenient meeting-house for their own use, and a ministry house." 

"Upon all which Mr. Barnard, the present minister, shall declare 
his choice of which congregation he will officiate in, and that precinct, 
North or South, shall fully and wholly perform the past contract of 
the town with him, and the other precinct or division of the town 
shall call and settle another minister for themselves. 

"And the inhabitants of the respective precincts and divisions are 
hereby impowered to make choice of some discreet persons among 
themselves, as committees, to manage and govern their affairs with 
respect to building a meeting-house and ministry house, the making 
assessments to defray the charge thereof, and for the support of the 
ministry, and to appoint collectors to gather the same; — and are 
advised and directed to proceed in these several articles with that 
peace and friendship, one towards another, that they may honor relig- 
ion, the government, and themselves." 

The committee appointed for the purpose of establishing the bound- 
ary lines between the parishes, fixed upon the following, as reported 
to the General Court, April 12, 1709; viz., "Bcgining at a great 
pitch pine tree, near Merrimack River, marked with stones about it, 
and the west corner of Richard Barker's land, and is said to be the 
bounds between his land and John Gutterson's laud, so called, from 
said pine tree on a straight line to a stake and heap of stones about it 
at the corner bounds between Walter Wright and Hooker Osgood, 
and from thence on a straight line to a white oak tree marked 
A and R, being a bound tree between said town of Andover and 



Reading, with stones about it, standing ou a hill known as Osgood's 

The town having neglected to lay out the land and lot, for the use 
of the ministry, the General Court appointed the same committee, 
Feb. 16, 1710, to perform that duty ; and ou the seventh day of 
November of the same year, the precinct petitioned that Mr. Baruard 
be directed to choose which precinct he would select. He remained 
in the north precinct. The town having been divided into the two 
parishes as above, all parochial affairs were conducted separately. 
The boundary line was nearly the present town line separating the 
towns of Andover and North Andover, and runs north-west and south- 
east, in very near a straight course. That portion of territory east 
of the line was known as the North Parish, now North Andover, that 
on the west, the South Parish, now Andover. 

South Parish. — Immediately after the incorporation of this parish, 
they began to build a meeting-house, which they occupied in January, 
1710. It was built "At y 8 Rock on the west side of Roger brook," 
and near the site of the present centre school-house at the junction of 
School and Central streets. No definite account of the building is 
given, although we find " voting men and maids had liberty to build 
seats round in the galleries on their own charge," and in " seating 
the meeting-house," the committee appointed for the purpose were to 
"act according to their best and soundest judgment, having respect to 
money and age." 

At a meeting held Dec. 12, 1710, "Voted unanimously, that Mr 
Samuel Phillips be our settled minister," and "that the precinct would 
pay Mr Phillips £60 in money a year while he carries on the work of 
the ministry among us in an unmarried state ; and when he shall see 
reason to marry, then to add to his salary £10 a year, so long as he shall 
continue in the work of the ministry among us ; " and would build a 
parsonage ; and that, if "it should please God to take away Mr. Phil- 
lips by death, and he leave a widow or children, that then the precinct 
would give to his widow or children £50 and the use of the parsonage 
house one year." 

Oct. 17, 1711, Mr. Samuel Phillips was ordained their pastor by 
the Rev. Thomas Barnard, of the North Parish, Mr. Edward Pavson, 
of Rowley, Mr. Joseph Green, of Salem Village, aud Mr. Thomas 
Symmes, of Bradford. Mr. Phillips entered upon his work immedi- 
ately, and labored successfully with this people for sixty years, and 
died June 5, 1771, aged 82 years. 

On the sixth day of June, 1732, it was "voted and passed, that the 
precinct will build a new meeting house upon the school-house hill, 
known aud commonly called Roger's Hill." The building was fifty- 
six feet long, forty-four feet wide, and thirty feet between plate and 
sill. Mr. Phillips preached the first sermon in this house, May 19, 
1734, from 1 Chron. xxix. 13, 14. The last sermon was preached by 
Mr. Phillips in the old house, May 12, 1734, from John xiv. 31 , " Arise, 
let us go hence." The following is a description of the old building, 
as given in the recollection of one* who was familiar with the old 
church, aud will serve to illustrate early days in Andover : — 

"It was surrounded by horse-blocks innumerable, with a dispropor- 
tionate number of sheds ; — for the pillion was the ladies' travelling 
delight, and alone or in pairs, with their husbands or fathers, they sel- 
dom failed to come trooping to their devotions. The church itself 
was a shingled mass, lofty, and, I should think containing twice the 
area of its successor. This, however, may be the exaggeration of my 
boyish fancy, but it had three lofty stories, with three galleries, in the 
interior, always densely tilled with apparently pious zeal, and earnest 
listeners. In the left hand gallery sat the ladies, in the right the gen- 
tlemen ; in the midst of them and in front sat the tything man, with 
his white pole, three or four cubits in length, the emblem of his dig- 
nity and power, and in his right hand a short hazel rod, which, ever 
aud auon, in the midst of the sermon, to the awakening and alarm of 
the whole congregation, he would, with the whole force of his arm, 

* Hon. Josiali Qnincy. 

bring down with a ringing slap on the front of the gallery, shaking it 
at the same time, with a terrific menace, at two or three urchins who 
were whispering or playing in a coiner. In a square box in front of 
the pulpit sat the deacons, one of whom had pen, ink, and paper, and 
was carefully taking the heads of the preachers discourse, preparing 
documentary evidence, either that the sermon was old or its doctrines 
new, or consonant with the orthodox platform. In the front gallery 
sat the precenter, with a pitch-pipe, the token of his authority, with 
which, as soon as the first line of the Psalm was read, he gave the 
note to the choir of both sexes, — twenty or thirty of each, — follow- 
ing the Deacon, reading line by line in an ecstasy of harmony which 
none but the lovers of music realize. ' How pleased and blessed 
was I,' &c. The windows of this vast building were of diamond- 
shaped glass paDes, of Rhomboid form, in length about three or four 
inches, iu breadth, perhaps two or three. Opening like doors out- 
ward, these windows were loose and shackly. In the winter, when 
the north wind shook the vast building with unmistakable power, 
their rattling was often a match, and sometimes an overmatch, for 
the voice of the clergyman ; while the pious females in the pews, sit- 
ting, for the most part, on hard benches, with small muffs, and their 
feet ouly comforted with small stoves, or stockings over shoes, or 
heated bricks, had much ado through their suffering to keep their 
attention fixed, or the text in memory, and register the infinitesimal 
heads into which it was divided." 

In 1781, "The scholars iu Phillips Academy were allowed the three 
back seats in the lower front gallery." 

The last meeting in this second meeting-house was held April 20, 
1788. The last sermon was from Haggai i. 7, 8. As early as Sep- 
tember, 1771, the subject of building a new meeting-house was 
agitated ; and proposals for the division of the parish, on account of 
the "length of travel to the public worship," was thoroughly discussed 
for several years, and, after twelve years had passed, it was decided 
to build "within six or eight rods, of where the meeting house now 
stands." The dimensions of the new house were seventy feet long, 
fifty-four feet in width, " with a porch at each end and one in front of 
the house." It was built after the model of the one in the North 
Parish. The house was raised May 26 and 27, and the first meeting 
for worship held Dec. 7, 1788. The Rev. Jonathan French preached 
the sermon from John x. 22, 23. 

In June, 1792, Samuel Abbot, Esq., presented the bell for the 
church, weighing eleven hundred pounds ; and on the 5th of March, 
1812, the same person presented the clock in the tower. 

The first stoves used in the church were in 1821. Previous to this 
time a building had been erected near by, in which people were accus- 
tomed to warm themselves at noon before an open fire. 

An organ was purchased by the parish in 1836. In 1832, Mrs. 
Mary Ballard presented them a clock for the interior of the church. A 
vestry was built by individuals in 1815, at the suggestion of Rev. Mr. 
Edwards, the church paving $300 towards finishing; this was after- 
wards relinquished to the parish. 

This old meeting-house served the purpose for which it was intended 
till 1833, when extensive alterations, amounting to $3,000, were 
made, the eutire building remodelled, the old square pews giving way 
to the more modern long pews, the pulpit changed from the front to 
the south end, the galleries changed to correspond, and the front porch 
removed; thus things remained till, in 1860, preparations were made 
for a new church edifice. A new building, 109 feet long, 71 feet wide, 
with a spire 164 feet high, was erected in that year, which was dedi- 
cated Jan. 2. 1861. In this new edifice there is a basement, divided 
into rooms, for library, committee, and Sabbath-school rooms, con- 
veniently arranged. It has an audience-room, containing 132 circu- 
lar pews, capable of seating 700 persons, besides a gallery on three 
sides, seating 200 persons. The speaker's desk stands on an elevated 
platform, four feet above the principal floor, and is very neat and 
tasty. It is lighted by brackets extending from the walls, and 



heated by furnaces placed in the basement. The same bell and clock 
from the old church is in the new tower. The pews are uniformly 
upholstered, and the house carpeted throughout. The house is of the 
Romanesque style of architecture, and cost about $20,000. 

The. following is a brief account of the pastors in Andover, in the 
order of settlement, and referred to above, before and after the divi- 
sion of the town. 

The Rev. John Woodbridge was born in Stanton, Eng., in 1613. 
Came to New England in 1634, and took up land in Newbury. He mar- 
ried a daughter of lion. Thomas Dudley, and was one of the first set- 
tlers of Andover, and purchased the land of the Indians. He first came 
with the settlers as teacher; ordained as pastor in October, 1645. It 
has been said he was the first ordained minister in the county, and 
the second in New England. He died in March, 1695, aged 82 years. 

The Rev. Francis Dane was successor of Mr. Woodbridge. He was 
born in England, and completed his education in this country ; but of 
his coming to Andover, or of his ordination, but little is known. He 

was ordained about 1648. His wife was Elizabeth , who died 

June, 1676. At an advanced age, he married the widow of George 
Abbott, Sr., who died June, 1711, aged 83. He died Feb. 17, 1697, 
aged 82 years, having had official connection with the church for 
forty-eight years. 

The Rev. Thomas Barnard was settled as colleague with Mr. Dane for 
fifteen years, in 1682. He was a graduate of Harvard College, 1679. 
He was son of Francis Barnard, of Had ley. He died Oct. 13, 1718, 
aged 62 years, and in the thirty-seventh year of his ministry. 

The Rev. Samuel Phillips, the first pastor of the South Parish, was 
son of Samuel Phillips, of Salem ; born Feb. 17, 1690. Graduate of 
Harvard College, 1708. Commenced preaching in this parish April 
30, 1710, and was ordained Oct. 17, 1711. After graduating he 
taught school one year at Chcbacco (now Essex), and then devoted 
himself to preparation for the ministry. He was considered a "worthy, 
learned, and pious minister," and his people were remarkably united 
in him. He was endowed with good powers of mind, and was a dili- 
gent, faithful, and useful minister." He was noted for his habits of 
order, industry, and economy in the management of all his affairs. 
He devoted a tenth of his income to pious and charitable purposes, 
and although his salary was small, yet he educated his family liberally 
and accumulated a large estate. During his pastorate, he maintained 
constant intimacy and friendship with the ministers of the North 
Parish, and was highly respected by all the ministerial brethren, and 
was frequently invited to preach on public occasions. His publica- 
tions are numerous, a large number of which were composed for his 
own people. At his death he left £100 as an abiding fund for the 
relief of indigent persons in the South Parish ; also £100 for the pious 
and charitable use of propagating Christian knowledge among the 
Indians of North America. But among the most important of all was 
his legacy to the parish and the world, in the lives of his children, 
whose names are as familiar to the people of Andover as household 
words. He died after a pastorate of fifty-nine years, June 5, 1771, 
aged 81 years. 

The next pastor of the South Parish was the Rev. Jonathan 
French, son of Moses French, born in Braintree, Jan. 30, 1740. He 
worked on his father's farm till seventeen j'ears of age, and then 
enlisted as private in the army in March, 1757, and repaired imme- 
diately to Fort Edward. Soon after this he was disabled 1)}' sickness 
and returned home in October. He was next on duty at Castle Wil- 
liam, in Boston Harbor, and there resolved upon a collegiate educa- 
tion. In this he was aided and encouraged by the chaplains, and at 
once began the study of the classics, and often while being rowed 
back and forth from Boston to the fort, he was earnestly engaged in 
his studies. Soon after this, he rcsigued the sword, and entered Har- 
vard College, from whence he graduated in 1771, and was in the class 
with Samuel Phillips, Jr., and David Osgood. Installed pastor of 
South Church, Sept. 23, 1772, and died July 28, 1809, aged 69 years, 

at the close of a successful ministry of thirty-six years. As a 
preacher he was highly respectable and popular. His discourses 
were plain, practical, and unadorned ; his voice pleasant, strong, and 
piercing. He was an active and useful trustee of Phillips Academy. 
He assisted large numbers in their preparation for the ministry ; so 
that his home was really a Divinity school. 

The Rev. Justin Edwards succeeded Mr. French in the pastorate of 
this parish. He was born in Westhampton, April 25, 1787. En- 
tered Williams College Oct. 8, 1807, and graduated in 1810. He 
was ordained pastor Dec. 2, 1812, and remained in Andover till Oct. 
1, 1827. An agency for the American Temperance Society next 
engaged his labors, till his installation as pastor of the Salem Street 
Church, Boston, Jan. 1, 1828. His health failing, he resigned, and 
was dismissed Aug. 20, 1829. From that time he was engaged in 
his former labors as corresponding secretary of the society, forming 
societies, delivering addresses, and using his endeavors in private coun- 
sels to promote the cause of temperance as well as religion. On the 
seventh day of September, 1836, he was inaugurated president of the 
theological seminary at Andover, which position he held for six years, 
his connection with the seminary ceasing April 19, 1842. Again, he 
engaged in the cause of temperance for one year, and then became 
secretary of the American and Foreign Sabbath Union. From 1849 
to his death, July 24, 1853, he was employed by the American Tract 
Society, in preparing a brief commentary of the Bible for popular use. 
The honorary degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him 
from Yale College, 1827. His publications are numerous and valua- 
ble. It is said that the "American Tract Society has circulated more 
pages from his pen than from the pen of any writer, living or dead." 

"It was during the last six years of his ministry in Andover, which 
was the culminating period of his ability. He had then become a 
recognized force; a living power felt by all the men, women, and 
children throughout the extended Parish." 

The Rev. Milton Badger was the next pastor, who was ordained Jan. 
3, 1828 ; born in Coventry, Conn., May 6, 1800. Graduate of Yale 
College, 1823. Student at Andover Theological Seminary, 1824-5. 
Tutor at Yale College, 1826-7. Ordained pastor, Jan. 3, 1828. 
Dismissed, Oct. 4, 1835. During the seven and one-half years of 
his ministry, it was a continuous revival, 330 persons having joined 
the church, most of whom were on profession. 

The Rev. Lorenzo L. Langstroth, born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 25, 
1810, became the next pastor. Ordained May 11, 1836. Graduated 
at Yale College, 1831. Tutor in Yale College, 1834-35. Dismissed, 
March 30, 1839. Was principal of Abbot Female Academy one 
year. Removed to Greenfield, Mass., and taught high school for 
young ladies, and preached as stated supply for the Second Church in 
that town two or three of these years ; afterwards installed pastor, 
Dec. 20, 1843. Dismissed, Feb. 15, 1848. Next established a 
young ladies' school in Philadelphia ; taught four years ; and, after 
being a stated supply at Coleraine, Mass., two years, removed to 
Oxford, Ohio, and became connected with a school for young ladies. 

The sixth pastor was the Rev. John L. Taylor, D.D. Born in War- 
ren, Conn , May 20, 1811, graduated at Yale College, 1835. Was a 
teacher in the high school at Ellington, Conn., in 1835-1837. Tutor 
and student of divinity in Yale College, 1837-1839. Ordained pas- 
tor of Old South Church, Andover, July 18, 1839. Having been 
elected Treasurer of the Trustees of Phillips Academy, June 1, 1852, 
he requested his dismission. "In yielding to his wishes, the church 
deemed it but just to record their conviction that he had performed 
the duties of his high office with great ability, fidelity, and discretion ; 
and to assure him that he carried with him their confidence, respect, 
warm personal attachment, and Christian sympathy." He was dis- 
missed after a successful pastorate of thirteen years. 

In 1868, Middlebury College conferred the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity upon him. 

After serving sixteen years as Treasurer, he was called to fill the 



chair of " Smith Professor of Theology and Homiletics, and Lecturer 
on Pastoral Theology," in Andover Theological Seminary, which po- 
sition be now holds. 

Among his published works are : A New Year's Discourse, Jan. 5, 
1851 ; An excellent Memoir of the Hon. Samuel Phillips, LL.D.,39l 
pages, in 1856 ; Inaugural Address as Smith Professor in the Special 
Course of the Seminary. Aug. 5, 1868 ; Commemorative Discourse on 
the Death of Rev. Amos Blanchard, D.D., at Lowell, Jan. 23, 1870; 
Memorial Discourse on the Last Sabbath of Service in Bartlett 
Chapel, Oct. 1. 187(5. In 1858, Mr. Taylor was entrusted with the 
care and compilation of the Addresses and Doings of the Semi-Cen- 
tennial celebration of the Theological Seminary, at Andover, in 1858, 
besides the Memoirs of John Aiken, and the Hon. William Phillips, 
in the "Congregational Quarterly," &c. 

The Rev. Charles Smith succeeded Dr.'Taylor. He was born in Hat- 
field, Mass.. Aug. 9. 1818; graduated at Amherst College in 1842: 
Andover Theological Seminary, 1845. First settled and ordained at 
Warren, Oct. 12, 1847; dismissed, April 13, 1852. Installed over 
the Old South Church. Oct. 28, 1852; dismissed, Nov. 28, 1853. 
Ordained pastor of the Shawmut Church, Bostou, Dec. 8, 1853 ; dis- 
missed, Nov. 8, 1858. 

The church were without a pastor for nearly two years, till June 4. 
1855, when the Rev. George Mooar, of the West Parish, Andover, was 
invited to become their pastor, and was ordained Oct. 10, 1855. He 
was born May 27, 1830; fitted for college at Phillips Academy, 
graduated at Williams College, 1851. Taught school one year; pur- 
sued his theological studie- at Andover, and graduated 1855. Dis- 
missed, and removed to Oakland, Cal., in 1861; and also Professor 
in Pacific Theological Seminary. 

The next pastor was the Rev. Charles Smith, before mentioned, who 
was recalled, and settled in December, 1861, and continued about 
fifteen years. Dismissed, and now resides in Andover. 

The Rev. James H. Laird is the present pastor. Ordained in 1877. 

West Parish. — This parish had its origin in the Old South Church 
of Andover, in consequence of the Old South Society being too large 
for the labors of one pastor. The South Parish " voted, Feb. 6, 1826, 
to build a house of worship on the west side of the Shawsheen River." 

On the 12th of March following, they reconsidered the vote, and 
" Voted, that should the people on the west side of the Shawsheen 
River erect a meeting house at their own expense, they have the cor- 
dial approbation of the Parish." The mectingdiouse was then built 
by private enterprise, in shares. The corner-stone was laid June 15, 
1826, and it was dedicated Dec. 26, 1826. The dedicatory address was 
preached by the Rev. Dr. Edwards, of the Old South Church. The 
house was built of stone from the quarries near by, and was sixty-four 
feet long, fifty-two feet wide, and twenty-five feet high, costing nearly 
six thousand dollars ; and contained ninety-eight pews, and a seating 
capacity for more than six hundred people. The first Sabbath service 
was held Dec. 31, 11 

On the twenty-eighth day of November, 1826, fifty-six members, 
principally from the Old South Church, received dismission, and were 
organized into a new church under the name of " West Church of 
Andover." The services on that occasion were held in the old 
church, where a sermon was preached by the Rev. Samuel Stearns, 
of Bedford, and the church was founded upon a purely evangelical 

When the new meeting-house was completed, application was made 
to the General Court, to divide the parish, and define its limits. The 
Legislature of 1^27 incorporated them within the following bounds: 
"Beginning near the Tewksbury line, it runs near Mr. Aaron Frost's, 
thence northerly to the hop-kiln, near Lieut. Peter French's ; thence 
north-eastwardly, to a white-oak tree, standing on land of David Baker, 
near the road leading from Holt's Bridge, so called, to Capt. Solo- 
mon Holt's ; thence north-eastwardly, to the corner of the road leading 
from Mr. E. L. Herrick's to the paper-mill; thence by said road, to 

the bridge crossing the Shawsheen River at the paper-mill ; thence by 
said river to the North Parish Bounds." 

The parish includes the following school districts; viz., Bailey, 
Osgood, Abbot, West Centre, Frye, and North Districts. 

At the time of its organization, this parish contained a population 
of 870 persons, divided into 158 families. 

There has always been the most perfect union between the "Old 
South Church " and this West Church. 

A portion of the ministerial fund has been paid yearly to the new 
church since its organization. 

Pastors in the West Parish. — The Rev. Samuel Cram Jackson, 
D.D., the first pastor of the West Church, was born March 13, 1802, 
in Dorset, Vt. Fitted for college with his father, the Rev. William 
Jackson, D.D., one of the founders of the American Educatioual So- 
ciety. Graduated at Middlebury College. 1821. Studied law with 
Hon. Richard Skinner, at Manchester, N. H., 1821-1822: Yale Col- 
lege Law School, 1822-1823. Entered Andover Theological Semi- 
nary in 1823. graduating in 1826. Received a call to settle as pastor 
of the West Church, Apr. 3, 1827, and was ordained June 6, 1827, 
the Rev. Moses Stuart preaching the ordination sermon, from 2 Tim. 
ii. 15, where he remained a successful, devoted pastor, till 1S49, when 
he was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of 
Education, and Assistant Librarian of the State Library. He con- 
tinued in that position till 1876, when ill-health compelled him to re- 
sign. He was succeeded by the Hon. Oliver Warner. Dr. Jackson was 
the first person who held that position, and his acquaintance was ex- 
tensive throughout the country. On the seventh day of January, 1843, 
he preached the famous annual election sermon before the governor, and 
both branches of the Massachusetts Legislature, which caused consider- 
able discussion as to its meaning. It was, however, au able sermon, 
entitled, "Religious Principle a Source of Prosperity." In 1849, his 
alma mater conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him. He 
was, at his death, one of the Trustees of the Andover Theological 
Seminary, and Phillips Academy, having been chosen in 1847. He 
was also, for many years, a director of the "American Education 

For several years previous to his death, he was in feeble health, and 
had travelled South, during his pastorate of twenty-two years, and 

He died highly respected by all who knew him, and, during his 
settlement as a pastor, his relations with the ministerial brethren in 
the vicinity of his labors were of the most cordial and friendly char- 
acter. He died July 26, 1878, of paralysis. 

Among his published sermons are, his annual sermon, Dec. 30, 
1827, on "The Blessings of the Year ; " a temperance sermon, entitled, 
"License Law Vindicated," delivered Nov. 28, 1839; Funeral Ser- 
mou on the Death of the Rev. Sylvester G. Pierce, of Methueu. Mass., 
May, 1839. 

The Rev. Charles Henry Peirce, the second pastor, was born in Peru, 
Mas*., Nov. 29, 1822. Graduated at Oberlin College, Ohio, in 1845. 
Taught two years, and then pursued his theological studies at Andover 
Seminary, graduating in 1850. He was installed as pastor, Oct. 9, 
1850, the Rev. Mr. Towne, of Lowell, preaching the sermon. After 
preaching here about five years, he removed to Illinois, in July, 1855. 
Settled in Kewanee, Henry County, where he engaged in organizing 
a church, and building a house of worship, where he remained three 
years, preaching a short time at Neponset, Bureau County: and, 
March 1, 1860, removed to Knoxville, remaining eighteen months. 
Installed over the Second Congregational Church, in Millbury, Mass., 
Oct. 22, 18i52, where he died. Oct. 5, 1865, greatly beloved by a 
lar^e circle of friends, and esteemed by all for his manlv and kind 
qualities and liberality of spirit, and his ability as a preacher. 

The Rev. James H. Merrill was the third pastor. Graduated at 
Dartmouth College. 1834; Andover Theological Seminary, 1839. 
Teacher in academy at Fryeburgh, Me., 1835-1837. Ordained Nov. 



26, 1839. Settled at Montague, Mass., 1839-1855. Installed over 
the West Church, Andover, April 30, 1856 ; is now their pastor. 

Seminary Church. — Previous to 1816, the people connected with 
Phillips Academy and the Theological Seminary had worshipped with 
the " Old South Church." On the twenty-second day of August of 
that year, a new church was organized in the seminary, and was under 
the direction and control of the trustees. That mode of conducting 
the affairs of the church, was changed on the first day of November, 
1865, when a properly Congregational church was duly organized by 
a council, and contained seventy members. 

Soon after the First Seminary Church was formed, in 1816, William 
Bartlctt, Esq. , of Newburyport, the generous donor, erected a large and 
"elegant" building of brick, ninety-four feet long and forty feet wide, 
containing a chapel, library, and three lecture-rooms, which was com- 
pleted and presented to the seminary, and was publicly dedicated 
Sept. 22, 1818. The pulpit of this church was supplied by professors 
of the seminary, including such men as Dr. Woods, Dr. Porter, Prof. 
Stuart, Prof. Emerson, Dr. Skinner, Dr. Justin Edwards, and Dr. 
B. B. Edwards, and others. 

This church has recently erected a beautiful gothic chapel, 120 feet 
long, 53 feet wide, with seating for 528 persons. It is built of rubble 
masonry, and has a tower at the north-west corner, rising to the 
height of 128 feet. The inside finish is of ash, the windows of 
stained glass, with a wall of elegant soft tints. The building is situ- 
ated in the corner of the seminary grounds, and faces west. The 
stone is from West Andover, trimmed with light Ohio stone, and 
Connecticut red sandstone. 

The services of dedication were held Oct. 2, 1876, Prof. Egbert C. 
Smyth preaching the sermon. 

A Methodist church was established in this town in 1830, with 
preaching in the "Bank Hall"; a meeting-house was built soon after, 
and, at times, the society seemed to flourish; but, in 1840, it began 
to give out, and the building passed into other hands. 

In the latter part of 1832, a Baptist church was recognized, the 
public services of recognition being held in the Old South Church, by 
invitation, Oct. 3, 1832. Their meeting-house was dedicated Aug. 
28, 1834. 

The Rev. James Huckins, installed Aug. 28, 1834; resigned, Oct. 

25, 1835. 

The Rev. George J. Carlton, installed June 15, 1836; resigned, 
Oct. 5, 1838. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Hervey, invited Aug. 11, 1839: left, , 


The Rev. Benjamin S. Cobbett, ordained Feb. 8, 1842 ; resigned, 
Oct. 5, 1847. 

The Rev. Silas B. Randall, came Oct. 1, 1848 ; left, Oct. — , 1849. 

The church dissolved itself Dec. 8, 1857; many of its members 
uniting with the church at Lawrence. July 28, 1858, a new Baptist 
church was recognized. The Rev. William S. McKenzie as pastor, 
Litchfield. The present pastor is the Rev. Henry R. Wilbur. 

Protestant Episcopal services were performed in Andover for the 
first time in 1835, the Rt. Rev. B. B. Smith, of Kentucky, officiating, 
in Bank Hall. The first meeting in reference to the formation of a 
society, was held July 28th of the same year. The first parish meet- 
ing was held Aug. 6, 1835. The first communion was April 3, 1836. 
During the years 1837 and 1838, fourteen members from the Old 
South were dismissed, and became communicants with this new- 
church, which had taken the name of "Christ Church." Their new 
church edifice was consecrated Oct. 31, 1837. 

Hectors. — The Rev. James H. Tyng, 1836; the Rev. Joseph H. 
Clinch, 1837; the Rev. Samuel Fuller, D.D., Oct. 1, 1837, to June 

26, 1843; the Rev. George Packard, 1843-1845; the Rev. Henry 
Waterman, December, 1845 — June 5, 1849 ; the Rev. Samuel Fuller, 
D.D., Oct, 1, 1849 — Oct. 1, 1859; the Rev. B. B. Babbitt; James 
Thompson. The present pastor is the Rev. Malcomb Douglas. 

A Universalist church was founded in 1837, and a meeting-house 
built in 1838. Public services have been very irregularly sustained, 
and for several years entirely suspended, and the building is now 
used for school purposes, on Main Street. 

"The Free Christian Church," of Andover, was organized in 1846, 
with forty-four original members, fourteen of whom were from the 
Old South Church. It was organized by a council of churches, May 
7, 1846, although services were held by them several Sabbaths earlier. 
For several years services were held in the Universalist church ; but, 
in 1849, the Methodist church was purchased, removed, and remod- 
elled for their use. The pastors have been the Rev. Elijah C. Win- 
chester, February, 1846 — September, 1848; the Rev. Sherlock Bris- 
tol, October, 1848 — October, 1849; the Rev. William B. Brown, 
August, 1850 — April, 1855; the Rev. Caleb E. Fisher, June, 1855 
— May, 1859; the Rev. S. C. Leonard, September, 1859; the Rev. 
E. S. Williams ; the Rev. George F. Wright is the present pastor. 

Religious services were first commenced at Ballardvale in 1847. 
First, a Sabbath school ; and then evening meetings were conducted 
by persons from neighboring churches and the seminary. Episcopal 
services were held in Depot Hall till August, 1849. Worship in that 
form not receiving .sufficient support, a Union Society was formed, 
and a preacher employed for six months. At the end of that time, 
he joined the New England Conference, and gathered a Methodist 
church about the early part of 1850. The Methodist Society erected 
a meeting-house in 1851. Services have been held somewhat irregu- 
larly, they not having been able to support a resident preacher. 

The Union Society repaired to Union Hall, where they maintained 
public worship till the erection of their new meeting-house, which 
was dedicated to public worship Sept, 3, 1866. The Rev. Henry Solo- 
mon Green has been their pastor since its formation, in 1854. He was 
installed by a council of Congregational churches, April 1, 1855. 
Their new house has a seating capacity for three hundred persons. 

Phillijis Academy is the oldest incorporated academy in the State ; 
was founded April 21, 1778; incorporated Oct. 4, 1780. It had its 
origin in the liberality of Hon. Samuel Phillips, of Andover, Mass., 
and his brother, Hon. John Phillips, of Exeter, N. H., sons of the Rev. 
Samuel Phillips, the first pastor of "Old South Church," Andover. 
The original design of the founders was rather a private establish- 
ment, to be under the personal supervision of the donors, than a pub- 
lic high school. The first object of this institution is declared to be 
the promotion of virtue and true piety ; the second, instruction in the 
English, Latin, and Greek languages, together with writing, arithmetic, 
music, and the art of speaking; the third, practical geometry, logic, 
and geography; and the fourth, such other of the liberal arts and 
sciences, or languages, as opportunity and ability may hereafter admit, 
and the trustees shall direct. 

Although these two Phillips brothers furnished the means for estab- 
lishing: this institution, there is still another that deserves more than a 
passing notice, — -one who was the "real projector and chief patron of 
Phillips Academy." It was the Hon. Samuel Phillips, Jr., a grandson 
of the Rev. Samuel Phillips. " It was the favorite work of his life " ; and 
although overwhelmed with the cares and duties incident to public 
life and office throughout the exciting days of our struggles with the 
mother country, yet he found time to plan and to carry out his original 
ideas of a classical school in his native town of Andover. He suc- 
ceeded in diverting funds of his father and his uncle, of which he was 
the legal and presumptive heir, and inducing them to endow this 
school as joint founders. They entered heartily into his plans, and 
intrusted him with the labor of executing the same. The first thing to 
be decided upon was the location of the school. Efforts, earnest and 
repeated, were made to obtain a location near his own and his father's 
residence, in the North Parish, and many attempts were made to pur- 
chase the present site of Dr. Thomas Kittridge's house, with the 
grounds adjoining. Failing in this, they began to look elsewhere. 
and during the month of January, 1777, made their first purchase of 



land of Solomon "Ward well, situated on the present southerly corner 
of Main and Phillip? street?, and extending along the old road as far 
as the old well, on the common, south-east of the first printing- 
house, containing twenty-two acres, or thereabouts, besides another 
lot of seventeen acres on the opposite side of Main Street, in the 
westerly part of the present seminary grounds. On the first of March, 
the same year, another purchase was made, of twelve acres, on the 
north side of Phillips Street, along the line of Main and School streets, 
northerly, extending nearly to the English dormitories, and to the 
west a short distance beyond the old "Abbot House"; also, twenty- 
eight acres lying west of the first parcel in the first purchase, on the 
south of Phillips Street: with another lot of thirty acres, over the hill 
as far south as the old cross-roads, also thirty-two acres. — making in 
all one hundred and forty-one acres, which, with the buildings, and 
two hundred acres in Jaffrey, N. II., and §5,380 in money, were 
given for the support of a ''Free School or Academy in the South 
Parish in Andover." 

On the first lot of land, first mentioned, stood an old carpenters 
shop, which was immediately removed to the northerly corner of Main 
and Phillips streets, upon the south side of the late Samuel Farrar's 
door-yard, and fitted for a school-room for the new institution. 
The building was thirty-five by twenty feet, and finished in the 
plainest possible manner, with accommodations for about thirty 
scholars. Soon after the purchase of these lots of land, Judge Phil- 
lips removed from the North Parish to the old "Abbot House," which 
is now standing on Phillips Street, and which has become invested 
with much historic interest. In the meautime a constitution had 
been prepared, and a board of trustees — consisting of Hon. Samuel 
Phillips, A. M., Hon. John Phillips, LL. D., Hon. William Phillips, 
Hon. Oliver Wendell, A. M.. Hon. John Lowell, LL. D., the Rev. Josiah 
Stearns, A. M., the Rev. Elias Smith. M. A., the Rev. William Symmes, 
D. D., the Rev. Jonathan French, M. A.. His Honor Samuel Phillips. 
LL. D., the Rev. Eliphalet Pearson, LL. I).. Mr. Nehemiah Abbot — 
had been formed. The first meeting of the board of trustees was 
held in the west room of that house. 

Here this institution may be said to have had its birthplace. In 
this house Judge Phillip- resided for a time, and afterwards it became 
the residence of the successive preceptors of the school, — Eliphalet 
Pearson, Ebenezer Pemberton. and Mark Newman. When the theo- 
logical seminary was founded, Dr. Leonard Woods occupied the house, 
and here he gave his first course of lectures on divinity. At that 
time, on all the territory known as "Andover Hill," were but two 
houses, besides the new academy building, — one i.ear the site of the 
"Abbot" Professor'? House, the other a few rods south of the old 

This first school exceeded the expectations of the founders, and as 
the numbers increased, it was deemed advisable to apply to the Gen- 
eral Court for an Act of incorporation, which was granted in October, 
1780, and the original name of "Phillips School" changed to ''Phillips 
Academy." The Rev. Eliphalet Pearson was appointed by the trustees 
as the first principal, and Joseph Mottev as assistant in the new insti- 
tution, which has grown from one of the earliest to one of the most 
prosperous of any in the country, one that has been as useful in pro- 
moting the object of its founders, viz., "piety and virtue," as any to 
be found. 

This school had been in existence but two years before it was found 
to be too small for the purposes intended, and as early as 1780 the 
subject of a new school building was agitated. The plan and location 
were finally determined upon in 1784, and in 1785 a building was com- 
pleted. On the thirtieth day of January, 1786, the school removed 
into its new quarters. This building was a two-story edifice built of 
wood, with library, recitation-rooms, and study-room on the lower 
floor, arranged for one hundred pupils, and a spacious hall on the 
second floor, for exhibitions and other public uses. The old school- 
house remained on the original site several years, and was used as a 

singing-room, and afterwards for storage, till it was sold and removed 
in 1803, and remodelled for a dwelling-house, which was torn down 
several years since. The new building was built at the joint expense 
of the two original founders, and Hou. William Phillips, of Boston, at 
a cost of $13,166.66, and stood on an open lawn, near the south-west 
corner of the present seminary lawn, and just west of the new library 
building, corner of Maiu and Salem streets, till destroyed by fire in 
January, 181*. 

During the following year a new building was erected, of biick, 
eighty feet in length, and forty feet in breadth, two stories high, with 
a cupola, which was used for school purposes, till the erection of the 
larger building on School Street, in 1865. This building served the 
purposes for which it was erected upwards of fifty years, and is now 
used as a gymnasium, and stands a little distauce south of the semi- 
nary buildings. In the meantime a stone building was erected for 
the increasing patronage, and was known as the English Academv. or 
"Old Stone Academy," which was destroyed by fire in 1864. 

The present academv building, situated on the south side of School 
Street, is an elegant brick structure, with slate roof, fifty feet wide by 
ninety feet long, with two high and lofty stories above a light and 
airy basement. The upper room is used as an exhibition hall of the 
full size of the building, which is well lighted from the roof, and has 
a seating capacity for twelve hundred persons. The spire from the 
top of the building is about one hundred feet from the ground. 

The first and second .-tories are used for recitation, instrument, 
library, and coat rooms, &c. In these rooms are distributed photo- 
graphs of large size and value, representing scenes in Rome, Pom- 
peii, and other ancient cities of the Old World. The cost of the 
building was $45,000. 

As the relation this institution has sustained to the literary life of 
the nation, not only through its educational instrumentality, but in an 
even more direct manner, is of the most intimate description, it makes 
it a proper object of notice at this time. 

The number of educators whose training for useful service in va- 
rious colleges was begun at Phillips Academv, Andover, is very large. 
Among the pupils of its very first year were two, who became respect- 
ively a Tutor and a President of Harvard College, were John Abbot 
and Josiah Quincv. Mr. Qnincy was a son of the patriot known in 
history as Josiah Quincy, Jr., and after having spent six years at the 
academy, graduated at Harvard, in 1790, and was subsequently its 
President for sixteen years, from 1829 to 1845. Mr. Abbot, who 
both was born and died in Andover, graduated at Harvard in 1 7 > 4 . 
was for five years a Tutor in the college, and in 1801 was elected 
Professor of Lanauaces at Bowdoin College, being one of the first two 
officers of that new institution. He was afterwards its Librarian and 
Treasurer. The academy also fitted for college [1784—1786] Ben- 
jamin Abbot, who graduated at Harvard in 1788, and became the 
first Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, which position he filled 
for fifty years; [1784-1786] John T. Kirkland, a graduate of Har- 
vard in 1789, and President thereof from 1810 to 1828; [1784-1786] 
Micah Stone, Harvard 1790, for several years Tutor at Harvard: 
[1787-1789] Joseph McKean, Harvard 1794, afterward Professor of 
Rhetoric and Oratory in Harvard : [1789-1790] Timothy Aldeu, 
Harvard 1794, President of Alleghany College; [1794-1795] Samuel 
Willard, Harvard 1803, Tutor in Bowdoin College; [1796-1797] 
Thomas A. Merrill, Harvard 1801, Tutor and Treasurer of Middle- 
bury College ; [1796] Levi Frisbie. Harvard 1802, Tutor and Pro- 
fessor of Latin, Natural Theology. Moral Philosophy, and Political 
Economy, at Harvard; [1797-1801] John White, Harvard 1805, 
and afterward Tutor at Harvard ; [1798-1799] John Farrar, Harvard 
1803, Tutor and Professor of Natural Philosophy at Harvard ; [17: -- 
1801] Benjamin Surge, Harvard 1805, Tutor at Bowdoin; [1805] 
Samuel P. Newman, Bowdoin 1816, and first Professor of Rhetoric 
and Oratory at Bowdoin, from 1824 to 1839 ; [1805] Daniel Poor, 
Dartmouth 1811, President of Batticotta College, Ceylon; [1810- 



1814] Charles D. Cleveland, Dartmouth 1827, Professor of Latin and 
Greek in Dickinson College, and of Latin in the University of New 
York; [1811-1813] Asa Cummings, Harvard 1817, Tutor at Bow- 
doin; [1814-1815] Samuel Wiliiston, founder of Williston Seminary 
at Easthampton, Mass. ; [1815-1823] Leonard Woods, Jr., Union 
College 1827, and President of Bowdoin from 1839 to 1866 ; [1816- 
1818] Luther Wright, Yale 1827, First Principal of Williston Semi- 
nary ; [1816-1819] Jonas Burnham, Bowdoin 1823, Principal of 
Farmington Academy, and otherwise prominently connected with 
educational work in Maine; [1822] John Kendrick, Professor in 
Kenyon and Marietta Colleges; [1820-1823] William A. Stearns, 
President of Amherst College from 1854 to 1876; [1831] Abner J. 
Phipps, Dartmouth 1838, for many years Agent of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Education; and [1853-1854] William T. Harris, now 
Superintendent of Schools, St. Louis, Mo. Other educators, gradu- 
ates of later years, space would fail us to mention. A cursory exam- 
ination of the catalogue shows that fifteen of the students of the 
academy have become presidents of colleges, and sixty, at least, 
professors in colleges and professional schools. Other teachers would 
form a legion. 

Of strictly literary labor, many of the individuals named above 
have performed not a little. President Quincy was the author of a 
delightful memoir of his father, Josiah Quincy, Jr., which was re- 
edited by his daughter, Miss Eliza Susan Quincy ; of a history of 
Harvard College, in two volumes; of a municipal history of Boston 
"during two centuries'"; of a life of John Quincy Adams, and of 
other works. President Kirkland published a number of commem- 
orative discourses and historical papers, and wrote a life of Fisher 
Ames, which is, perhaps, the most important of his printed works. 
Prof. McKean wrote much on historical topics, — a life of John Eliot 
being one of his publications. Prof. Farrar published largely through 
the instrumentality of the American Academy, of which he was sec- 
retary, and prepared a series of text-books in science for his college 
classes. Prof. Newman published treatises on rhetoric and political 
economy. Prof. Cleveland was, perhaps, better known even as an 
author than as an instructor; the list of his published works, — chiefly 
text-books, — comprising nine or more titles. Among them are com- 
pendiums of English and American literature, and an edition of Mil- 
ton's Poetical Works. Prof. Cummings was formerly the editor the 
"Christian Mirror"; and President Woods, besides having at one 
time edited the " Literary and Theological Review," has published a 
translation of Knapp's Theology ; of the Hakluyt Manuscript, edited 
by him, a full account was given in the "Literary World" for May, 

From 1787 to 1792, Phillips Academy had for a pupil Charles 
Pinckncy Sumner, the father of Charles Sumner; and from 1792 until 
1704, by a curious coincidence, Stephen Longfellow, Harvard 1798, 
and Charles Lowell, Harvard 1800, afterwards respectively the fathers 
of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and James Russell Lowell, were 
schoolmates in the institution. 

But in more direct ways than any we have yet mentioned, has 
Phillips Academy, Andover, contributed to our literary history. 
Octavius Pickering, the famous law reporter and editor, and the 
author of a "Life of Timothy Pickering," his father, studied here in 
1803-1806 ; Joseph E. Worcester, the lexicographer, in 1805 ; Rev. 
Dr. Leonard Withington, the Newburyport divine and commentator, 
in 1809-1811; Eleazer Lord, editor of "Lempriere's Biographical 
Dictionary," and author of a number of works on financial, religious, 
and scientific themes, in 1810; George P. Marsh, the author of the 
well-known treatises on the English language and on "Man and 
Nature," in 1816 ; the late lamented Edmund Quincy, journalist, his- 
torian, and novelist, in 1817-1823 ; Nathaniel P. Willis, in 1821-1823 ; 
the Rev. Dr. Hubbard Winslow, author of a number of widely read 
theological and religious works, in 1818-1820; the late N. S. Dodge, 
magazinist and journalist, in 1823-1825; the late Prof. Henry B. 

Hackett, D. D., foremost among American Biblical scholars and 
writers, in 1823-1826 ; the Rev. Dr. Ray Palmer, the hymn writer, in 
whose " My faith looks up to Thee," Christians of every sect are glad 
to join, in 1823-1826; Charles K. Whipple, journalist, in 1824-1827; 
in 1824-1825, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, and his brother, John, in 
1825-1826; and in 1826-1828, the late Rev. Dr. James M. Mac- 
donald, of Princeton, author of the "Life and Writings of St. John." 
Of journalists, there were also Sidney E. Morse, in 1802-1805, and 
his brother, Richard Carey Morse, in 1803-1805 : of librarians, 
Timothy Farrar, of the Dartmouth College Library, in 1801-1802; 
Henry A. Homes, of the New York State Library at Albany, in 
1823-1826 ; and Isaac P. Langworthy, of the Congregational Library, 
Boston, in 1833-1835 ; and of the servants of art and science, if we 
glance at them, Samuel Finley Breese Morse, the painter and tele- 
graph inventor, in 1802-1805 ; and Horatio Greenough, the sculptor, 
in 1814-1815. Ministers, of course, it is not our purpose to men- 
tion, though the list includes such names as Joseph Tuckerman, 1792 ; 
John Codman, 1793-1794; and William Goodell, 1811-1813; nor 
can we include the great company of public-spirited citizens who, by 
other than literary lives, have contributed to the intellectual advance- 
ment of their race; for example, William Wheelwright, 1814, who 
made such signal improvement, to this end, of his residence in South 
America. Indeed, if we were to confine this enumeration strictly to 
literary workmen, and should undertake to continue it down to the 
latest date, and follow out what the great mass of living graduates of 
Phillips Academy are at present doing in the world, with the pen, we 
should speedily lose our way in a wilderness. We will only, there- 
fore, add that, of the successive instructors in the school, Dr. S. H. 
Taylor, Prof. C. A. Aiken, John J. Owen, Drs. Lyman Coleman, 
Alonzo Gray, S. R. Hall, W. H. Wells, Charles A. Young, and Mr. 
James S. Eaton, are all known by their printed works as well as by 
their proper educational careers. 

Theological Seminary. — The Theological Seminary of Andover had 
its origin in Phillips Academy. In the year 1789, Hon. John Phillips, 
a donor to that institution, in furtherance of an early desire for the 
religious education of the people, donated the generous sum of 
$20,000, "for the virtuous and pious education of the youth of genius 
and serious disposition " in this academy. In his last will he left one- 
third part of all the estate of which he died possessed, "for the benefit 
more especially of charity scholars, such as may be of excelling 
genius and of good moral character, preferring the hopefully pious ; 
and such of those who are designed to be employed in the great and 
good work of the gospel ministry, having acquired the most useful 
human literature in either of these Academies, or other seminaries, 
may be assisted in the Study of Divinity (if a Theological Professor 
is not employed in either of the two forementioned Academies) under 
the direction of some eminent Calvinistic minister of the Gospel, until 
such time as an able, pious, and Orthodox Instructor, shall at least 
in part, be supported in one or both these Academies, as a Professor 
of Divinity ; by whom they may be taught the important principles 
and distinguishing tenets of our holy Christian religion." 

To this fund Hon. William Phillips, of Boston, bequeathed the 
sum of $4,000 in aid of the same design. 

In June, 1807, the trustees of the institution, expecting other dona- 
tions to the theological fund, applied to the General Court for power 
to hold real estate for educational purposes, and obtained the follow- 
ing Act of incorporation : — 

" Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

" Whereas, the Trustees of Phillips Academy have petitioned this 
Court for liberty to receive and hold donations of charitably disposed 
persons, for the purpose of Theological Institution, and in furtherance 
of the designs of the pious Founders <fc Benefactors of said Academy, 
and, whereas it is reasonable that the prayer should be granted ; 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Gen- 



eral Court, assembled and by authority of the same, that the said 
Trustees of Phillips Academy be, and they are hereby impowered to 
receive, purchase, and hold, for the purposes aforesaid, real and per- 
sonal estate, the annual income whereof shall not exceed $5,000, in 
addition to what they are now allowed by law to hold ; provided the 
income of the said real and personal estate he always applied to said 
objects, agreeably to the will of the Donors, if consistent with the 
original design of the Founders of the said Academy." 

"This institution having been duly incorporated with power to hold 
property in trust, Mrs. Phebe, widow of the then recently deceased 
Lieut. Gov., Samuel Phillips, of Andover and Hon. John Phil- 
lips her Son, obligated themselves to build with all convenient 
despatch two buildings, one for the accommodation of the Students, 
the other for the Stewards family and various public uses." 

At the same time, and by the same instrument, Samuel Abbot, 
Esq., of Andover, set over to the abovenamed trustees *20,000 in 
trust as a fund for the purpose of maintaining a Professor of Christian 
Theology and for the encouragement and support of students in di- 
vinity. Both of the abovenamed buildings and the interest or annual 
income of the said sum of money were to be forever appropriated and 
applied by the trustees aforesaid for the use and endowment of a 
public theological institution in Phillips Academy, such as described 
by the donors, and to be regulated by their statutes. 

In the meantime, preparatory measures had been made by others 
to found a similar institution, of which West Newbury was to be the 
location. It was, however, agreed upon that two institutions of this 
kind were not needed, and so near together; and after much consul- 
tation, the parties agreed to unite. 

Accordingly, on the twenty-first day of March, 1808. Moses Brown, 
Esq , and Hon. William Bartlett, both of Newburyport, and the Hon. 
John Xorris, of Salem, united with the former donors and founders, 
and set over to the trustees of Phillips Academy and to their successors 
in office, a donation in trust, — Mr. Brown giving $10,000, Mr. Bart- 
lett, $30,000, and Mr. Xorris, $10,000, as a capital fund, "the inter- 
est or annual income to be applied to the maintenance of two pro- 
fessors in the Theolosical Institution, which had then been lately 

For the purpose of seeing that everything is conducted agreeably 
to the wishes of the donors, a board of three visitors were appointed 
by the original and associate founders, with power to elect their suc- 
cessors, and to till vacancies. It is expressly stipulated that the funds 
above mentioned should be kept separate from each other and the 
whole from Phillips Academy funds. 

Every professor in the seminary should be a master of arts of the 
Protestant reformed religion, in communion with some Christian church 
of the Congregational or Presbyterian denomination, and sustain the 
character of a discreet, honest, learned, and pious man : that he 
should moreover be a man of sound words and orthodox principles in 
divinity, according to that form of sound words or system of evan- 
gelical doctrines, drawn from the Scriptures, and denominated the 
Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism, and more particularly 
expressed in the creed prepared by the founders. 

''Every person therefore appointed or elected a professor in this 
seminary, was required, on the day of his inauguration into office, 
and in the presence of the Ti-ustees, publicly to make and subscribe a 
solemn declaration of his faith in divine revelation and, in the funda- 
mental and distinguishing doctrines of the gospel of Christ, as above 
referred to ; and he was farthermore solemnly to promise, that he 
would open and explain the scriptures to his Pupils with integrity 
and faithfulness; that he would maintain and inculcate the Christian 
faith as above expressed together with all the other doctrines and 
duties of our holy religion, so far as might appertain to his office, 
according to the best light God should give him; and in opposition, 
not only to Atheists and Infidels, but to Jews, Papists, Mahometans, 
Arians, Pelagians, Antinomians, Arminians, Socinians, Sabellians, 

Unitarians and Uuiversalists, and to all heresies and errors, ancient or 
modern, which might be opposed to the gospel of Christ or hazardous 
to the Souls of men ; — that by his instruction, counsel, and example, 
he would endeavor to promote true piety and godliness ; that he 
would consult the good of this Institution and the peace of the 
churches of our Lord Jesus Christ on all occasions, and that he would 
religiously observe the Statutes of this Institution, relative to his offi- 
cial duties and deportment and all such other Statutes and Laws, as 
might be constitutionally made by the Trustees of Phillips Academy, 
not repugnant thereto." 

It was also ordained, "That, the preceding declaration should be 
repeated by every Professor in this seminaiy, in the presence of the 
Trustees at the expiration of every successive period of five years ; 
and that no man should be continued a Professor in the Institution, 
who should not continue to approve himself, to the satisfaction of the 
said Trustees, a man of SorxD and Orthodox principles in Divinity, 
agreeably to the system of evangelical doctrines, contained in the 
aforesaid Catechism and Creed. It was further provided that the 
visitors should subscribe the same creed, and in the same maimer with 
the professors." 

Thus the institution originated, and was opened for students in 
October, 1808, under the instruction and government of the Rev. 
Eliphalet Pearson, LL. D., and the Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., 
assisted during the first year by the Rev. Moses Stuart, A. M. The 
first year they received thirty-six students. 

From that dav to the present it has undergone several internal 
changes, and several generous donations have been received from 
various sources. It is open to Protestants of all denominations. 
From this institution ministers are laboring all over this country, and 
in many foreign countries. 

The following is a general summary of the students of the seminary, 
as appears by the last triennial catalogue : — 

Graduates in the Full Course, 
Persons not completing the Full Course, 
Graduates in the Special Course, 
Members of Remaining Classes, . 
Resident Students, .... 
Resident Licentiates, .... 

Total, .... 

. 1,618 







There have been 844 deceased out of the above number. 

Abbot Female Academy was incorporated January 29, 1829, and 
opened May 6. 1829. This is the first incorporated academy for girls 
only in the State, if not in Xew England. Mrs. Sarah Abbot, of 
Andover, was its first benefactor. She contributed one thousand 
dollars towards the erection of the academy building; and, beside 
subsequent gifts, finally made the trustees the residuary legatees of 
her estate, the whole amount being over ten thousand dollars. Among 
other benefactors have been Hon. George L. Davis, of North Andover, 
whose gifts amount to over seven thousand dollars. Mr. John Smith 
and his brother, Peter Smith, of Andover, have given about thirty- 
five hundred dollars each. 

The grounds, which originally consisted of one acre of land, the 
gift of Dea. Mark Newman, in 1829, now embrace upwards of 
twenty acres, affording gardens, pleasure-grounds, and a grove. 
There are four buildings on these grounds, — the academy, a two- 
story brick structure, with an observatory for the telescope, and three 
boarding halls. The present value of the real estate is about $40,000. 
The are several cabinets and school apparatus, art collections, library, 
&C The recent collection of three thousand shells, made by the Rev. 
Frank A. Wood, is very valuable, as is the equatorial telescope, built 
by Alvin Clark, of Cambridge. The telescope and philosophical 
apparatus were gifts from past scholars, and other friends of the 



The following is a list of the principals since the organization. 

The first principal was Charles Goddard, a graduate of Yale College 
in 1826. He planned and superintended the erection of the academy. 
The first teacher of modern languages was the now veuerable Dr. 
William G. Schaufler, missionary at Constantinople. Mr. Goddard 
remained but two years. He was succeeded by Samuel Lawson (Bow- 
doin College, 1828). Left, Oct. 7, 1834. 

Samuel Brown (Dartmouth College, 1831), now president of Ham- 
ilton College. Entered on his office in the spring of 1835 ; left in 

The Kev. Lorenzo L. Langstroth (Yale College, 1831). Remained 
only six months, from June 22, 1838, to February, 1839. 

The Rev. T. D. P. Stone (Amherst College, 1834). Dec. 3, 1840, 
to Oct. 15, 1842. A teacher of elocution in Boston. 

The Rev. Asa Farwell (Middlebury College, 1838). Fall of 1838 
to Nov., 1852. Now pastor of a church in Ashland, Neb. 

Miss Nancy Judson Hasseltine. July 21, 1853, to Jan. 29, 1856. 

Miss Maria J. B. Brown. March 24, 1856, to May 5, 1857. 

Miss Emma L. Taylor. June 12, 1857, to June 19, 1859. 

Miss Philena McKeen, July 1, 1859, is the present principal, and 
the institution is in a flourishing condition. 

" Punchard Free School." — Benjamin Hanover Punchard, the founder 
of the "Punchard Free School," was born in Salem, Mass., Dec, 16, 
1799, and died in Andover, April 4, 1850, in the fifty-first year of his 
age. By his last will and testament he bequeathed the munificent 
sum of seventy thousand dollars to the town of Andover for the pur- 
pose of founding the school which now bears his name. The school 
at present has for its support a permanent fund of sixty thousand 
dollars ; the remainder of the bequest, by the terms of the will, to be 
used for a building, &c. In the words of the generous donor, " Said 
school shall be under the direction of Eight Trustees of whom the 
Rector of Christ Church is to be one ; also, the ministers of the South 
Parish and West Parish Congregational Societies to be members ; 
Also, the remaining five to be chosen by the inhabitants of Andover 
in town meeting, to serve for three years ; two of whom to be taken 
from Christ Church Society, two from the South Parish Society, and 
one from the West Parish Society. Said School to be free to all 
youths resident in Andover, under the restrictions of the trustees, as 
to age and qualifications. No Sectarian influence to be used in the 
School; the Bible to be in daily use; and the Lord's Prayer; in 
which the pupils shall join audibly with the teacher in the morning, at 
the opening, the said trustees to have the Sole direction ; and power, 
also to determine and decide whether the School shall be for males 
only, or for the benefit of both sexes. Said School to be located in 
the South Parish of Andover, but free for all the Parishes equally." 

The school edifice was commenced in June, 1*55, and completed 
Sept. 1, 1856. The Rev. Samuel Fuller, D. D., delivered the 
address at the dedication, Sept. 2, 1856. On the following day the 
school was opened. The building was totally destroyed by fire on 
Tuesday morning, Dec. 15, 1868. The structure was seventy-five feet 
long, forty-five feet wide, and two stories high. It was of pressed 
brick, with rustic corners of freestone, and slated roof. The town has 
erected a high- school building, which is now occupied by this school. 

The first principal was Peter Smith Byers, A. M., of Andover, of 
Harvard College, assistant teacher in Phillips Academy, and principal 
of the high school, Providence, R. I. He was elected March 13, 
1854. Resigned on account of ill health April 7, 1855, and died 
March 19, 1856. 

The second principal was Nathan M. Belden, A. M., of Wilton, 
Conn., of Trinity College, Hartford. He was elected principal Jan. 
1, 1855, and resigned Feb. 27, 1857. 

The third principal was the Rev. Charles H. Seymour, of Haver- 
hill, elected Feb. 27, 1857, and resigned October, 1858. 

The present principal is William Gleason Goldsmith, A. M., of 
Harvard College. He was elected Nov. 1, 1858, and resigned April 

11, 1870. The school was discontinued one year, from September, 
1870, to September, 1871, when the school was re-opened, and Mr. 
Goldsmith was re-elected, and is now the principal. Mr. Goldsmith 
was at one time " Peabody Instructor of the Natural Sciences in Phil- 
lips Academy." 

The present town of Andover is a delightfully located town, bounded 
on the north by Dracut and Lawrence, on the north-east by North 
Andover, on the south by North Reading and Wilmington, on the 
south-west by Tewksbury, and contains about 10,000 acres of land. 
It is situated in latitude 42° 38' 26", longitude 71° 6' 4". It is 
twenty-two miles north of Boston by railroad ; fifteen miles north- 
west from Salem ; ten miles east from Lowell. The surface of the 
soil is gently undulating, with here and there considerable elevations, 
the most prominent of which is "Holt's Hill," otherwise known as 
"Prospect" Hill, situated about one mile south-east of the seminary. 
This hill is 423 feet above the level of the sea, and from its summit 
the most lovely views may be had on any fine, clear day. Upwards 
of thirty church spires may be counted from here. This place was 
selected by Prof. A. D. Bache, of the United States Coast Survey, 
several years since, as the most eligible site from which to obtain the 
best outline of the coast. 

A farm-house, erected on this hill, has stood over 160 years, and 
has been in the "Holt" family through eight generations, and is now 
in possession of Ballard Holt. 

The other hills of the town are : Pine Hill, a short distance east of 
the seminary ; Carmel Hill, north of the centre village; Pole Hill, at 
Ballardvale ; Wood's Hill, west of Haggett's Pond ; besides the Semi- 
nary Hill, at the centre village. A modern writer thus describes the 
view from this hill in the centre of the town. "The surrounding am- 
phitheatre of hills, which lie in pleasing elevations along the horizon ; 
the rich and fertile spots upon their sides, covered with exuberant 
vegetation and smiling upon the distant beholder ; the intervening 
valleys, through one of which meanders the placid Shawshine on its 
way to its labor-saving task in turning the ponderous wheels and giv- 
ing motion to the complicated and nimble machinery of the adjacent 
factories ; the happy intermingling on every side of field and wood- 
laud ; and the gorgeous, golden sunsets at the soft and balmy hour 
of evening, — render it one of the most enchanting places for sum- 
mer residence in all New England." 

Another writer gives the following description of a view from the 
"Old Stone Cabin," near the seminary grounds: "To the north-west 
of this beautiful spot, take a bird's-eye view of the tall mountains of 
New Hampshire, beautifully defined on the horizon, and seen with 
their snow-white caps ; or directly north, only three miles distant, 
may be seen Lawrence, with its mammoth factories, stretched along 
the shores of the beautiful Merrimac ; or, perchance it be evening, we 
see thousands of lights glaring in the distance, like so many stars in 
the firmament, giving light to a world of spindles; and, still nearer, 
the centre village of Andover, some fifty feet below the sills of the 
"old stone cabin," with its church steeples, rising far above the sur- 
rounding buildings, as if their shadows were a protecting shield ; they 
arc apt mentors to a busy and thrifty people, and of which happily 
throughout New England they have been peculiarly an evidence." 

Rivers and Ponds. — The town is well watered by the Merrimac on 
its north-westerly boundary. The Shawshine, which enters the town 
at the south-west, and whose northerly course through the centre of 
the town divides it in twain and passes on to the Merrimac, at Law- 
rence. There are several smaller streams, as Roger's Brook, Mus- 
quito, Fish, Boston, River Meadow, and Frye's brooks, that serve 
to water the farms and supply water for household purposes. 

The ponds in town are Haggett's Pond, containing 220 acres, the 
waters of which flow through Fish Brook, to the Merrimac, at the 
westerly end of the town. Foster's Pond, in the south part of the 
town, contains fifty acres, whose waters empty into the Shawshine near 
Ballardvale. Pomp's Pond, formerly "Ballard's," containing thirty- 



seven and one-half acres, empties into the same, below Ballard vale. 
There are also two small ponds in the south-east part of the town, — 
the Beaver-Dam Pond, of three and three-fourths acres; Aslebes 
Pond, containing two acres. Formerly shad and salmon were taken 
in large quantities from the Merrimac and Shawshine, and alewives 
from the smaller streams leading into the Merrimac. 

Soil. — The laud on both sides of the Shawshiue is good, and the 
meadow-land abundant. The land in the south part of the town is 
mostly light, gravelly, and plain, to a considerable extent. In the 
south-west the land is also in plains. Iu the north-west it is some- 
what stony aud hilly, and hard of culture. The wood on the plains is 
mostly pine, often succeeded by oak, which is the principal growth 
of the town. Formerly considerable walnut, maple, pine wood, and 
timber, were rafted down the river to Newburyport. The east part 
of the town is undulating and somewhat rocky, moist, hard of culture, 
but fertile, and as a whole it is one of the best farming towns in the 

In several places beds of clay have been found and large quantities 
of bricks made on the town farm. As many as 300,000 have been 
sold yearly. 

Peat meadows have been discovered, and fuel has been taken from 
some of them, and used to a limited extent. The geological forma- 
tion is calcareous gneiss, with an intervening bed of granite, and 
steatite, or soapstoue. 

Roads. — The roads of the town, like many other old towns, are 
crooked, having been accidentally located, following the trails of the 
Indians, or made to accommodate individuals, the usual custom in 
early times being to build a house and then lay out a road to it. 
Whereas now roads and streets are laid out iu advance of immediate 

The first settlers of Andover had rough and bad roads to contend 
with. At first, the people were engaged in clearing the lands and 
providing themselves with food, and had little use for wide and good 
roads. Many of them were mere footpaths or bridle-ways. Oxen, 
at first were used, and the training of horses to a draught was at a 
later period. The saddle only was used, and horses were trained to 
carry double, and women rode on a pillion, with their fathers, broth- 
ers, or perchance a lover. It is said that Jeremiah Abbott rode from 
Andover to Wilton, forty-five miles, in one day, with his mother 
behind him on a pillion. Carriages were very little used for pleasure, 
or for conveying persons. The pillion went out of use about the close 
of the last century. Since that time, carriages have been used, and 
the roads greatly improved. If we will bear in mind that the high- 
ways were mere cart-paths through the woods, with stumps still 
standing, hills ungraded and rivers unbridged, we have some idea of 
the hardships of that day. "When the town was first settled, it was 
covered with almost impenetrable forests, except in the lowlands or 
meadows. There were no pleasant fields, nor grassy lawns, nor gar- 
dens. The Indians sometimes burned the woods, in order to facilitate 
taking deer and wild game ; and in some places there was but little 
large wood remaining. Some of the meadows had long, coarse grass, 
thick and high, which obstructed their progress in fishing and gun- 
ning, and hence they usually set it on fire in the autumn months, and 
fresh grass would come early in the spring following. The woods 
were filled with the various kinds of birds peculiar to New England, 
and some wild animals, the worst of which, aud the greatest pest to 
the infant settlement, was the wolf. These were so bold that it 
troubled the farmers to keep sheep without shepherds to watch them 
by day, and place them iu the folds at night. They had become so 
annoying that the town offered rewards for every one caught, as 
appears by the town records : " Voted, that twenty shillings be given 
for every wolf caught, and carried to the constables. " 

Andover Turnpike. — Subscriptions for stock for this road were 
opened in 1804, and an Act of incorporation obtained June 15, 1805, 
by Jonathan Porter, Joseph Hurd, Nathan Parker, Oliver Holden, 

and Fitch Hall. The bounds were defined in the Act. It was to run 
as follows: "From (he house of John Russell, in Andover, in an 
easterly direction, to the east of Martin's Pond, nearly in a straight 
line to the house of J. Nichols, in Reading; thence to Stoneham, by 
the west side of Spot Pond, to the Market Place in Medford." This 
speculation not proving a profitable investment to the stockholders, 
they surrendered their charter, aud the different towns accepted the 
road as free several years since. 

Railroads. — The town is well accommodated by two lines of rail- 
road, — the Boston and Maine following the valley of the Shawshine 
River, passing through the centre of the town, and furnishing eleven 
trains daily each way. It has a station at Ballardvale and Andover 
Village. The Lowell and Lawrence road passes through the north- 
west part of the town, having one station in the West Parish. 

Villages. — As we approach the town from the south, we first enter 
the neat and picturesque manufacturing village of Ballardvale. The 
principal business of this village is the manufacture of flannel and 
woollen cloth. Here is said to have been the first mill in the country 
that attempted to manufacture mousseliue delaines. J. P. Bradlee 
is the owner and manager of these mills. Near by the railroad station 
are the extensive works of the late Whipple File and Steel Company, 
which have ceased operations, and the entire property has been sold. 
There arc two churches here, a post-office, and the usual country 
variety stores. 

Passing from this to the north, curving a short distance to the right, 
the spires of the centre churches of Andover are in full view. It is 
situated but a short distance to the east of the Shawshine River, — the 
principal business street being along the line of the old turnpike, or 
Main Street, extending south past the seminary and academy build- 
ings. This is well known as the scat of learning, having, besides the 
usual town schools, four incorporated schools of the highest order. 
Here we find an elegant Soldiers' Memorial Hall, built of brick, at an 
expense of about $40,000, erected by subscriptions, — the liberal sum 
of $25,000 having been given by the originator of the project, John 
Smith, of the firm of Smith, Dove & Co., — five churches, two hotels, 
a town house, a masonic lodge, one national bank, one savings bank, 
one tire insurance company, together with such stores as are needed 
to supply the wants of the immediate vicinity. The town has a large 
brick building, with land, used for a "Poor Farm," in which her poor 
are well provided for. Farming is the leading iudustry of the town, 
although there are artisans of every kind usually found in towns of 
its size. 

Abbot Village. — Crossing the river before mentioned to the west, 
within a mile, is Abbot Village, a small cluster of houses, the occu- 
pants of which are engaged in the thread and twine factory of Messrs. 
Smith, Dove & Co., who manufacture every variety of shoe-tbreads, 
twine, and carpet warp, <fcc, the proprietors of which have generously 
bestowed gifts to the Seminary Library and Memorial Hall. 

Manufactures. — Of the early manufactures, Andover has an inter- 
esting history. Among the prominent manufactures of early time, 
and the most interesting, is the manufacture of gunpowder. Hon. 
Samuel Phillips, Jr., afterwards Lieut. Governor, erected the tirst mill 
in this vicinity, if not in the Colony, for making powder. It was 
erected by Mr. Phillips, under the patronage of the Colony, and by a 
resolve of the General Court of January 8, 177(1, the preamble of 
which is as follows : — 

" Whereas. Samuel Phillips Jr has proposed to build a mill with 
all expedition, at Andover for manufacturing of Gun Powder, and this 
court is willing to give all reasonable encouragement to so important 
and necessary an undertaking. It is therefore 

"Resolved — That Mr Phillips was to build the mill, and for one year 
after it was erected, and fitted, the Colony was to supply him with so 
much salt pctre from time to time, as to keep the mill constantly em- 
ployed, providing the powder could be manufactured as reasonably as 
it could be purchased. They were also to supply him with salt petre 



at cost sufficient for manufacturing, Mr Phillips agrcing on his part 
to find charcoal and all other materials and also engaging to keep a 
guard about the mill at all times, to prevent any wicked or designing 
persons from destroying the same, He was also required to give 
bonds for the faithful performance of the contract, and further he was 
to cause to be published all discoveries he might make relative to the 
construction of the mill and the manufacturing of powder. As com- 
pensation he was to receive eight pence per pound for the powder, he 
manufactured from the Saltpetre furnished by the Colony, when deliv- 
ered to the Commissary." 

Resolve passed, January 9, 1776. 

Mr. Phillips entered into this work with his usual zeal. The works 
were immediately put into operation, as appears by the following 
account: From April 17 to August 30, 177(5, there was received from 
the Colony, 33,200 pounds of saltpetre ; and during the same time, 
29,900 pounds of powder were delivered to several towns of the 
Colony, in quantities varying from 10 to 3,000 pounds, — the largest 
quantity being to Watertown. 

On the first day of June, 1778, the powder-house was blown up, 
and three persons were killed. Again, on the nineteenth day of 
October, 1796, two persons were killed by the explosion of the pow- 
der-mill ; since which time the business has been discontinued. 

In 1788, a paper-mill was built by Hon. Samuel Phillips, and con- 
ducted by Phillips & Houghton. This mill was burnt in 1811, and 
rebuilt in 1812; value of paper made yearly was about $10,000, and 
gave employment for about sixteen to twenty persons. 

Marland Village. — A short distance down the river, and adjoining 
Abbot Village, is another compact settlement, built up through the 
enterprise and efforts of the proprietors of the Marland Manufactur- 
ing Company, woollen-cloth manufacturers. 

The manufacture of wool was commenced in this town, at an early 
date, by Abraham Marland, a native of Ashton Parish, Lancashire, 
Eng., born Feb. 22, 1772. He first came to Andover in May, 1807, 
and commenced in a small way, by hand-loom, in a small shed. His 
work soon attracted attention, and a company of gentlemen erected a 
mill for his use, which was at Abbot Village. He soon commenced 
to manufacture woollen goods, such as blankets, flannels, &c. At first 
he spun the yarn by hand, and let it out to the women in the vicinity 
to weave. Visiting Boston once a week to sell his goods and pur- 
chase stock, he frequently made his trips on foot. After the death of 
Hon. John Phillips, the property at Marland Village passed into the 
hands of Peter C. Brooks, Esq., who made additions to it and 
rented it to Mr. Marland, till Sept. 1, 1828, when he purchased 
the entire property, on both sides of the river, for $22,000. An Act 
of incorporation was obtained in February, 1834, by the name of 
" Marland Manufacturing Company," Mr. Marland becoming the 
president, — which office he held till his death, Feb. 20, 1849. He was 
one of the most successful woollen manufacturers in Essex County, 
and accumulated a large property, of which he contributed largely 
toward founding and supporting the Episcopal church in Andover, 
donating the parsonage and burial-ground connected therewith. 

Frye Village. — The next village is Frye Village, the principal busi- 
ness of which is the manufacture of twine, thread, &c. ; owned and 
conducted by Messrs. Smith, Dove & Co., before mentioned. This 
is but a short distance east from Marland Village. 

Printing. — The first printing done in Andover was in 1798. 
Messrs. Ames & Parker set up a press in the South Parish, did a 
small busiucss, and for only a short time. 

In 1813, Timothy Flagg and Abram J. Gould commenced printing, 
not only English printing, but in Greek and Hebrew languages. 
Their office was fitted for several of the oriental languages. The suc- 
cessors of this firm were Flagg, Gould & Newman, till 1843 ; then 
next was Allen, Morrill & Wardwell, from 1843 to 1849 ; then Fla^g 
& Wardwell, who were succeeded by Warren F. Draper, in 1854 

In 1831, The "Biblical Repository " was established at Andover by 
Prof. Edward Robinson. In 1835, the "American Quarterly Ob- 
server," which was established in Boston in 1833, by Prof. B. B. 
Edwards, was united with it, with Prof. Edwards as sole editor of 
the combined periodicals. The two combined continued at Andover 
till 1837, when it was removed to New York, under the care of Absa- 
lom Peters, D. D. From October, 1840, to April, 1842, the Rev. S. 
B. Treat was associated with Dr. Peters. In 1842, J. H. A<mew 
succeeded Mr. Treat. In July, 1842, Dr. Agnew became sole pro- 
prietor. In 1845, he transferred the same to the Rev. W. H. Bid- 
well, who conducted it three years, when the Rev. J. M. Sherwood 
took the work, and in 1851 united it with the "Bibliotheca Sacra." 
The latter work was commenced under the title of " Bibliotheca Sacra, 
or Tracts and Essays connected with Biblical Literature and The- 
ology," first published in New York. During the next year it was 
removed to Andover, its plan enlarged and modified. It then came 
under the care of Prof. B. B. Edwards and Prof. E. A. Park, assisted 
by Dr. Robinson and others. Its title then changed to " Bibliotheca 
Sacra and Theological Review." In January, 1851, the " Repository" 
and the " Bibliotheca Sacra" were united, and have continued as such 
to this time, published by Warren F. Draper, bookseller and pub- 
lisher. To publish a list of all the works that have originated from 
Andover would be an interesting record, but we must leave that to 
others, for want of space. 

Population of Andover, at various dates. — In 1790, 2,863 ; 1800, 
2,941; 1810,3,164; 1820,3,889; 1830,4,530; 1840, 5,207 ; 1850, 
6,945; 1855, 4,810; 1860, 4,765; 1865, 5,314; 1870, 4,873; 1875, 
5,097. In the foregoing table it will be understood that previous to 
1855, Andover included the present town of North Andover. 

Many of the people of Andover have emigrated to help organize 
other towns, contributing largely of her population, settling Hamp- 
ton, Pomfrct, Tolland, Windsor, Conn. ; Lexington, Bedford, Biller- 
ica, Brookfield, Chelmsford, Dracut, and Bradford, in Mass. ; Con- 
cord, Pembroke, Amherst, Hollis, Wilton, Greenfield, and Conway, 
in N. H. Others found their way to Fryeburgh, Brownfield, Bluehill, 
Andover, Bethel, Bridglou, Norway, Albany, and other towns in 

Witchcraft. — The people of Andover suffered, in common with 
several other places, on account of the delusion of 1692. It is said that 
over fifty person were complained of for afflicting their neighbors and 
others. Dudley Bradstreet, Esq., granted thirty or forty warrants 
for committal to prison, and at length refused to issue any more. He 
and his wife were accused of being among the number who gave 
encouragement to the delusion, if not actually engaged in the same, 
personally. During this delusion Martha Carryer, Samuel Wardwell, 
and Mary Parker were hung. 


In the southerly part of the county is an ancient agricultural, indus- 
trial, and commercial town, noted for its pleasant prospects, and for the 
sobriety, integrity, and intelligence of its inhabitants. It is seventeen 
miles north-east of Boston, by the Eastern Railroad, and two miles 
north of Salem, with which it is connected by a free drawbridge, about 
1,500 feet in length. By the Gloucester Branch Railroad, which here 
connects with the Eastern Railroad, it has communication with the towns 
of Cape Ann. Its boundaries are : Wenham on the north, and, for 
some distance, on the north-east; Manchester, from which it is partly 
separated by Chubb's Creek, on the east ; Beverly Harbor on the 
south, and Danvcrs on the south-west and west. Its postal centres 
are : Beverly, North Beverly, and Beverly Farms in the easterly sec- 
tion. The latitude of the white-spired church is 42° 34' 38. 92" north ; 
and the longtitude, 70° 54' 05.20" west. The average length of the 
town is 5| miles ; the average breadth, 2| miles. The surface of the 
town is somewhat hilly, with an inclination towards the south ; and 
the scenery is picturesque and varied. 

The most noted elevations are : Chen\y Hill on the north-west ; 
Brimble Hill on the north ; and Bald Hill on the north-east, on which 
latter Samuel Corning had formerly a wind-mill. From all these the 
scenic views are very grand, not only of the town of Beverly, with its 
villages, lakes, and streams, its fields and forests, but also of much of 
the surrounding towns, and of the city of Salem, and Massachusetts 
Bay ; while, from Mount Pleasant, by Wenham Lake, Green's and 
other hills at Ryall's Side; Joshua's Mountain, by the harbor, Pros- 
pect, Almshouse, Cemetery, and Watcher's Hill, in the centre; Snake 
Hill, Standley's Grove, Reservoir Hill, Turtle Hill, and the hills near 
Beaver Pond, Gravelly Brook and the Commons, Pride's Mountain and 
Foster's Great Hock, in the interior, — are most delightful prospects, 
both of sea and land. But most attractive of all, are the highlands 
along the shore, many of which are already occupied by elegant man- 
sions, as is also much of the less elevated shoreland ; and all these add 
greatly to the beauty and attractiveness of the town. 

The geological structure consists of sienite, which crops out here 
and there in naked ledges, in some of which are fouud specimens of 
green felspar, polymignite, columbite, and tin ore. Bowlders of every 
form and size are common, and clay for bricks and pottery is found in 
several localities, and was worked here for both those purposes at a 
very early day, and is still continued. Black sand for drying ink 
appears upon some of the beaches. The only mineral springs are near 
Snake Hill, and these have been used somewhat for medicinal pur- 
poses. Considerable quantities of iron were formerty discovered near 
these springs, and carried to the early iron-works at Rowley and at 
Lynn, and worked there ; and some of it was carried as far as Bridge- 
water, where David Perkins, a smith, had removed from here, and set 
up iron-works there. 

The soil is a clayey, gravelly, or sandy loam. It is well adapted to 
the growth of fruit and forest trees, English hay, esculent roots, oats, 
barley, rye, and Indian corn. The meadows abound in peat, which, 
with the sea-weed, furnishes liberal means of fertilization. The native 
trees are principally oak, birch, pine, maple, hemlock, walnut, and 
cedar. Among the shrubs indigenous to the place, the most beautiful 
is the mouutaiu laurel {Kalmia lalifolia) , whose pink and white flowers 
appear in June, and in rich profusion. The cardinal flower decorates 
the margin of the streams, and the water-lily the surface of the lakes. 
Excellent natural facilities for drainage exist all through the town, 
and add to its healthiness, comfort, and means of improvement. Its 

elevation above the level of the sea and ponds gives ready opportunity 
for surface drainage ; while, for the lower drainage, are the following 
outlets : Alewive Brook, the outlet of Beaver Pond, and of its exten- 
sive water-shed, runs into Miles River, the outlet of Wenham Lake, 
and a tributary of Ipswich River ; and on this brook, where it crosses 
Dodge Street, Conant's grist-mill formerly stood. Bass River Brook 
rises near the westerly side of Wenham Pond, flows along b} - Cherry 
Hill, and under Horse Bridge, to the head of the mill pond, near the 
old dam, where was the first mill of John Friend, who was succeeded 
by Lawrence and John Leach, John Dodge & Son, and other Dodges 
and several Woodburvs, being in the meanwhile removed down 
stream to its present site, where Mr. Aaron Dodge and his son, Israel 
W., still keep the name and the mill good, and, with vastly improved 
facilities, do here a very large grain and mill business, theirs being the 
only grist-mill in town. From this mill pond, the arm of the sea, 
known as Bass River, extends to the harbor, dividing from the more 
populous part of the town, the village of Ryall Side, which, however, 
is connected by two excellent roads and bridges. And this village is 
drained by Bass River, and Porter's or Danvcrs River, at "Aunt 
Betty's Cove," and otherwise. Into the mill pond comes the drainage 
from Round Pond and its surrounding hills and lands, running in part 
through the Francis brick-yard brook, and also through the brook 
which formerly divided the lands of Roger Conant and Henry Hefrick, 
and where some of the hitter's family carried on the business of curry- 
ing and other leather manufacture. This brook thence runs under 
Cabot Street, and the Eastern Railroad, to the mill pond, receiving 
on its way the drainage, in part, from Wood's Pasture neighborhood. 
Cat's Swamp, and its surrounding territory near Burnt Hills, also 
drains into Bass River by a brook running alongside of Colon Street, 
and under the Gloucester Branch Railroad, and Cabot aud Elliot 
streets, into Garford's, Coming's or Roundy's Cove, a considerable 
portion of what was formerly that cove being now upland ; and this 
brook also receives the drainage from Hither Pasture neighborhood. 
Tuck's Pond, hardly now a pond at all, also drains into Bass River. 
Gally's Brook runs from beyond the cemetery to the sea, near Lothrop 
Street, and drains a large water-shed. The bridge at Hale Street, 
under which this brook runs, was formerly known as Gallows Bridge, 
and the superstitious, in the years gone by, used to dread to pass it in 
the night. But that dread has long since passed away, and this is now 
a very attractive thoroughfare. The original owner of a large part of 
the cemetery lands was John Gaily, who here had his home, and hence 
the true name of the brook and bridge. Cedar Stand, or Sallows 
Brook, runs from Snake Hill and beyond to the sea, near Gallop's 
Hill, and on this brook was formerly a grist-mill. Thorudike Brook, 
from Cove School-house, and beyond, empties into Bardwell's Fish- 
pond, near Hospital Point, and thence to the sea. Pickman's Brook 
runs mostly through his land from near Foster's Hill, &c, to Patch's 
Beach. Patch, or Thissel Brook, is supplied from Turtle Pond and 
other sources on its march to the sea, and runs its long and circuitous 
route to the dam at ThissePs Creek, near Patch's Beach ; aud on this 
brook Nicholas Woodbury early had a grist-mill, and was succeeded 
therein by the Biles, Patch, and Thissel families. Witch-lane Woods 
drain, in part, southerly across the Park, and through the Dexter and 
the King estates to the sea ; in part through the Brimmer estate to 
Mingoe's Beach, and in part through Loring's Brook, by a circuitous 
route, through their estates to Plum Cove Beach. From this brook 
the Loring estates formerly took their water-supply by means of a 



water-ram ; but the Wenham water-pipes have superseded such use. 
Sampson's and the Commons region also drain partly that way. Pride's 
Mountain region drains by a brook crossing the railroad and Hale 
Street, near Pride's Crossing, and thence through the Paine place to 
the sea. The old salt pond, mostly on Mr. Franklin Haven's estate, 
and now mostly improved land, drains itself and its large water-shed 
by a skilfully-built underground drain into the sea. And this also 
takes the drainage, in part, of the territory east of Pride's Mountain, 
through the ancient Haskell estate. Saw-mill Brook, from Wenham 
to West Beach, has a large, continuous drainage, with several side 
supplies of other brooks from Raccoon Swamp and other territory, and 
on this was formerly a saw-mill ; while Chubb's Creek absorbs the most 
easterly drainage of the town, and here a grist-mill was used for 
many years. And the only water-shed of any size apparently un- 
draincd is Bartlett's Swamp, of about twenty acres, and separated 
from the harbor by a high rklge of land some 500 feet in width. But 
the water in this swamp even is said to be affected by the rise and fall 
of the tide ; and if so, there is a possible underground drainage 
here. This was formerly known as Root's Swamp. 

About one-third of the 320 acres of the celebrated "great pond," 
or Wenham Lake, lies in Beverly. Its. surface is 34 feet above tide- 
water, and its water is of singular purity. It annually supplies large 
quantities of the best of ice, and from it the inhabitants of Salem and 
Beverly obtain their water supply through the reservoir built by 
Salem on Chipman's Hill, into which the water is pumped through a 
mile of pipe, and carried thence by a main supply-pipe down through 
Beverly, and across the harbor to Salem ; and Beverly, by connecting 
its pipes with this main pipe, gets its water supply, and annually pays 
Salem therefor. 

Beaver Pond, of 20 acres, lying between Bald and Brimble hills, by 
its outlet helps supply Norwood Lake ; a private property of 40 
acres of water, with a large water-shed of its own, and formerly the 
mill-pond of the old Conant Mill, having a good head of water, and, 
like Beaver Pond, well adapted for fish-culture, and already partially 
supplied ; and these together cau be made to add a large water supply 
to Wenham Lake, if ever wanted. And Turtle Pond, of about two 
acres, near Beaver Pond, could also easily be made to add its water 
supply, and that of its water-shed, to the above. 

Round Pond, at North Beverly, easterly of Dodge Street, of less 
than an acre in extent, is a contraction of a much larger pond, now 
mostly swamp land, and much of it well wooded, while some of it is 
quite productive in garden and field land. It is reputed very deep, 
with its waters so dense that no fish can live there. 

By the State census of 1875, Beverly had a population of 7,271 ; of 
whom 3,478 were males, and 3,793 females. It had one person aged 
ninety-four years. The number of colored persons was 20 ; of dwell- 
ing-houses, 1,399;. of families, 1,790; of voters, 1,748. The town 
valuation was $8,005,125. The number of farms was 102, embracing 
3,487 acres •„ of horses, 500; of cows, 501. The amount of capital 
invested in manufactures was $314,700, and the value of goods an- 
nually made, $1,654,657. Of these, the value of boots and shoes was 
$1,539,800. This is the leading business of the people. The value 
of earthen-ware annually made was $10,000; of bricks, $6,600; of 
machinery, $5,000 ; of wagons, $8,000, and of boxes, $9,000. The 
whole number of persons employed in manufacturing was 1,314. 
Twent} r -four vessels, with a tonnage of 1,848, were engaged in the 
•fisheries, and the value of cod taken was $131,000; of mackerel, 

Beverly has nine school-houses, substantially new, including an 
elegant brick house for the High and Briscoe schools. They are all 
well filled with pupils, who arc well classified, disciplined, and taught. 
Preparation for college cau be had in the high school. A school 
committee of nine supervise all the schools. 

The town has a good public library ; and nine Sabbath schools have 
libraries. The "Beverly Citizen," a valuable journal, established in 

1859, is published weekly. There are twelve churches, of the fol- 
lowing denominations: 3 Congregationalist, 2 Baptist, 1 Unitarian, 
1 Universalist, 1 Methodist, 1 Advent-Methodist, 1 Independent, 1 
Episcopal, 1 Roman Catholic. The church edifices are generally 
handsome and commodious, mostly supplied with organs, and other 
church furniture. They are all supplied with settled pastors, except 
at North Beverly and Centreville, and the relations are harmonious. 

The town has a commodious public hall, with dining-hall overhead, 
and town offices on the lower floor. The Beverly National Bank and 
Beverly Savings Bank are located in the Masonic Block, where is also 
the Post-office, and the Masonic Lodge and Chapter. A Post of the 
Grand Army occupy Bell's Hall, and there are Fanners' Clubs at 
Centreville and North Beverly. 

The territory of Beverly originally belonged to the Sagamore John, 
or Masconomo, of Agawam, who welcomed the English to Naum- 
keag, and to them granted an extensive tract of laud. To his grand- 
children, however, Samuel and Joseph English, and Jeremiah Wauehes, 
the town paid, in 1700, the sum of £6 6s. 8d., and took of them a 
deed of the place. A few Indian ovens, or flat stones laid in a circle, 
on which fires had been made, have been discovered in Beverly, and 
would seem to indicate that the Indians might once have had a settle- 
ment here ; but the local history of the red men of this place is 
extremely meagre. 

The English commenced a settlement here about 1630, and named 
the place Bass River. It then belonged to Salem. There was sufficient 
population here in 1636 to induce John Stone to set up a ferry between 
Beverly and Salem, near where the bridge now is. Among the earliest 
settlers were John Balch, Richard Brackenbury, Roger Conant, Wil- 
liam Dixey, Ralph Ellingwood, Capt. Thomas Lothrop, John Wood- 
bury, and William Woodbury. They were hardy yeomen, who by 
the toils and persecutions they had experienced in the mother country, 
were well prepared to endure the privations and to meet the perils of 
the wilderness which they chose for their new home. An early grant 
of land from Salem, to some of those early inhabitants, is still 

"4 th of the 11 th month (Jan>4 lh ), 1635. That Capt (William) Traske, 
John Woodberry, Mr. Conant, Peter Palfrey (afterwards of Reading) 
and John Balch, are to have 5 farmes, viz : each 200 acres apeise, to 
form in all a thousand acres of land together, lying & being at the 
head of Bass river, 124 poles in breadth, and soe runin northerly to the 
river by the great pond side, and soe in breadth, making up the full 
quantity of a thousand acres, these being laid out & surveyed by vs. 

John Woodberry. 
John Balch." 

Roger Conant, born in Budleigh, Eng., 1591, came to Plymouth 
in 1623, removed to Nantasket in 1625, and in the following year to 
Salem, where he was made a freeman in 1630. He was of signal ser- 
vice to the early Naumkeag settlers, and to the new settlement of Bass 
River, and died Nov. 19, 1679, in his 89th year. Cotton Mather 
spoke of him as "a most religious, prudent, and worthy gentleman." 
It is said that the first house erected at Bass River was called "the 
garrison house;" but it does not appear that the early settlers here 
were ever greatly molested by the Indians. 

John Winthrop, Jr., had liberty from his father, Jan. 22, 1638, "to 
set up salt works at Rialside, and to have wood enough for carrying 
on the works, and pasture for two cows." It is said that the first child 
born in the place bore the name of Dixey ; if so, it was probably of 
the family of William Dixey, who was admitted freeman in 1634, and 
died in 1690, having owned much of the southern part of the town. 

Mackerel Cove was the early name of the settlement all along our 
sea-shore, and Oct. 27, 1647, its inhabitants were released from keep- 
ing watch in Salem, except on extraordinary occasions. The name of 
Bass River was often applied to the settlement at the head of that 
river, but both these were sometimes included in the latter name, and 
often in that of Cape Ann side. In 1649, the settlers requested of the 



church in Salem that " some course be taken for the means of grace 
amongst themselves, because of the tediousness and difficulties over 
the water, and other inconveniencies," and on the 2d of Feb., 1650, 
the Salem church granted liberty to the people on the Bass River 
side, to employ "an able & approved teacher"; yet they were still to 
remain connected with the Salem church. They then employed for 
some time as their spiritual guides, the Rev. Josiah Hobart, the Rev. 
Jeremiah Hobart, and the Rev. John Hale. In 1656, they built a 
meetine-house, which stood at the north-west corner of the old 

On the 20th of September, 1667, a church was organized, and the 
Rev. John Hale was the same day ordained as its pastor. The names 
of the original members of this first church are as follows : John Hale, 
Richard Dodge, Sen., William Woodberry, Sen., Richard Bracken- 
bury, John Stone, Sen., John Dodge, Sen., Roger Conant, William 
Dodge, Sen., Humphrey Woodberry, Sen., Hugh Woodberry, Nicholas 
Patch, John Hill, Thomas Lothrop, Samuel Corning, Robert Morgan, 
John Black, Sen., Lot Conant, Ralph Ellingwood, William Dixey, 
Henry Herrick, Sen., Peter Woolfe, Josiah Rootes, Sen., Exercise 
Conant, Edward Bishop, Elizabeth Dodge, Mary Lovett, Elizabeth 
Haskell, Mary Woodberry, Sarah Leech, Freegrace Black, Elizabeth 
Corning, Elizabeth Woodberry, Ellen Brackenbury, Hannah Wood- 
berry, Elizabeth Patch, Hannah Sallows, Bethiah Lothrop, Anna Dixey, 
Anna Woodberry, Seu., Elizabeth Woodberry, Martha Woolfe, Han- 
nah Baker, Mary Herrick, Bridget Luff, Mary Dodge, Sen., Anna 
Woodberry, Jun., Ede Herrick, Mary Dodge, Jun., Abigail Hill, 
Ljdia Herrick. 

The salary of Mr. Hale was £70 per annum, in addition to which 
he was to have thirty cords of firewood yearly ; the use of a dwelling- 
house, of two acres of land, of as much meadow as would produce 
about four loads of hay, and the privilege of pasturing his cattle on 
lands of the parish. 

Two days subsequent to the formation of the church, Mrs. Rebeckah 
Hale was received into it by a letter from the church at Salisbury ; 
and on the 23d of October, Humphrey Woodberry and his wife Sarah, 
John Clark, Jr., Humphrey Woodberry, Jr., Remember Stoue, and 
Sarah Conant were admitted to full communion on profession of faith 
and repentance. 

The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was for the first time observed 
by the church on the 29th of September, and on the 13th of October 
following, Abigail, daughter of John and Hannah Sallows, was bap- 
tized, — this being the first instance of infant baptism after the organ- 
ization of the church. 

In 1655, the settlers were allowed liberty to provide for their poor, 
and to lay out their highways, and on the 6th of November, 1667, it 
was agreed "to lay out the ways from the meeting house to the mill," 
and on the 10th of December of the same year, the church held its 
first fast for "the trouble of God's people in England," and for "tokens 
of God's displeasure in this land." 

The town was incorporated Oct. 14, 1668, and probably received 
its name from Beverley, a town of about 9,000 inhabitants in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire, England. The following is the act of incorpo- 
ration : "The court on perusal of this return judge it meet to grant 
that Bass River be henceforth a township of themselves, referring it 
to Salem to accommodate them with lands <fc bounds suitable for 
them and that it be called Beverly." 

The first town-meeting occurred November 23d of the same year, 
when Capt. Thomas Lothrop, William Dixey, William Dodge, Sr., 
John West, and Paul Thorndike were chosen "townsmen," or select- 

A fast was observed Aug. 4, 1669, "because of immoderate rains, 
blasting mildew, cold & storms, to find out the cause and desire the 
removal of God's frown." Another followed, August 16, "for great 
sins abounding and breaking forth scandalously in this country, & 
for deaths of five ministers in about half a year." On November 17, 

a public thanksgiving was held " for the harvest the Lord hath 


As some of the people were dissatisfied with the name of the town, 
which in derision was now and then pronounced Beggarly, Roger 
Conant. then over eighty years old, with thii^'-four others, petitioned 
the General Court, May 28, 1671, to change its name to Budleigh. 
As the paper is not only curious in itself, but of some historical inter- 
est, we insert it here in its original form : 

"To the honored General Court, consisting of Magistrates and 
Deputees, (the 28th of the 3 d month 1671). The humble petition of 
Roger Conant of Bass river, alias Beverly, who hath bin a planter in 
New England fortie yeers and upwards, being one of the first that 
resolved and made good my settlement under in matter of plantation 
with my family in this collony of Massachusetts Bay, and have bin 
instrumental, both for the founding and earning on of the same ; and 
when in the infancy thereof it was in great hazard of being deserted, 
I was a means, through grace assisting me, to stop the flight of those 
few that then were heere with me, and that by my utter deniallto goe 
away with them who would have gon either for England, or mostly 
for Virginia, but thereupon staved to the hassard of their lives. 

"Now my umble suite and request is unto this honorable Court, 
onlie that the name of our towne, or plantation may be altered or 
changed from Beverly and be called Budleigh. I have two reasons 
that have moved me unto this request. The first is the great dislike 
and discontent of man}' of our people for this name of Beverly, 
because (we being but a small place) it hath caused on us a constant 
nickname of Beggarly, being in the mouths of many, and no order 
was given, or consent by the people to their agent for any name, until 
we were shure of being a town granted in the first place. 

" Secondly. I being the first that had house in Salem, (and neither 
had any hand in naming either that or an}' other town,) and myself 
with those that were then with me, being all from the western part of 
England, desire this western name of Budleigh, a market towne in 
Devonshire, and neere unto the sea, as wee are heere in this place, 
and where myself was borne. Now in regard of our firstnesse and 
antiquity in this soe famous a collony, wee should umblie request 
this small preveledg with your favors and consent, to give this name 
above said, uuto our town. I never yet made sute or request unto 
the Generall Court for the least matter, tho' I thinke I might as well 
have done, as many others have, who have obtained much without 
hazard of life, or preferring the publickgood before their own interest, 
which, I praise God, I have done. 

"If this my sute may find acceptation with your worships, I shall 
rest umbly thaukfull, and my praises shall not cease unto the throne 
of grace, for Gods guidance and his blessing to be on all your waightie 
proceedings, and that iustice and righteousness may be everie where 
taught and practiced throughout this wilderness, to all posterity, 
which God grant. Amen. 

"Your worships umble petitioner and servant, Roger Coxant." 

The Court replied, June 1, 1671, that "the magistrates having 
perused and considered this request, see no cause to alter the name of 
the place as desired ; their brethren, the deputies, hereto consenting," 
and so the beautiful name of Beverly, signifying Beaverley, or Beaver- 
field, was continued. The Court this year granted Mr. Conant 200 
acres of land. 

It appears that the interior of the meeting-house was finished by 
degrees, just as the seats were needed, since liberty was granted in 
1671 to certain women to build three of them at their own expense. 
Richard Brackenbury and Samuel Corning, Sr., "had leave to make 
a seat at the north end of the pulpit," and Mrs. Hale, wife of the min- 
ister, " to make a seat where she now sitteth." In 1672, Mrs. Lothrop 
was permitted "to make a seat convenient by the chief pillar." 

The town, ever alive to the interests of education, contributed, 
Feb. 14, 1672, £13 to Harvard College. On the 18th of March the 
bouuds were fixed between Beverly and Manchester. John Stone 



was this year allowed to keep an ordinary, or tavern, and one barrel 
of powder was granted to the town by the General Court. The 
population of the town at this time is supposed to have been about 
six hundred. 

On the 5th of October, 1674, it was voted to build a school-house 
near the meeting-house, twenty feet long, and sixteen feet wide. It 
was to serve also as a watch-house. Owing to the Indian disturb- 
ances, this project seems to have been delayed for several years, and 
the meeting-house continued to be used for educational purposes. 
Samuel Hardie was, so far as the records show, the earliest school- 
teacher. As late as 1667, he used the meeting-house as a school- 
room, and his salary was £20 per annum. He also practised physic. 

In the early part of 1675, the whole Colony were thrown into con- 
sternation by the assaults of the Indians, under Philip of Pokanoket, 
on the frontier settlements. Four garrison-houses were erected in 
Beverly, one at the meeting-house, one at Bass River, another at 
Mackerel Cove, in the easterly part of the town, and another " near 
the house of John Dodge, Senior," near Wenham line. 

Soldiers from this town enlisted patriotically, for the common de- 
fence. The following were engaged, in 1675, under Capt. Joseph 
Gardner, of Salem, at Fort Narragansett ; viz., William Balch, Wil- 
liam Bonner, Lot Conant, Christopher Read (wounded), William 
Ferryman, Christopher Browne, Moses Morgan, John Traske, Wil- 
liam Allen, John Clarke, Richard Hussband, Thomas Rayment, Ralph 
Ellingwood, Henry Bayley, Thomas Blashfield, John Ellingwood, Jo- 
seph Morgan, William Dodge, Jonathan Biles, William Rayment, Elias 
Picket, Samuel Harris, and John Dodge. John Ellingwood^wounded), 
Thomas Parlor, and Samuel Collins, served this year at Wells, Me. 

Capt. Thomas Lothrop, then about sixty-five years of age, was ap- 
pointed to the command of a company raised in this town and vicin- 
ity, and styled " The Flower of Essex," which was ordered to the 
western frontier. He was one of the early settlers, and had served 
in 1654 as a captain, at the capture of Port Royal. Lieut. Thomas 
Whittredge, Lieut. Edward Rayment, William Woodberry, Hum- 
phrey Woodberry, and Peter Wooden, of Beverly, were with him in 
that expedition ; and from the " new Friary," at Port Royal, he se- 
cured a bell for the Beverly meeting-house. 

In September, 1675, the headquarters of the English were at Had- 
ley, and on arriving at this place, Capt. Lothrop was despatched with 
his company to Deerfield, for the purpose of transporting some grain, 
which had not been destroyed in the conflagration of that town by the 
Indians, to the encampment at Hadley. While returning with his 
loaded teams, and, it is said, delaying by the way to gather grapes, he 
was suddenly attacked by a body of about seven hundred of the ene- 
my, who had been lying in ambuscade, and, after a desperate strug- 
gle, he himself, and all but seven or eight of his brave folloAvers, fell. 
Of those killed, Capt. Lothrop, Josiah Dodge, Peter Woodberry, and 
John Balch, belonged to Beverh^. The scene of this sanguinary en- 
gagement was at Muddy Brook, near Sugar-loaf Mountain, in the 
southerly part of Deerfield. In 1835, it being the 160th anniversary 
of the battle, an address was given by Edward Everett, and in 1838, 
a marble monument was erected over the remains of the slain. It 
bears the following inscription : — 

"On this ground Capt. Thomas Lothrop and eighty four men 
under his command, including eighteen teamsters from Deerfield, 
conveying stores from that town to Hadley, were ambuscaded by 
about 700 Indians, and the Captain & seventy six men slain, Sept. 
18th, 1675 (old style)." The soldiers who fell, were described by 
a contemporary historian, as "a choice company of young men, the 
very flower of the County of Essex, none of whom were ashamed to 
speak with the enemy in the gate." 

"And Sanguinetto tells yon whore the dead 
Made the earth wet, and turned the unwilling waters red." 

"This monument erected August 1838." The estate of Capt. Loth- 

rop was at Mackerel Cove, a part of the now beautiful estate of Mr. 
Benj. F. Burgess, and a street, in 1837, was named "Lothrop," in 
perjietuation of his memory. His sister Ellen inherited his property, 
and became the second wife of the celebrated Ezekiel Cheever, the 
most noted schoolmaster in the Colony. 

In 1690, the town was visited by the small-pox, and it afforded 
relief to Lawrence Dennis and family, afflicted with that disease. It 
also borrowed this year £48 10s. " to buy great guns & ammuni- 
tion," and also to erect a fort. Andrew Elliott was elected this year 
as the first town clerk, and his salary was fixed at thirty shillings per 
annum. He died March 1, 1703-4, and was succeeded by Robert 
Woodberry, "who discharged his duties with great fidelity." 

In the unfortunate expedition against Quebec, this year, Beverly 
was represented by a company under Capt. William Rayment. It 
suffered greatly, and was subsequently remunerated for its services 
by the grant of a township of land. The Rev. Mr. Hale served as 
one of the chaplains in this campaign. Soon after his return, he 
found the church and state distracted with the witchcraft delusion, 
which commenced in the family of his friend, the Rev. Samuel Parris, 
of Salem Village, early in 1692, and spread as wild-fire through the 
towns of Essex County. 

Dorcas Hoar, Sarah Morel], Susanna Rootes, and Job Tuckey, of 
Beverly, were accused of being in confederation with the devil, tried, 
condemned and imprisoned ; but finally restored to liberty. It was 
charged against the latter that he could "as freely discourse with the 
devil " as with his accuser, John Landers, that he had " afflicted " 
Mary Warren, Mary Walcot, Betsey Hews, and that he caused the 
death of Andrew Woodberry. Mr. Hale, in common with the nota- 
ble men at that period, countenanced the delusion ; but in October, of 
this dark year, his own wife was accused of witchcraft. His opinion 
in respect to it then suddenly changed, and he subsequently wrote a 
treatise against the delusion. In it he says : "I have had a deep sense 
of the sad consequences of mistakes in matters capital, and their 
impossibility of recovering when completed ; and what grief of heart 
it brings to a tender conscience to have been unwittingly encouraging 
of the sufferings of the innocent." He is said to have been the first 
to resist the tide of fanaticism in respect to diabolical possession. 

In 1696, Beverly had four soldiers, viz., John Burt, Benj. Carrill, 
John Pickworth, and Israel Wood, in the service at Fort St. Mary, 
near Saco, Me. ; but it does not appear that any of them were lost. 

The town had at this time become somewhat noted for ship-build- 
ing, and many of its people were engaged in the fisheries. 

On the 2d of May. 1700, many cattle were lost in a great rain and 
hail storm, which continued three days ; and on the 15th of the 
same month, the town was called to deplore the death of Mr. Hale, 
its beloved minister. He was born in Charlestown, June 3, 1636 ; 
graduated at Harvard College, in 1657 ; married for his first wife 
Rcbeccah Byles, for his second, March 3, 1684, Mrs. Sarah Noyes, of 
Newbury, and for his third, Aug. 8, 1698, Mrs. Elizabeth Somerby. 
Mr. Hale was a man of good abilities, generous and patriotic. The 
inscription on his gravestone is : " Here lies the body of the Reverend 
Mr. John Hale, a pious & faithful minister of the gospel, and pas- 
tor of the First Church of Christ in this town of Beverly, who rested 
from his labors on the 15 th day of May, anno domini, 1700, in the 
64th year of his age." 

A grammar school was established in 1700, and Mr. Robert Hale 
was appointed master. He was succeeded the next year by Mr. 
Daniel Dodge, the ancestor of the Hon. William E. Dodge, of New 
York. James Hale aud Pyam Blowers, sons of the first two ministers, 
subsequently taught the school, which continued in operation, with 
but slight interruptions, for 124 years. 

The town chose, December 5, 1676, two constables, "by reason of 
the difficulties of the times, on account of the Indian war." 

But the war soon closed, by the death of Philip, and prosperity 
again prevailed. The town, at this period, and still later, was much 



infested with wolves ; and for killing three of them, in 1678, John 
Edwards was allowed three pounds from the public treasury. In the 
year following, March 29, John West gave a flagon to the church, 
" as a token of his love." 

In 1680, Weuham claimed 600 acres of land, as promised by Salem. 
before Beverly was set off, and, after controversy, had that quantity 
added to her territory from Beverly, thus changing the boundary line 
from Mile- River to substantially the present line. 

In 1682, a new meeting-house was erected, fifty feet in length, by 
forty feet in width, at a cost of £370 in silver. The tower from 
which the bell-rope depended, rose from the centre of the building; 
and an hour-glass, for measuring the length of the sermon, stood 
upon the pulpit. 

On the 22d of September, 1700, Miss Emma Leach, fifty-two 
years old. and only twenty-five inches high, visited Salem, and awak- 
ened great curiosity. 

The Rev. Thomas Blowers, born in Cambridge, Aug. 1, 1677 (Har- 
vard College, 1695), succeeded Mr. Hale, and was ordained pastor of 
the church, Oct. 29, 1701, his salary being £80 per annum, and £100 
being allowed him for a "settlement." 

The population of the town, in 1708, had arisen to 1,680, and noth- 
ing for some time occurred to agitate the public mind. 

In 1711, Mihil Sallows and Joseph Gray were slain b} T the Indians 
at Winter Harbor ; aud three or four years later, Benjamin Dike lost 
his life the same way. at Cape Sable. 

In 1713, the town granted land on which to erect a school-house at 
the Farms, and in October of the same year, the Second, or North 
Parish, was incorporated, and a plain meeting-house, fifty feet long 
and forty feet wide, was erected. A church was organized December 
1715; and on the same day, the Rev. John Chipman, born in 
Barnstable, and a graduate of Harvard College in 1711, was ordained 
as pastor. The original members of the church were, John Chipman, 
Edward Dodge, Jonathan Rayment, Joseph Dodge, Jonathan Dodge, 
Josiah Woodberry, Elisha Dodge, Nehemiah Wood, John Dodge, 
Senior, John Leach, Joseph Herrick, John Crecy. Jacob Griggs, John 
Brown, and Moses Fluaut. 

The people were seated in the meeting-house by persons appointed 
for this purpose, who were " to show respect to ye aged people amongst 
vs, as allso to have a special! regard unto persons that have don service 
for ye benefit of ye precinct, and have contributed high in building of 
ye hous for ye publick worship of God, and purchasing land for ye 
use of ye people of sd. precinct, and are Likely to pay considerable 
in ye Charge of ye ministry amongst us ; as allso not to seat above 
two thirds so many persons in any seat, as ye seats will comfortably 
hold." It was voted, March 29, 1715, that the front seat in the east 
gallery " he parted in ye middle," for the accommodation of the young 
unmarried women. 

Robin Mingo, a negro slave, owned by Thomas Woodberry, was 
admitted to the First Church, July 15, 1722. He married Deborah 
Taylor, an Indian, and died in 1773. His name is perpetuated in 
"Mingo's Beach." 

On the 29th of October, 1727. a great earthquake occurred, which 
so alarmed the people, that many here, as in the neighboring towns, 
made a profession of religion, and united with the church. 

On the last day of this year, Mr. Chipman wrote, in respect to this 
event : — 

"Soli Deo Laus qui et terrain violenter exagitavit et super populum 
suum spiritum suum efiudit." 

"Praise be to God only, who hath shaken violently the earth, and 
also poured out his Spirit on his people." 

As many a? twenty-five were added to Mr. Chipman's church during 
the year. 

The physician of the town at this period, was Dr. Robert Hale. Jr., 
born Feb. 12, 1702-3 (Harvard College, 1721), and, after holding many 
offices, civil and political, died in 1767. He represented the town thir- 

teen years in the General Court, and was, in 1740, appointed man- 
ager of the scheme for the relief of the Colony, known as the 
Land Bank. In the expedition against Louisburg, under Gen. Wil- 
liam Pepperell, 1745, he commanded a regiment, and was subse- 
quently a sheriff for Essex Count}-. 

The Rev. Mr. Blowers, of the First Church, died, much lamented, 
June 17, 1729, and fifty pounds were appropriated to defray the expen- 
ses of his funeral. A monument of granite was erected over his remains, 
in 1818, with this inscription : "In memory of Rev. Thomas Blowers, 
obt. June 17. 1729, in the 28th year of his ministry." His successor 
was the Rev. Joseph Champney, whose ordination occurred Dec. 10, 
1729, and whose salary was £140, in province bills of credit, his "set- 
tlement " being £200 of the same currency. He continued in the 
pastorate until his decease, which took place Feb. 23, 1773, when the 
Rev. Joseph Willaid, who had been settled as a colleague the preced- 
ing year, became the sole minister of the church and parish. 

In 1730, a disagreement arose in the Second Parish, in respect to 
singing in church, some persons being desirous of continuing the prac- 
tice of "lining out" the hymns, and singing by rote, while others pre- 
ferred to sing by note. A compromise was made, and Mr. Joseph 
Cresey was desired to set the tune whenever they sang by note. It 
was voted, moreover, that no psalm-tune, not in common use with 
them, should " lie speedily introduced, set, or sung in this congrega- 
tion, excepting the tune called St. Maries, or Hackney, and the tune 
called Commandment tune." On the 28th of October, of the year 
following, it was however, voted " that they would for the future time, 
sing at all times of singing in public worship, the psalm tunes by rule, 
according to the notes pricked in our psalm books." The Bay Psalm 
Book was then in use, and a few engraved tunes were appended to 
this version of the Psalms as early as 1696. 

In 1752, when Danvers was made a town, all that territory between 
Bass River and Bass River brook on the east, and Frost Fish brook on 
the west, was annexed to Beverly, most of the families there already 
belonging to the Second Parish here. And in 1857, the village that 
had grown up on that territory, near Danversport, comprising some 330 
inhabitants and 1,500 acres of land, including the memorable Brown's 
Folly Hill, was annexed to Danvers. 

Iu 1753, the population was 2,023. This year, Robert Hooper, Jr., 
of Marblehead, presented a bell to the Second Parish, which, in token 
of its gratitude, granted a pew to the donor, and also voted, "to lath 
and plaster over-head, over the above said pew upon the parish's 
cost." In 1754, the whole number of slaves here was twenty-eight. 

In 1757, the town hired a part of a house for the use of two fami- 
lies of the Acadians, over whom it had supervision, and whom it was 
ordered by the government to support. These unfortunate people 
were industrious, aud supported themselves in part by making wood- 
en-ware, brooms, and baskets, 

In 1765, the population was 2,163. This year, Widow Priscilla 
Tiask was appointed pound-keeper; and, two years later, a powder- 
house was erected, on the south side of the common. Anterior to 
this, the stock of ammunition had been kept in a room iu the meet- 
ing-house of the First Parish, which was taken dowu June 27, 1770, 
for the erection of a new edifice. This was erected at a cost of about 
£1,300. The Psalms and Hymns of Dr. Watts were introduced, 
against strong opposition, into the Second Church, in 1770. So strong 
was the feeling, that one man, rising one day in the midst of the ser- 
vice, declared that, had Solomon seen what was going on that day, 
he never would have written, "There is nothing new under the sun." 

The sentiment of the town, as that of Manchester, was equally set 
against inoculation for the small-pox. 

On the 1st of May, 1771, Mr. Enos Hitchcock, born in Spring- 
field, and graduated at Harvard College in 1767, was ordained as 
colleague of Mr. Chipman, then in declining health, at a salary of 
£60 per annum. Mr. Chipman died March 23, 1775, at the age of 
eighty-five years, and after a pastorate of nearly sixty years, and Mr. 



Hitchcock, then with an increase of salary, became the sole pastor of 
the Second Church. 

In the great struggle for American independence, Beverly bore a 
conspicuous and patriotic part. 

In its instructions, May 22, 17G9, to Henry Hcrrick, representative, 
it says : K We apprehend that no power on earth can justly deprive 
us of our essential rights, & that no man can be safe, either as to his 
life, liberty or property, if a contrary doctrine should prevail ; there- 
fore, we recommend to you a firm, but prudent opposition to all 
unconstitutional measures." A committee of correspondence was 
appointed at the close of 1773, consisting of John Leach, Benjamin 
Jones, Henry Hcrrick, Samuel Goodridgc, and Josiah Batchclder, Jr. 
The latter gentleman was chosen representative to the General Court, 
Sept. 2G, 1774. As the times darkened, and a resort to arms ap- 
peared inevitable, the militia companies were called to frequent drills, 
the arms and ammunition put in order, watchmen were appointed, and 
four watch-houses built. 

On the reception of the news of the battle of Lexington, April 19, 
1775, Capt. Joseph Rea, and Capt. Caleb Dodge, repaired, with most 
of the male population capable of bearing arms, to the scene of the 
conflict, and assisted in driving the British troops back to Boston. 
In the skirmishes, Reuben Keunison was killed, and Nathaniel 
Cleaves, "Wilson Dodge, and Samuel Woodbury were wounded. The 
fort on Woodbcrry's Head was put in order and manned by forty 
soldiers. The women of Beverly exhibited a patriotism not inferior 
to that which moved their husbands and their brothers to take up 
arms against the enemy. They cheerfully prepared garments for the 
soldiers, and lent in every possible way their aid for carrying on the 

There were several fortifications erected in town durin" the Rcvolu- 
tion, and, in accordance with the habits of those days, forty-seven gal- 
lons of rum were used while building the breastwork at Woodbcrry's 

In the autumn of 1775, a little scene occurred in the harbor, 
not without dramatic interest. The British ship of war, "Nauti- 
lus," twenty guns, discovered and chased a privateer of Beverly 
up towards the town, until it grounded on the flats. As the 
tide was too low for the "Nautilus" to secure its prize, it began to 
fire upon the town. One shot struck the shed of Thomas Stephens, 
and destroyed his chaise. Seizing his gun, he ran to the beach and 
returned the fire. Col. Henry Herrick, in his military costume, fol- 
lowed him. Others hurried to the landing, opening a fire upon the 
"Nautilus," which, by reason of the ebbing of the tide, careened so 
as to be unable to use its guns. The cannon from Hospital Point, in 
Salem, now opening a fire on the unlucky vessel, it received shots, 
fore and aft, until, the tide arising, it was enabled to make sail for 
Boston. For its defence, the town raised a second breastwork on 
Paul's Head ; and in January, 1776, hired twenty-four men as a night- 
watch on West's Beach, and also near the dwelling-house of Benjamin 
Smith. Col. Glover's regiment was stationed at the fort. The town, 
June 13 of this year, pledged " their lives & fortunes to support " 
the Continental Congress, in the event of its declaring the Colonies 
independent of Great Britain ; and, in its subsequent action, it re- 
deemed its pledge. In almost every battle of the Revolution, Bev- 
erly was bravely represented. 

The Rev. Euos Hitchcock served as a chaplain of Col. Ebenezer 
Francis's regiment in 1777, and subsequently of Gen. Patterson's 
brigade. Of the clothing of the army at Valley Forge he wrote, May 
15, 1778 : "Numbers of our brigade are destitute even of a shirt, and 
have nothing but the ragged remains of some loose garments as a 
partial covering." 

Col. Ebenezer Francis, of Beverly as early as 1764, took an active 
part in the prosecution of the war. He was colonel, in 1776, of a 
regiment stationed at Dorchester Heights. Col. Francis fell at the 
head of his regiment at the battle of Ilubbardton, near Whitehall, 

N. Y., July 7, 1777, being shot through the right breast. His brother, 
John Francis, served as adjutant in the same regiment, and subse- 
quently held the same office in the regiment of Col. Benjamin Tupper. 
He also held many civil offices, and died July 30, 1822, aged 69 years. 
Their brothers, Aaron Francis and Thomas Francis, also were iu the 
Revolutionary Army. 

The town appropriated £300 in 1777 to supply the families of its 
soldiers then in the army, and in 1778 the three captains of the militia 
companies were directed to obtain the quota of soldiers for the army 
iu Rhode Island, "giving the preference to town inhabitants." The 
next year a fine of £5,400 was imposed upon the town for its failure to 
supply its full quota of soldiers, to which it truly said, in a petition to 
have the fine remitted, " that as a town they had furnished more 
men, & been at greater expense in carrying on the war thau almost 
any other town, in proportion to their abilities." 

During the whole period of the Revolution, Beverly was extensively 
engaged in privateering. In 1775, Capt. Hugh Hill captured and 
brought into Beverly Harbor the schooner "Industry," where her 
cargo was sold, and the vessel delivered over to the public service. 
Capt. Hill, who was a native of Ireland and own cousin to President 
Andrew Jackson, also captured several other British vessels, mostly 
near his native coast, and brought them into Beverly, which was then 
the headquarters of the infant navy of the country, William Bartlett, 
of Bartlett Street, being the first navy agent, and into his charge were 
given many of the vessels and cargoes captured by the vessels owned 
or employed by the Government. 

Capt. Eleazcr Giles, in 1776, captured three British vessels laden with 
stores, and brought them safely into port. Capt. Elias Smith, com- 
mander of the "Mohawk," twenty guns, captured a Guiucainan of six- 
teen guns, otfthc West Indies, and sent it into Beverly. Capt. Benja- 
min Lovett and Capt. John Tittle were also among the successful 
commanders of armed vessels in that service. 

The Rev. Enos Hitchcock was dismissed from the pastorate of the 
Second Church, April 6, 1780, and installed over a church in Provi- 
dence, R. I., Oct. 1, 1783, where he continued until his death, which 
occurred Feb. 27, 1803. He was an eloquent preacher, and noted for 
his benevolence. He published a work of fiction, entitled, "Charles 
Worthy; or, Memoirs of the Bloomsgrovc Family," 2 vols., 12mo, 
1790, and several discourses. He was succeeded in the pastorate of 
the Second Church in Beverly, by the Rev. Daniel Oliver, who was 
ordained Oct. 3, 1787, and continued in the ministry here until 1797, 
when he was dismissed by a mutual council. He was followed by the 
Rev. Moses Dow, whose ordination took place March 18, 1800, the 
Rev. Stephen Peabody, of Atkinson, N. II., preaching the sermon. 
Mr. Dow graduated at Dartmouth College in 1796, and died at Plais- 
tow, N. H., in 1837, at the age of 66 years. He was an able and a 
faithful minister. 

On the 30th of Dec., 1781, the Rev. Joseph Willard took his leave of 
the First Church, in order to assume the office of President of Harvard 
College, and was succeeded in the pastorate by the Rev. Joseph 
McKcan, who was ordained May 11, 1785. His salary was £200, and 
his "settlement" £300. In 1802 he became the first President of 
Bowdoin College, in which office he continued until his death, July 
15, 1807. "He was," said Dr. William Jenks, "a humble pupil of 
the Redeemer, and his life will rank among the most consistent, sim- 
ple, and impressive examples of the efficacy of his faith." He was 
followed in the pastorate by the Rev. Abiel Abbot, born in Andover, 
Aug. 17, 1770, Harvard College 1792, and installed here Dec. 13, 
1803. He died, greatly respected and lamented by his people, June 
7, 1828. Under his pastorate the church became mainly Unitarian 
in sentiment, and so continues to the present day. In the year fol- 
lowing his decease, his "Letters from Cuba" were published in 
Boston ; and a volume of his sermons, edited by S. Everett, subse- 
quently appeared. 

The declaration of peace in 1783 was hailed with demonstrations of 



the liveliest joy, aud the town soon rose from the depression caused by 
the war, and increased in wealth and population. 

The first cotton-mill erected in America, was built here in 1788, 
and in the following year was visited by Washington. 

In 17s">. "Four shillings and half a pint of rum were allowed for a day's 
labor on the highways." The selectmen in 1787 fixed the price of 
bread at three cents and seven mills per pound, and this year fire- 
wards were first chosen. They were, Moses Brown, Andrew Cabot, 
George Cabot, Joseph Lee, and Joseph Wood. In the year following, 
the Essex Bridge, 1,484 feet long, and 32 wide, connecting the town 
with Salem, was constructed, at a cost of about $16,000. The right 
to take toll for seventy years was granted to the proprietors. Anterior 
to this, the communication with Salem was by ferry, and the first 
ferryman was John Stone, 1636, whose fee was, for a stranger, 2d. ; 
and for a citizen of Salem, \d. The number of fishing vessels belong- 
ing to the town this year (1788) was 32, employing 271 men. The 
population of the town in 1790 had arisen to 3,290, and the town was 
then divided into six school districts. 

Of early Baptists here, Josiah Batchelder. Esq., wrote that his 
mother's mother, Ruth, the wife of Capt. William Rayment was ''the 
daughter of a Baptist minister, and that some of her descendants are 
tinctured with her whims to this day. She was otherwise a very 
worthy woman/' and probably the daughter of the Rev. Isaac Hull, 
minister of the First Baptist Church of Boston. 

Before 1790, there were several persons from Beverly connected 
with the Baptist church at New Rowley, now Georgetown, and after 
that with the Baptist church at Danversport, who occasionally held 
meetings in a chapel where is now the Rose House, in Wallis Street. 
March 25, 1801, they organized the First Baptist Church in Beverly, 
and united with the society (formed Sept. 30, 1800) in settling the Rev. 
Joshua Young, from Maine, as their pastor, at a salary of £95; and 
built a meeting-house on Cabot Street, nearly opposite Elliot Street. 
Mr. Young left in December, 1802, and removed to Vermont, and has 
descendants there and at the West : his wife being of the Daniel Wallis 
family. He was succeeded March 11, 1803, by the Rev. Elisha S. 
Williams, a Yale graduate, who, when quite young, had served with 
General Washington on Long Island. He resigned in October, 1812, 
and afterward resided in and near Boston, doing much ministerial 
work, and late in life returned to Beverly, where he died Feb. 2, 
1845, aged 88, at the home of his daughter. Mrs. Samuel S. Ober. 
His first wife, and the mother of his children, was a Livermore. and a 
sister of the mother of ex- Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin. The next 
pastoral call was given June 11, 1814, to the Rev. Hervey Jenks, of 
Hudson, N. Y. , a young man of great promise; but disease sud- 
denly terminated his earthly life, just four weeks from the day of 
his call. 

July 2, 1817. The First Church admonished brother Francis Lam- 
sou, and sisters Martha Lamson, Molly Gray. Sally G. Ashton, Jane 
Greele, aud Mary Trask, who had connected themselves with the Bap- 
tist church without dismission, for "uniting with a close communion 
church," thereby "renouncing us as a church," and "we exhort them 
to return to the bosom of their native church." 

The next pastor was the Rev. Nathaniel W. Williams, from Salem, 
ordained Aug. 14, 1817, after more than a year's previous service as 
acting pastor. He resigned Nov. 7, 1824, and removed to Windsor, 
Yt., and Aug. 20, 1836, he accepted a call to return to his old pas- 
torate here, and remained till April 17, 1840, when he resigned, but 
continued in the work of the ministry in various localities until near 
his death, which occurred in Boston, May 27, 1853, at the age of 69. 
He was one of the delegates from Beverly, to the State Constitutional 
Convention of 1820. His son. the Rev. X. Marshman William-:, D. D., 
is one of the prominent ministers of the Baptist faith. Nov. 30, 1825, 
the Rev. Francis G. Macomber, a pastor and preacher of rare gifts 
and graces, was ordained, but died quite suddenly July 1, 1*27, very 
widely lamented. The Rev. Richmond Taggart, supplied iu 1829 ; and 

the Rev. Jonathan Aldrich was settled June 30, 1830, aud resigned 
May 24. 1833. During his ministry the meeting-house was enlarged, 
160 new members were added to the church, and twenty-six 
were dismissed to form the Baptist church at Weuham. The Rev. 
John Jennings was ordained Sept. 10, 1834, aud resigned June 20, 
1836. Then followed the second pastorate of Mr. Williams, during 
which the meeting-house was taken down, and used in building a larger 
house, seventy-four by forty-eight feet, farther down Cabot Street. where 
is uow the Roman Catholic church. Nov. 11, 1840, the Rev. Charles 
W. Flanders was settled, and continued to Sept. 12, 1850, when he re- 
signed, and after that was settled at Concord, X. H., Westborough, 
Mass., and Kennebunkport, Me. ; and finally returned and built a 
home for himself and family on Thorudike Street, in Beverly, where he 
passed the remainder of his days amid a community in which he had a 
huge circle of friends, besides those of his former pastorate. Here he 
did much ministerial work, including the charge of the Second Baptist 
Church at Beverly Farms for a year or more. He died Aug. 2, 1875, 
aged 68}f years, and widely lamented. February 5, 1852, the Rev. 
Edwin B. Eddy was ordained, and resigned Nov. 16, 1855, after 
quite a prosperous pastorate. During his ministry the meeting-house 
was enlarged, by adding twenty feet to its length. The Rev. Josejm 
C. Foster was settled here, Aug. 7, 1856, after fourteen years suc- 

ssful service at Brattleborough, Yt., and continued till December, 
1872, when he accepted a call to his present pastorate at Randolph. 
During his long ministry, the beautiful new chapel, now the military 
armory, was built, and after that the elegant and spacious church at 
the corner of Cabot and Abbott streets, including vestry and other 
conveniences, and both the church and society had prospered. The 
old church was first sold to the Crispins, and afterwards to the Roman 

The Rev. E. B. Andrews, uow President of Denison University, 
at Granville, Ohio, succeeded Mr. Foster for one year; and he was 
succeeded by the Rev. D. P. Morgan, the present pastor. Both of 
these last two pastors served in the Union army in the Rebellion War, 
and each has delivered anniversary addresses on Memorial Day, on 
invitation of the Post of the Grand Army here. 

Nov. 9, 1802, the Third Congregational Church was organized, iu 
connection with the society, whose name was changed iu 1*37 to that 
of "The Dane Street Society of Beverly." Their meeting-house was 
finished in December, 1803, and the Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D., 
preached the dedicatory sermon. The Rev. Joseph Emerson, its first 
minister, born in Hollis, X*. H., Oct. 13, 1777, graduated at Harvard 
College in 1798, and was ordained here Sept. 21, 1803, the Rev. Dr. 
X". Emmons preaching the sermon. He was quite a successful pastor, 
but his health was not fully equal to continue that work; he resigned 
Sept. 21, 1816. and afterward engaged in educational work, in which 
he always took an especial interest. He was an ardent lover of the 
Bible, aud his lectures and expositions thereon exhibited much re- 
search, and were of great interest. He wrote the "Memoir of Miss 
Fanny Woodbury" (a Beverly missionary to the heathen), and also 
several other works, and died at Wethersfield. Conn.. May 13, 1833. 
One or more of his sons have been successful ministers of the gospel. 
The Rev. David Oliphant succeeded here Feb. 18, 1818, and continued 
till 1*33, taking a very prominent part in temperance work and other 
good causes. During his ministry the old church edifice was burned 
down, and the present one erected upon its site; and this has since 
been greatly beautified and enlarged, and provided with all modern 
conveniences. Oct. 13, 1834, the Rev. Joseph Abbot was ordaiued, 
Prof. Ralph Emerson preaching the sermon. Mr Abbot resigned 
active work in March, 1865, but preached occasionally until April 11, 
1867, when suddenly summoned by death to give account of a life of 
able and useful service in his Master's work. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. E. H. Titus for the year 1866 ; and he by the present pastor, 
the Rev. O. T. Lanphear, D. D., who was installed Oct. 23, 1867. 

This church was organized originally by members from the First 



Church, who thought that the latter was not quite Orthodox or Calvin- 
istic enough for their views ; and this became more or less a matter of 
controversy for many years afterwards. 

In 1812 Miss Nancy Ingersoll requested dismission from the First 
to the Third church, for the reason that the pastor " seldom or never 
touched upon the peculiar doctrines of the gospel," meaning "the 
sacred Trinity ; the Deity of Jesus Christ ; the total depravity of the 
human heart ; the election and perseverance of the saints ; and the 
eternal decrees of God." This request was referred to John Dyson, 
Thomas Davis, John Ash ton, Samuel Ober, and Robert Rantoul, who 
reported that their " Reverend and beloved pastor does preach the 
essential doctrines of the gospel of Christ, with zeal and affection, 
and we have reason to bless God that his preaching has, as we fully 
believe, been the means under God of convincing and converting sin- 
ners, of comforting saints and of building up the church of Christ in 
this place." This report was accepted, and after some mutual expla- 
nations the request was granted, and Miss Ingersoll united with the 
Third Church. In 1814 the First Church adopted a rule granting to 
its members, "as an indulgence, liberty to attend worship with another 
congregation, and recommendation to occasional communion with 
another church," but refusing dismission to any church in town, ex- 
cept for " very special reasons." And in 1820 Miss Tamma Kilham 
asked such dismission for her "better edification." But this was re- 
fused, as was also a mutual council to determine the matter. Upon 
this she called an ex parte council, who decided in her favor, and 
she accordingly joined with the Third Church, but not without a pro- 
test from the First Church, which, with the other documents in the 
case, was published in the Boston " Recorder," and created quite a 
discussion. In 1823, on the settlement of the Rev. Ebenezer Poor 
at the Second Church, the objections to allow the Rev. Dr. Abbot, of 
the First Church, to participate in the exercises on account of his 
libera] opinions, also became the subject of a very able and elaborate 
controversy in the Salem "Gazette" and other newspapers. The 
death of the Rev. Dr. Abbot, in 1828, brought these differences of 
opinion into collision within the First Church and Society, and resulted 
finally in the settlement of the Rev. Christopher T. Thayer, Jan. 27, 
1830, as a Unitarian, by a vote of seventy-six to thirty-eight; the 
Rev. Dr. Thayer, of Lancaster, his father, preaching the ordination 
sermon. The result of this settlement was that the more Orthodox 
portion withdrew and joined the Dane Street Church and Society, and 
later, most of them withdrawing from there, with others, and organ- 
izing the Washington Street Church and Society. Mr. Thayer con- 
tinued in a long and peaceful pastorate till 1859, when he retired from 
the ministry and removed to Boston, where he now resides. He is a 
descendant of Andrew Elliot, the first Beverly town clerk, and has 
always taken much interest in the affairs of the town. His address at 
the bi-centennial anniversary of the First Church gives marked evi- 
dence of such interest, and is a valuable historical work. Mr. Thayer 
was followed by the Rev. John C. Kimball, for a period of nine 
years, who has since then been settled in Oregon, at Newport, R. I., 
and now at Hartford, Conn. The present pastor is the Rev. Ellery 
Chanuing Butler, who was settled in 1872. This parish has a minis- 
terial fund of about $13,000, besides which it has $5,000 given by 
Dea. Charles Davis as a fund to its Sabbath school. The present 
house of worship was built in 1770; enlarged, 1795; remodelled, 
1835; again remodelled some thirty years later, adding alike neatness, 
comfort, and convenience. It stands very nearly on the same spot 
where stood its two predecessors. Dec. 19, 1820, a new chapel, built by 
private subscription and furnished by the ladies, was dedicated. It 
was then located on Federal Street, but later removed to its present 
location in the old cemetery. 

A late event of the eighteenth century worthy of note, in respect 
to this town, was the capture of the schooner "Alert," Capt. Jacob 
Oliver, Jan. 18, 1799, by three French privateers, as it was entering 
the harbor of Santander. Capt. Oliver had but two guns, yet with 

these he made a heroic defence, beating off one vessel and engaging 
with another until the arrival of the third, with ten guns, when he 
was obliged to strike. The population, in 1800, had come up to 
3,381. The cod-fishery was carried on at this period with great 

In 1802 the Beverly Bank was incorporated, with a capital of 
$160,000. The Hon. Israel Thorndike was the first president. A 
social library was established on the 20th of January of this year, 
the sum raised for it being $660. The books were selected by Dr. 
Joshua Fisher, Nathan Dane, Thomas Davis, and the Rev. Dr. Mc- 

On the 1st of March, 1807, the Beverly Charitable Society, since 
changed to the Fisher Charitable Society, was incorporated. Its 
design is to relieve any citizens of the town who, by sickness or mis- 
fortune, may stand in need of aid. • To this society Dr. Joshua Fisher 
(1749-1833) gave $200, and left a legacy of $1,000. Dr. Elisha 
"Whitney, who had practised here successfully since 1792, died here 
Feb. 22d of this year, much lamented. 

A Sabbath school, one of the earliest in the State, was opened in 
1810, by Miss Joanna Prince and Miss Hannah Hill, holding its 
sessions mostly in the First Parish meeting-house, but participated in 
for several years by members of all the churches, until separate 
schools were set up in each congregation. 

Mr. Israel Trask commenced the manufacture of britannia-ware 
here in 1812. It was the first made in America. 

The Rev. Humphrey C. Perle}' was settled over the Second Church 
on the 2d of December, 1818 ; was dismissed, June 13, 1823, and 
was followed by the Rev. Ebenezer Poor, who was ordained Oct. 
29th of the same year, and continued in the pastorate until March, 

On the 18th of April, 1823, the Hon. George Cabot, an eminent 
merchant, born in Salem, 1751, and long a resident of Beverly, 
died. He was president of the famous Hartford Convention in 
1814, and was a personal friend of George Washington and Alexan- 
der Hamilton. Two of his brothers, Andrew and John Cabot, and 
■a brother-in-law, Joseph Lee, also resided in Beverly, and were promi- 
nent merchants. 

On the 9th of June, 1824, Liberty Lodge of Freemasons was estab- 
lished here, the first Master being Col. Jesse Sheldon, and the first 
secretary, Stephens Baker. A handsome brick building for the 
accommodation of the lodge, costing about $20,000, and situated 
upon the corner of Washington and Cabot streets, was erected in 1867, 
and parts of it are now used for the post-office, bank, and other 
purposes. After the completion of the building, the Amity Chapter 
of Royal Arch Masons was chartered, which occupies the hall for 
their meetings. 

The town was honored, Aug. 31, 1824, by a visit from Lafayette, 
whose arrival was announced by a salute of thirteen guns from Elling- 
wood's Point. Upon a beautiful arch, thrown over Essex Bridge, was 
written: " Welcome, Lafayette, the man whom we delight to honor." 
An address of welcome was delivered by the Hon. Robert Rantoul, to 
which the General made a brief reply and then departed. 

The town lost, in the death of Dr. Abner Howe, May 15, 1826, a 
skilful physician and a valued citizen. He was born in Jaffrey, N. 
H., 1781, and graduated at Dartmouth College in 1801. 

A church was organized at Beverly Farms in 1829, and, Sept. 23d, 
of that year, the Rev. Benjamin Knight was ordained pastor. A meet- 
ing-house of brick was dedicated in January of the year following. 
This church soon changed from the Christian to the Calvinistic form of 
the Baptist belief, and among its pastors have been the Revs. Mr. Gil- 
bert, P. P. Sanderson, Sumner Hale, J. W. Lothrop. The present 
minister is the Rev. C. W. Redding. 

The Rev. Ebenezer Robinson, succeeded Mr. Poor as pastor of the 
Second Church, October, 1830, and labored here until his dismission, 
which occurred Jan. 27, 1833. He was succeeded by the Rev. Edwin 



M. Stone, who published a history of Beverly in 1843, and whose 
pastorate covered the space of thirteen years. His successor was 
the Rev. T. D. P. Stone. After him the Rev. Alexander J. Sessions 
was installed acting pastor in 1872, and the Rev. F. K. Dc Bos in 

The subject of temperance attracted attention in Beverly, as early 
as the war of 1812, when the effort was for the suppression of intem- 
perance, and this interest continued until the practice of total abstinence 
became very general in this community, and its influence was com- 
bined in all the various forms of organizations which here aided in the 
good work. 

The Hon. Robert Rantoul delivered before the lvceum in Beverly, in 
1830, 1831, and 1832, some very valuable lectures on the history of 
this town, which have formed the basis of most of what has been writ- 
ten of that history. 

The Hon. Nathan Dane, born in Ipswich, Dec. 27, 1752, but long a 
resident of Beverly, died here Feb. 15, 1835. He framed the cele- 
brated ordinance of 1787, which saved the vast north-western territory 
from slavery, and wrote "A General Abridgment and Digest of American 
Law," a work of great labor, in nine volumes, and published in 1829. 
He also founded the Dane Professorship of Harvard University, and 
also the Law Hall of that institution. 

The Fourth Congregational Church was organized Sept, 1, 1834, 
and the meeting-house dedicated, Dec. 29, 1^30. The Rev. John 
Foote was this year installed as pastor. This was afterwards merged 
in the Second Church, and its meeting-house sold and removed down 
Cabot Street to opposite Baker's Tavern Corner, and altered into 
Mystic Hall, with business rooms on the lower floor. 

On the 10th of December, 1834, Robert Thorndike, a native of this 
town, died at Camden, Me., at the remarkable age of 100 years and 
5 months. The Beverly Anti-Slavery Society was formed February 
21st of this year. 

The Washington Street Society was organized in 1836, the church was 
formed Feb. 8, 1837, and the meeting-house, seventy-seven feet by fifty- 
two, and costing, with the bell, $9,387.33, was dedicated on the 29th of 
March ensuing. The Rev. William Bushnell was installed pastor Jan. 
3, 1838. He was dismissed May 9, 1842, and his successor, the Rev. 
Geonje T. Dole, was ordained October 6th of the same year. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. A. B. Rich, he by the Rev. Benson 
M. Frink, he by the Rev. C. Van Nordcn, and he by the Rev. W. H. 
Davis, the present pastor. 

The first Univeisalist record in Beverly is on Jan. 31, 1810, when 
Joseph Woodbury and wife were recommended by the Second Church 
to the First Church, where they were objected to on account of "his 
reputed faith in the doctrine of universal salvation," and the case was 
referred to John Dyson, Samuel Obcr, Benjamin Lamson, and Robert 
Rantoul, who reported that "they had waited upon said Woodbury and 
find that he freely professes his firm belief of the final salvation of all 
mankind : that he disseminates that doctrine among his neighbors as 
opportunity offers, and that his wife embraces the same sentiments ; 
and believing the said doctrine to be dangerous and unscripturnl, and 
that the admission of persons holding to and openly professing such 
sentiments, would give offence to many of the church, they report in 
their opinion, that said Woodbury and his wife ought not to be admit- 
ted into this church. They also recommend that the Pastor be requested 
to write an affectionate letter in behalf of the first Church to the 
Second Church expressive of their desire to cultivate Christian fellow- 
ship with them, and of their hope, that, on understanding the ground 
of proceeding in the case, the brethren will not for a moment harbor 
the thought that there is any diminution of their love towards them." 
And this report was unanimously accepted. Mr. Woodbury was a 
houscwright who removed from North Beverly, and built and lived in 
the house on Cabot Street, now that of Major Israel W. Wallis. 

A Univeisalist Society was organized February 17th of this year, the 
following persons being chosen as the standing committee : — Daniel 

Hildreth, Stephen Homans, Jeremiah Wallis, Benjamin D. Grant, 
and William A. Foster. Among the early preachers employed were 
the Revs. John Prince, Henry Bacon, Sylvanus Cobb, and William 
Hooper. The Rev. C. H. Webster was settled as the first pastor in 
1843, on a salary of $350 per annum. His successor was the Rev. W. 
G. Cambridge. A meeting-house was erected in 1846, and that year 
the Rev. John L. Stephens, afterwards editor of the " Kennebec 
Journal," now minister abroad, was installed pastor. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. Ira Washburn [1847-1851], the Rev. Stillman Bardcn, two 
years; the Rev. E. W. Coffin [1853-1855], the Rev. John Nichols 
[1856-1866], the Rev. G. W. Whitney [1867-1872], and the pres- 
ent pastor, the Rev. J. N. Emery, installed in November, 1872. The 
meeting-house was enlarged and beautified in 1863, at a cost of $4,000, 
and subsequently an organ costing $1,500 was introduced. The 
number of families now connected with this church is about 135, and 
the church membership is about ninety. The superintendent of the 
Sabbath school, which contains about 225 pupils, is Samuel Porter, 
and the deacons are John T. Cushing, and Ephraim Hathaway, Sr. 
Miss Abby II. Wallis is the clerk of the church. 

A town hall and school-house, combined, was built in 1804, which 
in 1840 was made wholly a school-house, when the town bought 
the mansion of the late Israel Thorndike, formerly Andrew Cabot's, 
and made a town hall of that ; and this was enlarged to more than 
twice its original size in 1874, and well fitted for public use. 

Beverly had, in 1845, forty-six vessels employed in the cod and 
mackerel fisheries, and the value of fares for the year euding April 
1, 1845, was $67,533. It had then eight forges, manufacturing 
anchors, cables, and other articles. It also manufactured cordage, 
hats, caps, cars, soap, tin-ware, leather, boots and shoes, bricks, 
pumps, blocks, and boats. It cut 2,364 tons of hay, and raised fruit 
to the value of $2,250. 

The Bass River Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
now numbering 435 members, and dispensing annually about $2,000, 
was instituted by M. W. G. Master Usher, at Bell's Hall, Feb. 21, 1851, 
and during the first twenty-five years of its existence, the receipts were 
$35,986, benefits paid, $22,427.50, and charities, $18,000. It erected 
a hall for its meetings in 1857, which was destroyed by fire, Feb. 11, 
1873. During the years 1874 and 1875, a large and commodious build- 
ing was erected at a cost of about $65,000, on Cabot Street, for the use 
of the Order. It is of brick, 80 feet by 80, with granite trimmings, 
and surmounted by a cupola. The first story is used for stores, the 
second for offices, and the principal hall, furnished at a cost of $5,000, 
is one of the finest of its kind iu the State. The lodge, as such, owns 
$10,000 of the stock of the Building Association. Friendship Lodge 
of the Daughters of Rebecca, auxiliary to the Bass River Lodge, and 
containing about 160 members, was instituted Jan. 10, 1870; and the 
Summit Encampment, of about 135 members, Mas organized Sept. 
20th of the same year. 

The Beverly Insurance Company was incorporated, with a paid-up 
capital of $50,000, in 1853. Its business is confined to marine risks 
principally. F. W. Choate is presideut, and Samuel J. Foster, 

The "Beverly Citizen," a weekly journal, devoted to general intel- 
ligence, was established in 1859, and is a well-conducted paper. 

The Beverly National Bank was incorporated in March, 1865, with 
a capital of $200,000. John Pickett is the president, and Robert G. 
Bennett, cashier. 

The Beverly Savings Bank, chartered 1867, has $500,000 deposits. 
William Endicott, president; Robert G. Bennett, treasurer. 

Methodist services was held in the town hall here at intervals in 
former years, but no church was organized until April, 1867, when 
the Rev. Allen J. Hall became its pastor, conducting public services 
in the town hall ; and he was succeeded by the Rev. J. M. Bailey, 
under whose ministry a church and parsonage were built on Railroad 
Avenue. The Rev. C. S. Rogers became pastor in 1870 ; the Rev. 



S. C. Jackson, in 1872; the Rev. M. E. Wright, in 1874; the Rev. 
A. P. Adams, in 1877 ; and in 1878, differing with the church author- 
ities in some statement of doctrine, a separation was had, and the 
Rev. Daniel Waite became pastor of the Methodist Avenue Episcopal 
Church; Mr. Adams, with a part of that church and congregation, 
retiring and organizing an Independent Methodist Church, and con- 
tinuing worship in Odd Fellows' North Hall. 

Episcopal church services were held in the town hall for one or 
more seasons, by the Rev. Dr. Packard, nearly thirty years ago, but 
it was not till July, 18G3, that any permanent, regular services of 
that church were established, when a mission service was begun at 
Union Hall, under the care of the Rev. Win, R. Pickman, the rector 
of St. Peter's Church, of Salem. In 18(54 the Rev. S. H. Hilliard 
had charge of the mission, and continued till Whitsunday, 1865, 
when St. Peter's Church and Parish of Bcverlv, bavins been organ- 
ized, and its new and neat church, at the corner of Cabot and Bow 
streets, just completed, the Rev. Mr. Pickman became its rector, and 
continued about one year, when he removed to Michigan. The Rev. 
F. M. Cookson succeeded him till the fall of 1870, when he removed 
to Fort Edward, N. Y. The Rev. George Denham was then rector 
till Easter, 1872, and during the summer of that year services were 
continued mainly by Mr. Louis L. Osborne, acting as lay-reader. 
May 13, 1873, the Rev. William G. Wells became rector and con- 
tinued to 1878, when he removed to Lawrence, and the Rev. J. C. 
Wei wood, the present rector, succeeded him here. 

The Roman Catholic church was organized here in 18f>9. They 
bought the former Baptist church, fronting on Cabot and Essex streets, 
and enlarged and remodelled it ; and they also afterwards bought the 
old tavern estate adjoining, where Nathaniel Hawthorne's grandmother 
was born, and took down that and another small house thereby, and 
have there built a neat parsonage house. The Rev. Father Shahan 
was the first pastor, and after him Father Kiely, who was succeeded 
by the Rev. Father William J. J. Denvir, the present pastor. The 
Young Men's Catholic Temperance Society, mostly or all members of 
this congregation, is a valued instrumentality for good. 

At Ccntreville, the old school-house is held by trustees for religious 
and educational purposes, and has been very neatly fitted up. Regu- 
lar religious services are held there, somewhat independent in their 
character, but principally of the Freewill or Free Baptist order. 

The military history of the men of Beverly began with the early 
settlement of Naumkcag, and has had a continuous honorable and 
patriotic record. Of Capt.- Lothrop and some early military service, 
we have already told. But, besides these, we have Capt. William 
Dixey, Lieut. Paul Thorndike, Ensign Samuel Corning, Cornet Lot 
Conant, Sergt. Thomas West, and Corp. Thomas Whittredge, all 
afterward farther advanced. xYnd in 1744, Capt. Benjamin Ives, Jr., 
was captain of a Beverly company at Louisburg; and in 1750, there 
were several Beverly men in Capt. Andrew Fuller's company at Crown 
Point, and many men in other expeditions before the Revolution. In 
the Revolutionary War, Capt. Moses Brown commanded a company of 
Beverly men, and there were several other companies organized here; 
and besides these, Beverly furnished many soldiers for Col. Glover's 
regiment, and for other commands ; while her sailors liberally supplied 
the armed vessels of the country. In t»he war of 1812, the town was 
liberally represented both in the army and navy, and was also faith- 
fully represented therein in the Mexican war; while in the War of 
the Rebellion, 988 men were furnished for the Union service (a hand- 
some excess over the required quota), and of these, about 100 lost 
their lives in the service. Iu 1801, the old Beverly Light Infantry 
Company was formed, and continued till 1812; and in 1815, the 
present Beverly Light Infantry was organized. 

Most of the early settlers of Beverly had large posterity, and have 
been well represented both here and in the emigrant homes of many 
of them in various towns in Massachusetts, in the British Provinces, 
and in all the New England States, and later in New York, and in Ohio 

and the far West ; while Boston and the other cities have numbered 
some of them among their honored citizens. Of these settlers, were 
Farmer William Dodge, commended as a skilful husbandman, fitted 
to have charge of a "team of horses," who was also a farrier of noted 
skill. He bought and lived on the early grant to Peter Palfrey, near 
where Lyman Mason, Sr., now resides. His son, Capt. William 
Dodge, according to Hubbard, saved the life of a friend from an 
Indian attack, and had otherwise a valiant record. He had a son 
Dea. William, and a son Capt. John Dodge. Richard Dodge, 
brother of Farmer William, had his settlement, probably, at Dodge's 
Row, where his descendant, Richard Dodge, now resides, and he had 
several children, of whom Lieut. John was a leading citizen of Beverly, 
as was Richard in Wcnham, and Samuel in Hamilton. William Dodge, 
a nephew of Richard and William, and supposed son of Michael, of 
England, married Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Haskell, and resided 
here. John Thorndike came here from Ipswich with his son Paul, 
who married Mary, the daughter of James Patch, and settled at the 
Cove, owning Paul's Head, now Hospital and Lighthouse Point. 
Anthony Wood came from Ipswich, and settled near the northerly 
junction of Cabot and Rantoul streets. J, hn West also came from 
Ipswich with his son Thomas, and bought the large farm of Mr. 
Blackleach, extending from the Paine place into Manchester. Robert 
Woodburv. a Ions time town clerk, married a daughter of Thomas 
West, and thereby obtained a large farm, where is now the house of 
Dr. Hall J. Curtis ; and Joseph Woodbury, also marrying a daughter, 
obtaining a farm in Manchester. William Haskell likewise married a 
daughter, and had a farm at Beverly Farms, where is now the old 
Haskell house on Hale Street, the property of F. G. Dexter. 

Jonathan Byles, George Stanley, Richard Brackenbury, Nicholas 
Patch, Robert Morgan, Richard Ober, and Jeffry Thissel (the latter 
two from Abbotsbury, Eng.), all had estates between Bald Hill and 
Pride's Crossing, where the firat Peter Pride had his house-lot, on 
condition that he direct all travellers in the right way. William 
Woodbury, Sr., probably settled at Woodbury's Point, and owned 
down far enough to include the Paine place ; he was succeeded by his 
son Nicholas, who was succeeded by his son Benjamin, Avhosc only 
child Anna, inherited the Paine place, and married the Rev. John 
Barnard, of Marblehead. Humphrey Woodbury, son of John, set- 
tled between Snake Hill and the sea-shore, his son Thomas owning 
also in that vicinity, as did other Woodburys. Joshua Bison, who 
came from the Isle of Jersey about 1680, married the daughter of 
John Black, and grand-daughter of Peter Woolfe, and by purchase 
became the owner of much of their land, and of the land of John 
Sallows's estate, at the Cove, near Sallows Brook, and settled near there. 
Cornelius Baker, blacksmith, married Abigail Sallows, and also settled 
in that neighborhood. The Cove Fosters came from Joseph Foster, from 
North Salem, who married Rebecca, the widow of John Groves, and 
daughter of John Wallis, formerly of Falmouth, Me. His early set- 
tlement was toward Mingoe's Beach, and afterward near the Cove 
school-house. The Rev. John Hale owned from Watch Hill to the 
sea-shore, and the Bancroft heirs, his descendants, still own his home- 
stead. The Morgans owned next westerly of him, and sold to Sam- 
uel Lovett, afterward of Norwich, Conn., where is now the old Lov- 
ett house and Ocean Street. John Lovett, the father of Samuel, 
owned next to the Morgans, including the old cemeteiy, which 
he sold to the town. His homestead was on Cabot Street, near Wash- 
ington Street. His son John, Jr., married the daughter of Josiah 
and Susanna Rootcs (of witchcraft memory), and by purchase and 
gift obtained a large tract of land of that family, lying north and 
west of Bartlett's Swamp. Another son, named Joseph, settled near 
where is now the farm of Larkin Foster. Samuel Corning was a 
large landholder in the village, near the meeting-house, extending to 
Bass River at Coining's Cove, and including what was formerly Com- 
ing's Pond. He also owned near Bald Hill, where some of his de- 
scendants settled. He left a numerous family, descendants of which 



still reside in Beverly and elsewhere, including the Hon. Erastus Corn- 
ing, of Albany. X. Y., and others of the race in Connecticut and New 
York states and beyond. The Wallis lands by Wallia Street came 
from him by his daughter Remember, wife of Nehemiah Stone, whose 
daughter married the first Caleb Wallis, son of Nathaniel Wallis, from 
Cornwall, Eng. John Stone, the first ferryman, also kept an ordi- 
nary or inn, near the southerly junction of Cabot and Front streets, 
where there was a tavern for many years ; and William Dixey owned 
a large tract of land, from near the corner of Bartlett and Lovett 
streets, extending to the sea-shore, and including nearly all the pres- 
ent wharf frontage by Water Street. Thomas Tuck and his son John, 
owned estates at Tuck's Point, as did the Coxes, Elliots, &c, — and 
Ralph Ellingwood owned all the land by the harbor and Bass River, 
westerly of the railroad, and nearly to the depot, iucluding ten acres 
formerly Robert Moulton's, and extending some easterly of the rail- 
road. Richard Stackhousc and Roger Haskins each owned easterly 
of Ellingwood, aud Haskins owned by Stephens Hill and by the 

Robert Briscoe, from the west of England, about 1680, was brother- 
in-law of Samuel Stone, and owned a wharf, and other property near 
it, and afterwards bought the estate at the corner of Cabot and Hale 
streets. He died at Exeter, X. H., and gave £20 to the poor of Bev- 
erly. This corner estate then, upon the payment of certain legacies, 
came to his friend, John Stephens, who came from England in 1700, 
and married Abigail Stone. 

Roger Conant, John Woodberry, and John Balch, of the old planters, 
all settled on their respective grants near Balch Street, and Thomas 
Scruggs, by exchange, owned the grant of Capt. Trask, and his 
daughter Rachel, who married John Rayment, succeeded, with her 
husband, to that grant, upon a portion of which Col. John W. Ray- 
mond now lives. Capt. William Rayment, of the Canada expedition 
of 1690, a brother of John, settled farther to the east, some of his 
estate extending toward Brimble Hill. One worthy name of this race 
is Capt. Josiah Raymond, who bequeathed $3,000 to the public 
schools, conditioned that no distinction be made therein in regard to 
color. Osman Trask and his nephew, John Trask, each settled here. 
Henry Herrick and his wife Edith, daughter of Hugh Laskin, had 
their home where is now the home of Mark B. Avery, and they wel- 
comed thereto " excommunicated persons," in spite of the threat- 
ened penalties of church and state. Roger Haskell bought of Hugh 
Laskin a large tract of land extending from Bass River toward Hither 
Street. Andrew Eliot owned at or near where is now the home 
of Israel Eliot. He was the ancestor of the Rev. Dr. Andrew Eliot, 
of Boston ; of Hon. Samuel A. Eliot, ex-Mayor and M. C, of Bos- 
ton ; aud of Charles W. Eliot, the present president of Harvard Uni- 
versity. Hasadiah Smith became a large landholder near Colon Street 
and elsewhere. Nicholas LeGrove was the ancestor of the Groves. 
The Stones, besides what they owned near the ferry, also owned from 
the common across to Bass River. 

Of college graduates have been, the Rev. William Balch, 1724; 
pastor of Bradford Church; preached election sermon, 1746. John 
Chipman, 1738; lawyer: Falmouth, Me.; died suddenly in court. 
His brother, Ward Chipman, settled in Halifax, N. S., and was 
Justice of the Supreme Court, of which afterward his son, Ward 
Chipman, Jr., was chief justice; while another descendant of the 
Rev. John Chipman, Hon. Horace Gray, is now Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts. The Rev. John Hale had three 
sons, and many other descendants, graduated at Harvard ; while 
Sampson Salter Blowers, a grandson of the Rev. Thomas Blowers, 
and the oldest surviving graduate, died at Halifax in October, 1842, 
aged 100 years. Hon. William Thorndike, President of the Senate, 
and afterward President of the National Insurance Company in Boston, 
was also a Harvard graduate ; as was also Hon. Robert Rantoul, Jr., 
whose father, Hon. Robert Rantoul, Sr., was for half a century or 

more a public officer and leader here. Robert Rantoul, Jr., graduate 
in 1826 ; practised law at South Reading, Gloucester, and Boston ; 
was a leading representative in the General Court; collector of the 
port of Boston, and also United States district attorney. In 1851, he 
succeeded Daniel Webster as United States Senator ; was then elected 
to the House of Representatives at Washington, where in the midst 
of a career of brilliant promise he died suddenly, Aug. 7, 1852, aged 
47 years. The Rev. William B. Tappan, author of that beautiful hymn, 
"There is an hour of peaceful rest," and of other favorites, was born in 
Beverly, and labored most of his life in Sabbath-school work. He died 
suddenl}' at West Xeedham in 1849, aged 54 years, and the Sabbath- 
school children erected a monument to his memory in Forest Hills 
Cemetery. The Rev. George Trask, also a native, was settled at 
Framingham, at Warren, Me., and at Fitchburg, but spent the last 
twenty-five years of his life in a vigorous crusade against tobacco, in 
preaching, publishing, and personal exhortation until he died, Jan. 25, 
1875, aged 77 years. Thomas Poyntou Ives, born here April 9, 1769, 
removed to Providence, R. I., and became one of the leading firm of 
Brown & Ives, and was otherwise prominent and influential. Israel 
Thorndike secured the foundation of a large fortune in successful for- 
eign commerce here, and then removed his extensive business to Boston, 
and there largely increased it, and became one of the merchant princes 
of that city. William Burley, of Ipswich nativity, and of Revolu- 
tionary service, became a leading citizen here, and bequeathed fifty 
dollars a year to the public schools of Beverly. Moses Brown, from 
Watertown, was one of the Revolutionary leaders, and a prominent 
merchant. Town Clerk and Dea. Joseph Foster was of Ipswich stock. 

The sea-shore of Beverly, with its surroundings, is its most at- 
tractive feature, and constantly attracts settlers from Boston and other 
places, who have already about eighty valuable houses built there, 
and they yearly increase, aud quite a number make here their yearly 
homes. The harbor is commodious, and admits vessels of heavy 
burdens, and is well supplied with good wharf facilities for the fishin^ 
and coasting business done here, and includes two large lumber 
wharves, aud coal wharves, with ample room and means for a large 
business. A modem lighthouse directs the way into the harbor. 
There are about thirty shoe manufactories in town, and some of them 
very large, and fully equipped for the extensive business which they 
do. There are also morocco manufactories, carriage factories, a box- 
mill, a planing and turning mill, a pottery, which turns out rare work 
of both antique and modern device, several brick-yards and other in- 
dustries ; farming and market gardening being extensivelv prosecuted. 
Its number of taxable polls for 1878 was 1,910; its valuation of per- 
sonal estate $2,372,300; of real estate $5,386,600; its rate of taxa- 
tion $14.80 per thousand ; number of dwelling-houses 1,281 ; of 
horses 587 ; of cows 553 ; of sheep 4 ; number of acres taxed 7,870. 
It has nearly fifty miles of water-pipes, distributing the pure 
water of Wenham Lake all through the town, and has most excellent 
roads, beautiful shade-trees, and attractive drives; it also has a well- 
equipped fire department, and other public works of great value. 
Besides the excellent steam-railroad facilities, there is a horse railroad 
running its cars constantly to Salem aud Peabody, and there are 
excellent livery stables here. 

In looking over this fair town, and observing the marks of improve- 
ment in its streets and buildiugs, its water-supply, its advantages for 
education, its productive industries, its social, civic, aud religious 
institutions, its railroad facilities, its pleasant prospects by the sea, 
together with the good order, intelligence, public spirit, and sobriety 
of its inhabitants, we are led to the conclusion that few towns in this 
Commonwealth present greater attractions as a place of residence, or 
stronger assurance of continued increase and prosperity. It has both 
sea and land at its command ; and happy are the people whose homes 
are fixed in such a beautiful, thriving, peaceable, and progressive 


Comprising a wide extent of land in the centre of the county of 
old Essex, over which are scattered numerous farm-houses, and here 
and there a hamlet, where the trades-people abide together, away from 
the din and excitement of the city, Boxford commends itself to 
every one that loves a calm retreat, where pure fresh air is plenty, 
where birds sweetly sing in their leafy bowers, and flowers of every 
hue fill the air with sweetest perfume, making the place a very par- 
adise. Secluded from the more busy haunts of the populace, Boxford 
is little known beyond the circle of a few miles. Content to live on 
in the old way their fathers lived for more than two centuries, the 
inhabitants have seldom sought to make any outside show, or become 
acquainted with the great advance that so many of our towns have 
made during the last twenty-five years. Inheriting from their remotest 
ancestry the love of a pastoral career, it has proven to be the very 
idiopathy of their present retired condition. 

Boxford was first included in that tract of land purchased by the 
"Rev. Ezekiel Rogers' Company" of the towns of Ipswich and New- 
bury, and which was granted an "act of incorporation," Sept. 4, 1639, 
bearing the name of Rowley.* The company of emigrants settled 
where the present village of Rowley is situated. No advances were 
made to settle that tract of land now included in Boxford, until about 
1650. Robert Andrews, the emigrant ancestor of Gov. Andrew, Avas 
nearly, if not the first settler upon our soil. Of his lineal descendants, 
Samuel, Daniel, Isaac W., and Charles Andrews now reside in the 
town, — the two first mentioned on the old ancestral homestead, which 
has always remained in the possession of the family, generation after 
generation. Joseph Bixby, an emigrant, was also among the early 
settlers. From him have sprung the American Bixbys. Deacon 
Samuel, Daniel, and Stephen Bixby, inhabitants of this town, are 
descendants. Daniel Black, a Scotchman, originated a numerous 
posterity. George Blake (Black?) removed from Gloucester to 
Boxford about 1672. Edmund Bridges (an emigrant) and his son 
Josiah, Nathaniel Brown, Samuel Boswell, After Cary, John Chad- 
wick, and John Cummings are also among the earl}' settlers. Zaccheus 
Curtis probably settled near by the present residence of his descend- 
ant (?), Mr. Francis Curtis. Timothy Dorman, ancestor of the 
Esquire Dormans, settled on the old Dorman place. Robert Ames 
(anciently spelled Eames), lived on the road that leads from the East 
to the West parish. William Foster came to Boxford from Ipswich, 
in 1661. Richard K. and the late Jonathan Edwards Foster are lineal 
descendants. John Kimball was another early settler. Three brothers, 
John, Joseph, and William Peabody (sons of Lieut. Francis Peabody) , 
have many descendants, resident in Boxford, some of them on the 
old homesteads. John and Thomas Perley (sons of Allan Perley) 
settled here very early. Thomas has descendants, Moody, Wil- 
liam E., George, Samuel, Charles, and Henry Perley, now living 
in the town. Matthew Perry, John Ramsdell, Abraham Redington 
(the American progenitor of the Redington family), and Robert Smith 
were also among the early settlers. Robert Stiles originated an exten- 
sive posterity, one of whom, Elijah Stiles, now resides in the town. 
Samuel Symonds, Moses Tyler, John Vinton, and Robert Willis early 
settled on our soil. Daniel Wood was the ancestor of an extensive 
and distinguished posterity. Three of his descendants, Daniel (aged 
eighty-five), Capt. Enoch (aged eighty-one), and John Tyler Wood, 
are respected residents of the town. These are most of the early 
settlers before 1685. 

* See Rowley. 

Boxford now bore the name of Rowley Village, although it was a 
part, and subject to the authority of, Rowley. Most of the early set- 
tlers were extensive land-owners ; but the largest tracts were owned 
by Joseph Jewett, of Rowley, and Zaccheus Gould, of Topsfield, who 
together had more than six thousand acres. The "Village Lands," as 
the undivided land in the village was called, were laid out to the sev- 
eral families in the town and village, in 1666 or 1667. At this time 
the domains of Rowley Village were much more extensive than arc 
those of Boxford at the present time, it then taking in about one-half 
of the present town of Georgetown, and a part of Groveland and 

Boxford was originally a part of the domains of the old Sagamore 
Musehonomet, from whose grandsons, Samuel and Joseph English and 
John Umpec, Boxford obtained a deed of the land contained in the 
township for nine pounds, in October, 1701. Numbers of the subjects 
of this chief, as well as of others of antedate, resided on our hills, in 
the valleys, and on the borders of the ponds, living by the products 
of the chase and piscatorial industry, and having the fruit of the soil 
as a luxury, if the squaws were willing to cultivate the same. About 
1830, several Indian bodies, and great numbers of arrow-heads, together 
with a stone mortar and pestle, were dug up. Arrow-heads, made of 
some flinty stone, are frequently found. 

The first white settlement was made in the East Parish, the West 
Parish not being settled until about 1670. In 1673, there were six- 
teen families in the village; in 1680, twenty-five ; therefore making 
an increase of nine families in the intervening seven years. During 
the next five years they increased to forty families, when, thinking, 
as they had so large a population, that they could support a minister, 
and carry on a town government, they petitioned the General Court 
to be granted a township privilege, which was acceded to by the 
session commencing Aug. 12, 1685. The name was changed from 
Rowley Village to Boxford, and the people immediately instituted the 
government of the town of Boxford. The town probably received 
its name from Boxford, England, where the Rev. Samuel Phillips (the 
pastor in Rowley at that time) was born. 

In continuing this sketch, we have thought proper, to render it more 
perspicuous, to divide it into the several departments of local history ; 
viz., religious, military, educational, &c. We will first speak of its 

Religious History. 

As the settlers came and made Boxford their home, they attended 
divine worship at Topsfield, and many of them were admitted to the 
church there, and helped to bear its expenses. This they continued 
to do, with little interruption, until in the early part of the last 
decade of the seventeenth century, when "contentious feelings" arose 
among the brethren, which ended in the Boxford people's withdrawing 
themselves from the church. However, as early as 1692, the Boxford 
people had thoughts of building themselves a house of worship, which 
might, perhaps, have caused the unhappy state of feeling. 

In 1699, a meeting-house was begun to be built by the Boxford 
people, which was finished and presented to the town, Jan. 9, 1701. 
It was "thirty-four feet long, thirty feet wide, and eighteen feet stud 
between joints." The roof was elevated, from the four sides of the 
building, to a peak in the centre, which was surmounted by a turret. 
This ancient edifice stood iu the northerly corner of the cemetery, 
located near the present First Church. 

Their first minister was the Rev. Thomas Symmes, son of the Rev. 



Zachariab Symmes, the first minister of Bradford, where Thomas was 
born Feb. 1. 1678, and graduated at Harvard College, 1698. He 
preached his hist sermon in Box ford, on Sunday, April 27, 1701, 
which was also the first one that was ever preached in the town. Mr. 
Symmes was ordained Dec. 30, 1702, the church then consisting of 
only eleven male members, who had been dismissed from the Topsficld 
church. The following month, however, ten of the female members 
were dismissed from the Topsfield church and annexed to the Boxford 
church. In February and April following, twenty-two more, both male 
and female, were dismissed and annexed as above, thus building up the 
church to about fifty members. 

Mr. Symmes meeting with difficulties too great for him to overcome, 
he felt himself obliged to resign his office, which he did, and thereupon 
was dismissed in April, 170S. After he left Boxford, his father 
having died, he received a call to take his place in the ministry at 
Bradford, which he accepted, and after a successful ministry, expired 
Oct. 6, 1725, at the age of forty-seven years. Mr. Symmes was a 
man of much learning, and very active with his pen ; several of his 
productions, both scriptural and secular, were published, and among 
them is the most authentic account of " Capt. Lovcwell's fight at Pig- 
wacket," in 1725. Increase Mather spoke highly of him. Mr. 
Symmes' preaching was very fruitful wherever he went. 

The second miuister was the Rev. John Rogers, son of Jeremiah 
Rogers, of Salem, Mass., who was of the eighth generation from John 
! re, the Smithfield martyr. Mr. Rogers was born at Salem, and 
graduated at Harvard College, 1705. His ordination took place in 
1709, and so commenced his labors, which endured for nearly half a 

Nothing occurred out of the regular order of a pastor's duties during 
the thirty-odd years of his pastorate. In this time, however, great 
changes had been going on. The north-western part of Boxford had 
so increased in population that they nearly equalled or exceeded that 
of the old part. Many of them belonged to the church in Bradford. 
In 1735, they received affirmative answers to their petitions to the 
General Court to become two distinct parishes, which have ever since 
been known as the East and West parishes. We will continue the 
history of the 

First Church. — The old church edifice was pulled down in 1745, 
and a new one erected, thirty-eight feet wide, forty-eight feet long, 
and twenty-four feet stud, with a "fashionable" roof. This edifice 
stood ou the corner, directly in front of the present church. The cost 
was about £1,500. 

Difficulties having arisen, the Rev. Mr. Rogers closed his ministerial 
relationship with the church in 1743, and removed to his son's in 
Leominster, where he died, in 1755. Mr. Rogers was a very blunt 
man in his speech, and also very forcible in his preaching. During 
his pastoral charge more persons were added to the church annually 
than during any other pastorship. Like his sou, he was not afraid 
to declare the whole counsel of God. 

Sixteen years now pass before another minister is settled over the 
church. During this long season the preaching had been very irregular, 
and therefore very perplexing. 

The Rev. Elizur Holyoke, of Cambridge, was ordained Jan. 31, 1759, 
and, to the record of the ordination exercises, Mr. Holyoke adds 
with his owu pen : "■ And thus to one who is less than the least of all 
saints is this grace given, that he should preach the unsearchable 
liches of Christ." Mr. Holyoke erected the " Old Holyoke House," 
which is an interesting relic, and in 1760, with his blushing bride, 
took possession of its spacious interior. 

In Feb., 1793, Mr. Holyoke was prostrated by a paralytic shock, 
from the effects of which he died, March 31, 1806, at the age of 
seventy-four years and ten months. He was son of Samuel and Eliza- 
beth (Brigham) Holyoke, and nephew of Pies. Edward Holyoke, of 
Harvard College, and was born in Boston. May 11, 1731. Gradu- 
ated at Harvard College, 1750. 

The chords of harmony between him and his people were ever per- 
fect, even to reverence and love. His ministry, extending as it did 
through the period of forty-seven years, was very uncommon and un- 
precedented in the ecclesiastical history of New England. Always 
genial, happy, and loving, he was a favorite with all, and his death 
was deeply felt by the parish. 

The fourth minister was the Rev. Isaac Briggs, of York. Me., who was 
ordained, Sept. 28, 1808. He occupied the pulpit for twenty-five 
years, leaving in 1833. ''Parson Briggs," as he was called, was born 
in Halifax, X. S-, about 1775; graduated at Brown University, 
1795; first settled over the church in York. Me., where his stay was 
brief; resigned in 1807; and came to Boxford, as above. Mr. 
Briggs often visited the field wherein he had labored for a quarter of a 
century, always being welcomed by his old parishioners. 

The Rev. John Whitney, the fifth minister, was ordained Oct. 15, 
1>34. His stay was brief, being dismissed (?) in 1837. He was a 
native of Harvard, and graduated at Amherst iu 1831. 

Before Mr. Whitney left, steps had been taken to build a 
new house of worship. The work was carried forward and the 
present house was erected and ready for occupauc} - iu the spring of 

The Rev. Mr. Coggin's (the sixth minister) ordination occurred at the 
same time as the dedication of the new church ; viz., May 9, 1838. The 
Rev. William Symmes Coggin, son of the Rev. Jacob Coggin, of Tcwks- 
bury, was born Nov. 27, 1812. Graduated at Dartmouth College, 
1834. After occupying the pulpit for thirty years, his health begin- 
ning to decline, he resigned his position, which the parish and church 
reluctantly agreed to. He was a servant faithful in the service of his 
Lord ; one by whom many souls have been blessed and led unto that 
li<rht which "shiueth more and more unto the perfect day." Content 
to live with the people of his early charge, he still remains among 
them, sometimes officiating in the pulpit, and pursuing his pastoral 
visits, — though under the sanction of friendly calls, — the same as in 
the past. "May his last days be his best days, and may he finally be 
gathered with those who, having 'turned many to righteousness, shall 
shine as the stars forever.'" 

The Rev. Sereno David Gammell, of Charlcstown, the seventh and 
present pastor, was ordained Sept. 9, 1868. Iu the following spring, 
the new and substantial parsonage was built, by subscription, at a 
cost of $4,000. The church membership numbers one hundred and 
thirty ; the Sabbath school has upwards of a hundred scholars ; and 
the "Mary Ann Peabody S. S. Library" contains about three hundred 
volumes. They have a parish fund of about $8,000. 

Second Church. — The people in the West Parish had preaching 
among themselves for some years before they were incorporated into 
a lawful body. After the General Court granted them a parish privi- 
lege (June 28, 1735), they completed their house of worship, and 
extended an invitation to the Rev. John dishing, who was then preach- 
in" there, to become their settled pastor. He accepted their call, 
and was ordained Dec. 29, 1736. The church consisted of eleven 
members dismissed from the Bradford church, and seven (all males) 
from the First Church in Boxford. As soon as the church was embod- 
ied, seven members were dismissed from Bradford church, and eleven 
(all females) from the First Church in Boxford, thus numbering about 
forty members. Shortly after, several more were dismissed from the 
two churches. About 1740, several families, with their lands in 
Andover, were annexed to the secoud parish. The second parish, 
at the present time, takes in a part of Andover, the present parish 
clerk beinc an Andover man. 

Mr. Cushing*s health failing him, he was not able to preach regu- 
larly after the summer of 1763. May 19, 1766, he closed h\< services 
for the society, and, alter lingering for five years, he died Jan. 25. 
17 72. in the sixty-third year of his age. He was a man of extensive 
learning, and a very popular preacher. He was a son of the Rev. 
Caleb Cushing, of Salisbury, where he was born April 10, 17U9. His 



mother was Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. John Cotton. He grad- 
uated at Harvard College, 1729. 

In November, 1774, they finished their second church, which had 
been built "according to the same Plan by which the Meeting House 
in New Rowley (Georgetown) was built, excepting a Steeple, instead 
of which we are to have a Porch built as at the other end of the meet- 
ing house." 

The Rev. Moses Hale, the second minister, was ordained Nov. 16, 
1774 ; the meeting house was probably dedicated at the same time. He 
was a son of the Rev. Moses Hale, of Newbury, and was born Feb. 19, 
1749, in Rowley. Graduated at Harvard College, 1771. Mr. Hale 
was early stricken down by disease in the thirty-eighth year of his age, 
dying May 25, 1786, in the twelfth year of his ministry, and leaving 
five motherless children to mourn his loss, — his wife bavins died 
April 24th of the preceding year. 

The third pastor was the Rev. Dr. Peter Eaton, of Haverhill, who 
was ordained Oct. 7, 1789. In 1840, he was the oldest minister in the 
county then in office, having completed half a century of service. 
Shortly after, his health began to fail. After several requests to be 
dismissed, the parish reluctantly granted his request Aug. 21, 1845. He 
was not dismissed, however, but the Rev. Calvin E. Park was installed 
as Dr. Eaton's colleague, Oct. 14, 1846. Mr. Eaton quietly passed 
away April 14, 1848, at the mature age of eighty-three years. He 
was born in Haverhill, March 15, 1765, and graduated at Harvard 
College, 1787. He was noted as a powerful preacher, a loving pas- 
tor, and an endearing friend. His memory will be dear as long as 
time endures. 

In 1843, the third and present church edifice was erected, and ded- 
icated Nov. 22d of that year. Its cost was $4,917.62. 

The Rev. Mr. Park occupied the pulpit till his resignation in April, 

The fifth settled pastor was the Rev. Charles M. Pierce, of Andover, 
who was ordained Sept. 2, 1863. He asked for a dismission, and was 
grauted it July 17, 1867. By this act they lost an " able and faithful 
pastor, one who cared much for his Master's glory, and who sought to 
be His faithful servant in the Christian's work." 

The sixth settled pastor was the Rev. James McLean, of South Wey- 
mouth, who was ordained Feb. 20, 1877. He asked for a dismission, 
which was accordingly granted, and his labors ended July 1, 1878. 
The church is at present without a pastor. 

John Tyler Barker, who died in 1872, bequeathed to the society 
$30,000, the income of which to be applied to the support of the 

A handsome and substantial parsonage, in the gothic style, has been 
recently erected for the use of the minister. 

The, church membership now numbers about fifty; the Sabbath 
school has from seventy-five to one hundred scholars, who have a 
Sunday-school library of about two hundred and fifty volumes. 

Both societies are the original Orthodox Congregational, there 
being no organization of any other religious denomination in the 

Military Histoky. 

Those who are acquainted with Boxford's history, always speak of 
its being one of the most patriotic towns in times of peril and danger, 
when deeds alone will profit, that New England has ever had the 
honor of acknowledging to belong to her. 

When King Philip and his allies were burning, plundering, and 
murdering the settlers in Swanzey and vicinity in the southern part 
of Massachusetts, in 1675, Joseph Bixby, and perhaps others from 
Boxford, went out with the neighboring soldiers, and fought against 
the savages. 

In 1669, several of our men, with the soldiers from the neighbor- 
ing towns, went down into Maine to help defend the settlements from 
the attacks of the savages, who had become very fierce. 

Boxford played no mean hand in the several seasons of Indian hos- 

tility, which were constantly breaking out during the last decade of 
the seventeenth century. 

Several of our young and fearless men went out with Capt. Love- 
well, in 1725, to "quell the Indian pride." They helped to form his 
company, who marched in February, 1725, on snow-shoes, with their 
provisions on their backs, on an Indian trail which they had found 
following up the Merrimac River. We have not space to detail how 
they captured, roasted, and feasted on a bear; how they tracked 
the Indians, until they discovered their encampment on an island in 
Lake Winnipiseogee (N. H.) ; how they attacked them in their camp, 
and killed them all (10), and returned triumphant to their homes.* 

In 1748 and 1749, several Boxford men were stationed at Scarbor- 
ough, in the company of Capt. Joseph Fryc, of Andover. Others 
were stationed at Gorhamtown aud New Marblehcad, in 1749 and 

When the eastern frontiers were troubled in 1754, several more 
Boxford men went out for their defence in the company of Capt. 
Humphrey Hobbs, of Souhegan. Several more went out the follow- 
ing year in the company of Capt. Abiel Frye. 

Several men from Boxford were in Col. Winslow's expedition to 
Nova Scotia. Of the neutral French which were distributed among 
the various towns in New England, Boxford had fifteen to provide 
for, until March, 1758, when six of them were removed to Middle- 

The long and tedious "French and Indian War" drew into service 
many of the inhabitants. Boxford raised "a company of foot" for 
the "invasion of Canada in 1758," which was placed under the com- 
mand of Capt. Israel Herrick. This company, in addition to another, 
under the command of Capt. Francis Peabody, of Boxford, were in 
the service while the war lasted [1758-60]. Others served in the 
companies that were raised by the neighboring towns. The history 
of this war is but a recital of the sufferings and dangers that our 
townsmen had to pass through. Wading up to their waists in water, 
pulling their batteaux after them over the rapids : marching through the 
trackless forests; camping upon the wet, cold ground; their clothing 
worn out; food often scarce, and of poor quality; — who can tell 
these tales of suffering but those who knew them only by experience? 
When the Colonies were taxed so heavily by the mother country, just 
previous to the Revolution, in their correspondence with Boston, the 
committee of Boxford speak of the great amount of suffering, money, 
and anxiety the "French and Indian War" had cost them, and 
thought it extremely hard that England should tax them so heavily, 
unnecessarily, especially when they had lately suffered so much for 
the almost express sake of the Crown of England. 

In their correspondence with Boston, the committee of Boxford 
write very resentingly of the acts of Great Britain, at a very early 
hour in the day of the uprising of the Colonies. And, as the birth of 
independence was drawing near, nothing seemed too bad to say about 
the mother country. 

May 24, 1770, the town voted "that they will to their utmost, 
encourage the produce and manufacture of all such articles as have 
formerly been imported from Great Britain and used among them. 

"Voted that they will not use any foreign tea, nor suffer it to be 
used in their families (cases of sickness excepted), until the duty 
upon it shall be wholly taken off, — the duty on which has so largely 
contributed towards the support of such a . . . f set of men. 

"Voted, that they will not by any means whatever, knowingly, 
have any sort of trade or dealings with those detestable persons who 
have preferred their own little interests to the good of the country in 
contriving to import goods contrary to the non-importation agreement 
of the merchants and traders on the Continent ; and that whosoever 

* See " Book of the Indians," Book iii., Chap. ix. ; also, " New England History, and 
General Register," Vol. v., p. 80. 

t Hon. Aaron Wood, who was Town Clerk, when these resolves were passed, being a 
moral man, left this word out. and inserted a dash in its stead. 



shall be found to trade with them knowingly shall be deemed unworthy 
to hold any office or place of trust in the toicn forever hereafter." 

S iventeen days before the Declaration of Independence was adopted, 
the inhabitant- of Box ford "voted unanimously (hat if the Honorable 
Continental Congress should for the safety of the colonies declare them 
independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, they, the said inhab- 
itants of Boxford, will solemnly engage with (heir lives and fortunes 
to support them in the measure." 

In a letter to Boston, dated Feb. 4, 1773, the committee of cor- 
respondence of Boxford write : " Tie are desirous to exert our utmost 
abilities in all legal and constitutional methods to break, if possible, 
(he iron band of oppression and prevent the welding of the last link in 
our chain of impending slavery. ," 

On the twenty-seventh day of December following, they write : 
" It is (he resolution of (his (own to do all thaCs in their power, in a 
lawful way, to heave off this yoke of slavery, and to unite icilli their 
brethren of the (own of Boston, and the other towns in the Province, 
to defend our rights and charter privileges, not only with our estates, 
but with our lives; considering how dear those rights and privileges 
were purchased for us by our fore-fathers at the expense of their own 
blood and treasure." 

But leaving these outbursts of pent-up patriotism and independence, 
we must move forward to the real scenes of bloodshed, the opening 
battles of the Revolutionary War. 

A company of "Minute-men" bad been formed, and had trained 
themselves for active service. On the morning of the 19th of April, 
1775, the alarm gun at Andover awoke the slumbers of the inhab- 
itants, and news soon came of the real condition of affairs. The 
" Minute-men" and the two militia companies of the town were 
quickly on their way to the scene of conflict, but they arrived too 
late to participate in the light at either Lexington or Concord. The 
two militia companies (the east parish company was commanded by 
Jacob Gould, and consisted of fifty-seven men ; the west parish 
company was commanded by John Gushing, and contained thirty- 
three men) returned to their homes. The "Minute-men'' (com- 
manded by William Perley, and numbering fifty-two men), followed 
in the rear of the British as they retreated back to Boston, 

•• . . . And gave them ball for ball, 

From l)ebiud each fence and bain-yard wall." 

The "Minute-men" camped in the vicinity of Boston, and on the 
evening of dune 16, 1775, they formed part of that regiment, which, 
under command of Col. Prescott, following the glimmer of dark 
lanterns, crossed the Neck, and helped to rear that ominous defence, 
which st) astonished the Britons when the sun shed its first rays of 
light over the sparkling water, on the morning of the 17th of June. 
1775. They bravely fought, while their ammunition held out, when 
they were obliged to succumb to a retreat. Eight men out of this 
company were left dead upon the field or in the redoubt. 

Twenty-rive men went to the assistance of Cape Ann (Gloucester) 
this year (1775). 

Saltpetre was manufactured here, this year, for the manufacture of 
gunpowder. The blacksmiths' forges were also utilized in melting 
lead and running it into bullets. 

During the campaign of 1770, forty-nine men enlisted for eight 
months in the "Cambridge Campaign." Twenty-five more were 
stationed at Winter Hill and Roxburv. Twenty-six more enlisted in 
the " Continental and Northern Army." Six were stationed at Dorches- 
ter. Ten were stationed at New York, for two months. Nine were 
stationed as above, but at a different time. Ten were stationed for two 
months at Winter Hill. Thirty-four enlisted in the ''Continental and 
Northern Army'" at a different time from the others. Fourteen were 
in the "Remainder of the Continental Army." The whole number of 
men who were out this year, as per rolls, was two hundred and 

In November of this year, the famous Sullivan expedition was 

formed, to ravage the Indian settlements on the western frontier. Sev- 
eral men from Boxford were in Capt. Lane's company, in Col. Alden's 
regiment, and passed through n uch of the ordeal which they were 
called to suffer. Two of the Boxford men died, and many others of 
the expedition were killed, or died natural deaths. The names of 
Schoharie, Cherry Valley, Unadilla, and others associated with them, 
will never be forgotten by the annalist of Indian history. 

Capt. Richard Peabody was also stationed at Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, this year (1776), with a company of volunteers, who 
took part in the fight at Ticonderoga. 

Some of the men that took part in the disastrous journey of Ar- 
nold's to Quebec, in the fall of 1775, belonged to Boxford. More 
suffering was probably endured in this expedition, than in any other 
season during the Revolution, or at any time of war since. 

One of Box ford's soldiers was one of the guard of Maj. Andre on 
the night before his execution. 

In March, 1777, thinking they were not doing their share toward 
the cause of independence, they hire thirty-three men to enter the 
army, at a cost of £778. Most of them were from Boston. 

The surrender of Gen. Burgoyne, on the 17th of October, 1777, 
was witnessed by several of the Boxford soldiers. 

In 1780, Boxford raised more than £60,000 (the worthlessness of 
money must be taken iuto consideration), to purchase beef for the 

In 1781, Boxford voted to pay soldiers, who would enlist in the 
army for three years, one hundred and twenty silver dollars apiece. 

Shay's rebellion, in 1787, called out several Boxford men. 

Several drafts were made on the militia companies, as per act of 
Congress, April 10, 1812, for soldiers to assist in guarding the sea- 
ports along the Atlantic coast. The inhabitants of Boxford were against 
the doings of the National Government, in that they declared war 
with Great Britain, as they believed it would be detrimental to their 
prosperity, happiness, and the morals of the people. In 1814 more 
drafts were made. 

Boxford acted a conspicuous part in the Rebellion of 1861—1865. 
Ninety-two of the young and middle-aged men of the town volun- 
teered to go to the front and help sustain the union of the United 
States. Of these, two died while imprisoned at AndersonvilLe. Two 
more were imprisoned in the Libby Prison, one of whom died 
there. Twenty of the brave young spirits succumbed to the 
deadly effects of rifle-bills and Southern diseases; the bodies of 
most of them now mouldering in the soil of the sunny regions of the 
South, in graves unknown and unhonored, with no memorial stone 
but the granite cenotaph at home, on which their names are engraved. 
Thirteen were wounded in battle, or contracted diseases of which they 
died soon after arriving home. In addition to these volunteers, thirty 
were drafted, five more entered the navy, and faithfully served their 
country until they died, or were discharged. 

Entering the army, most of them, at the beginning of the strife, 
Bull Run, Cedar Mountain, and other battle-fields, witnessed the 
death-struggle of more than one Boxford boy. Others were wounded, 
some fatally, in the battles of Port Hudson, Blunt's Creek, Antietam, 
Spottsylvania, Mech micsville, Bull Run, Gettysburg. Lookout Moun- 
tain, and other tierce conflicts of the Rebellion, Under the command 
of Gen. Joe Hooker, some were numbered with the Army of the 
Potomac. Death by starvation in the rebel prisons, on the battle- 
field, bv fatal diseases ; inconveniences, discomforts, all stared them 
in the face: but, with unwavering patriotism, they fought until their 
end was gained ; until the Union was restored ; then they laid down 
their muskets, to take them no more up, until another threatening 
storm of disunion should sweep over the land. 

Adj. Gen Schouler, in his "History of Massachusetts in the Civil 
War" says, "there were no commissioned officers from Boxford. 
Ninety-two men were in the service, a surplus of five over all 



The following are the names of those who died in the war; viz., 
Martin L. Ames (at Andersonville Prison), John Q. Batchelder, Sam- 
uel H. Brown, D. Butler, Charles W. Cole, John F. Cole, Oscar F. 
Curtis, Joshua G. Day, Murdock Frame (killed in battle of Cedar 
Mountain, at Culpepper, Va., Aug. 9, 1862), Albert A. Frye, Charles 
L. Foster, George A. Gage, William A. Gurley, Harrison Hale, Mat- 
thew Hale, George. P. Hobson, Horace A. Killam, Thomas A. Mas- 
ury, Herbert C. C. Morse (in the Libby Prison), Asa K. Perley, 
Thomas P. Perley, John Sawyer (in Andersonville Prison), Aaron 
Spofford (killed in last battle of Bidl Run), and David M. Sullivan, in 
the army; and Benjamin S. Twisden, in the navy. 

The whole amount of money appropriated by the towu on account 
of the war, exclusive of State aid, was $10,756.35. State aid paid in 
1861, $367.60; 1862, $1,170; 1863, $1,184; 1864, $1,097.71 ; and 
in 1865, $1,150. 

The ladies of Boxford were active all through the war, in adding to 
the comfort of the soldiers at the front, and forwarded, through the 
Sanitary and Christian Commissions, on several occasions, under- 
clothing, quilts, pillow-cases, dried-apples, jellies, newspapers, and 
other comforts for the sick and wounded. 

Through the generosity of J. Tyler Barker, Esq., the West parish 
have been enabled to erect a substantial granite monument to the 
memory of those soldiers that participated in the Rebellion, and in- 
scribed with the names of those who have gone before, and gathered 
around the camp-fire above. It was dedicated on Decoration Day, 
May 29, 1875, with appropriate ceremonies, the governor and staff 
being present. 

The following is the inscription on the front face of the monu- 
ment : — 



WAR OF 1861. 






Militia Companies. 

When Boxford was first settled, the men trained with the Topsfield 
militia company. After the incorporation of the town, in 1685, they 
trained among themselves. When the parishes were incorporated, 
each parish contained a company. In 1832, the two companies 
united, and formed a part of the Third Regiment, Second Brigade, 
Second Division of the State militia. So they continued until 1840, 
when all the militia throughout the State was disbanded. A company, 
calling themselves the "Boxford Washington Guards," flourished here 
between 1836 and 1846. 

Camp Stanton. — Boxford is noted for its being the camp of several 
regiments during the Rebellion. The annual muster of the Second 
Brigade has also been held on the old camp-ground several seasons. 
The same plain was used for the same purpose during the Revolution. 
Old Camp Stanton is a favorite name with many of the survivors of 
the Rebellion. 

Schools, &c. 

The town is at present divided into five school districts. Lady 
teachers are employed both summer and winter, the school committee 
thinking that they teach better than those of the masculine gender. 
Three terms are taught each year, — summer, fall, and winter. 
Whole number of scholars enrolled, 146; average daily attendance, 
ninety ; number of scholars under five years of age, five ; number of 
scholars over fifteen years of age, twenty-three. These figures are 
taken from the school report for 1877. The present school committee 
are: Sereno D. Gammell, Asa Kimball, Esq., and the Rev. David 
Bremner, a learned trio, certainly. $1,535.57 were spent for school- 

ing in 1877. The town appropriates $1,000 annually for that pur- 

The first school-teacher of which any x-ecord has been found, was 
John Peabody. He was chosen for this purpose by the town at a 
town-meeting held Nov. 24, 1701. Aug. 25, 1713, the town agreed 
with Nathaniel Peabody to be schoolmaster for that year. Sept. 12, 
1716, they agreed with Thomas Jewett "to teach Scool for writing 
reading & Arethemitick ... to the 6 parts of y c Town y e Town is 
for give him forty shillings pur month for y e six months & convenent 
diat & lodging." September, 1722, Thomas Redington was chosen to 
"learn persons to read, write and cypher." 

The school was held for many years in private houses in different 
sections of the town, holding its sessions for a while in each place 
alternately. In 1738 or 1739, the town was divided into districts, and 
a school-house built in each district. About 1796, new houses were 
built in place of the old ones. New buildings were again built about 
1830, which are in use to-day. An academy flourished here for a few 
years, very prosperously, about sixty years ago. 

The Hon. Aaron Wood, who died 1791, bequeathed his farm to the 
town for the support of the schools. The farm was leased for a thou- 
sand years, and the money realized was placed at interest, which now 
amounts to $125 per annum. Several other bequests have been made 
for the same purpose. Ephraim Foster bequeathed $1,500 to the 
parish in 1835, for the support of the district schools. John Tyler 
Barker, who died in 1872, bequeathed to the West Parish $58,000, 
with which to establish a free high school, to be located as near the 
Thomas Hovey house as is convenient. The will being contested by 
the heirs, the court have given the parish $30,000, which they propose 
to place at interest until it reaches a suitable sum. 


The principal occupation of the inhabitants is the pursuit of agri- 
culture in all its branches. Some excellent farms can be seen there, 
showing carefulness of cultivation, pride in the neat appearance of 
their homes, and that the cultivators have not mistaken their calling. 

A forge for smelting iron ore was established, about 1670, by the 
Leonard brothers, the noted iron-workers of the country at that time. 
They carried on the business for a time, and, by different companies, 
the business continued to prosper until after 1680, when it was aban- 
doned for about a century. It was then changed to another site, and 
the business renewed by some of the inhabitants, who contrived to 
make it prosper until about 1800, when we hear no more of it. 

In ye olden time, the East Parish contained a store, at which the 

post-office was located, — 

. . . . " Where, in the past, 

We could often hear the thrilling blast, 

Borne on the early morning air, 

Of Pinkham's stage horn." 

But since the Boston .and Maine Railroad has conveyed the passen- 
gers and mail-bags, 

. . . " No more is heard of Pinkham, 
Or his horn." 

There are now two post-offices, one in each parish. 

The most extensive business now carried on in the town, is that of 
the manufacture of friction-matches, at the match-factory of Messrs. 
Byam & Carleton, of Boston. They located their factory here in 1867, 
and have been constantly running it ever since. The} r have some $30,- 
000 invested, and turn out about $40,000 worth of goods annually. 
A saw- mill is also in connection with it, and also machinery for manu- 
facturing boxes for their own use and for sale. Some 1,800 tons of 
timber are consumed annually in the match manufacture. 

Cotton-yarn, wicking, batting, wooden bowls, and other dishes, 
straw hats, gloves, shoe-pegs, and other articles have been manufact- 
ured here in days gone by. 

Noted Natives, <&c. — Boxford has, probably, given birth to more 



enterprising, energetic persons than any other town of its size in the 
Commonwealth. They can lie found in the busy business circles of 
large towns and cities, engaging in manufacturing, home trade, and 
commerce : institutions of learning, in distant parts of the country, 
have called them to their assistance; heathendom has called to them 
to bring the light of Christianity to its darkened lands ; invention has 
tried, "We need you to show to the world some new appliance" ; 
pulpits and offices of trust have been filled ; the court-room has lis- 
tened to their voice, and not a few have assisted, and are still assist- 
ing, in building up the distant West with towns and cities, and turn- 
ing the rank, virgin soil of the prairies into grain-fields and fruit- 
farms. Thus it has been with the young men of Boxford. Leaving 
the old, dull home of their fathers, they enter the busy scenes, and 
soon become involved in the fortunes or misfortunes of a business life. 
But, thanks to the parents, and the morality of the place, most of 
them have succeeded in their career, and made themselves an honor to 
the dear old home of their boyhood. Most of the natives that have 
thus gone forth were business-men. But few, comparatively, have 
become professional men. We have thought fit to subjoin the follow- 
ing list of some of the distinguished natives : — 

The Rev. Oliver Peabody (1(598-1752), son of William and Hannah 
(Hale) Peabody. Graduate of Harvard College, 1721. First settled 
pastor of the Indian Church at Natick. He was also a missionary 
among the Mohegau Indians. Noted as a theologian, and a kind and 
useful pastor. 

The Rev. Moses Hale (1701-1760), son of Joseph and Mary (Wat- 
son) Hale. Graduate of Harvard College, 1722. First minister in 
Chester, X. H. 

The Rev. John Rogers (1712-1789), son of the Rev. John and 
Susanna (Marston) Rogers. Graduate of Harvard College, 1732. 
First minister in Leominster, Mass. He was a scholar, and a studious 
and learned divine. 

The Hon. Aaron Wood (1719-1791), son of John and Ruth (Pea- 
body) Wood. Senator and representative to the general court for 
sixteen years. A noted public man in his day. 

Col. Thomas Knowlton (1740-1776), son of William and Martha 
(Pinder) Knowlton. A brave colonel in the Revolution. . An intim- 
ate friend of Gen. Putnam, with whom he shared the perils and sufler- 
ings of the "French and Indian War." Slain in battle at Harlem 
Heights, Sept. 16, 1776. Washington said he "would be an honor 
to any country.'' 

The Rev. Stephen Peabody (1741-1819), son of John and Sarah 
Peabody. Graduate of Harvard College, 1769. Chaplain in the Revo- 
lution. First minister in Atkinson, X. H. 

The Rev. Humphrey Clark Perley (1761-1838), son of William and 
Sarah (Clark) Perley. Graduate of Dartmouth College, 1791. Min- 
ister in Methuen and Beverly. 

Samuel Holyoke, A. M. (1762-1820), son of the Rev. Flizur and 
Hannah (Peabody) Holyoke. Graduate of Harvard University, 1789. 
Noted as a musical composer. Author of " The Columbian Repository 
of Sacred Music," and other works. 

Nathaniel Perley, Esq. (1763-1824), son of Nathaniel and Mehit- 
able (Perley) Perley. Lawyer in Hallowell, Me. 

Dr. William Peabody (1768), son of Richard and Jemima (Spofford) 
Peabody. Physician in Frankfort, Me. 

The Hon. Samuel Peabody (1775-1859), son of Richard and Jemima 
(Spofford) Peabody. Graduate of Dartmouth College, 1803. Attor- 
ney and counsellor-at-law in Xew Hampshire. He was father of Judge 
Charles Augustus Peabody, of Xew York and Louisiana. 

Gen. Solomon Lowe (1782-1861), sou of Nathan and Lucy 
(Lord) Lowe. Was general in the State Militia from 1820 to 
1840. Representative from Boxford to the general court for several 

The Rev. Peter Sydney Eaton (1798-1863), son of Rev. Peter and 
Sarah (Stone) Eaton. Graduate of Harvard University, 1818, and 

at the Theological Seminary at Andover, 1822. Settled over the 
Congregationalist Church in Merrimac (West Amesbnry). 

The Hon. Ira Perley, LL. D. (1799-1874), son of Samuel and Phebe 
(Dresser) Perley. Graduate of Dartmouth College, 1822. Read 
law with B. J. Gilbert. Practised the profession with great honor 
at Coucord and Hanover, X. H. Was for many years judge of the 
Supreme Court, and vice-president of the Xew England Historic-Gene- 
alogical Society. 

Dr. Daniel Perley (1804), son of Samuel and Phebe (Dresser) 
Perley. Graduate of Harvard College, 1828. Physician in Rowley 
and Lynn. 

Rev. Albert Bradstreet Peabody (1828), son of Samuel and Mary 
(Bradstreet) Peabody. Pastor of the Orthodox Congregationalist 
Church, Stratham, X. H. 

William A. Herrick, Esq. (1831), son of William H. and Lois 
(Killam) Herrick. Graduate of Dartmouth College, 1854. Lawyer 
in Boston. 

Prof. Atherton. Graduate of Yale College and Phillips Academy. 
Member of Congress from the third district of Xew Jersey. Pro- 
fessor in Rutgers College. 

Dr. Walter Henry Kimball (1820), son of Amos and Lucy (Foster) 
Kimball. Graduate of Dartmouth College, 1841. Physician in 
Andover, Mass. 

The Flora, Geological Formation, d-c. — The flora of Boxford is 
rich and varied, possessing most varieties native to this section of the 
country. The trailing arbutus is found in some localities, the air 
being fragrant with its sweet perfume. Two species of Drosera 
(Sundew), a curious plant, found by actual experiment to digest 
animal food, are found in her meadows. The Cuscula gronovii 
(Dodder), is found growing on the borders of some of her ponds. 
The beautiful white Azalea, the Aster, and golden-rod are found. 
Umbelliferoi contributes quite largely from her stock of poisonous 
plants. The order Composites is, of course, largely represented. 

The land is diversified by hill and valley, which promotes the 
beauty of the natural scenery. In the south-eastern part of the town 
is found the series of ridges that form a continuous chain throughout 
the count}', and which has received so much attention by the Rev. 
George Wright, of Andover. The rock is calcareous gneiss and 
sienite, with considerable many bowlders and ledges in some local- 
ities. Quartz, containing indications of silver, lead, nickel, and other 
minerals, is found. A few years since, when the mining fever was at 
its height, several shafts were sunk, but without the success which had 
been anticipated. Several thousands of dollars were spent in this way. 

Ponds. — Boxford is well supplied with ponds and small streams 
of water, which can be, and many of them are, improved as affording 
water-power for mills, <fec. Mitchell's Pond, in the West Parish, con- 
taining thirty-six acres, which has recently been stocked with fish by 
an association formed for the purpose, has its outlet into Johnson's 
Pond, of one hundred and ninety-four acres, one-half of which is 
situated within the Boxford line, the rest being in Groveland. It has 
its outlet through a brook in Groveland, which runs into the Merrimac 
River, and from thence to the ocean. Fowler's Pond, containing 
about twelve acres, has its outlet through Hazzeltine Brook and Parker 
River into Plum Island River and the ocean. "Poor Farm" Pond, of 
fifty-four acres, has its outlet through Peun Brook into Parker River, 
&c. Stetson's, of twenty-two, Four Mile, of forty-two, and Stevens' 
Pond, of thirteen acres, have their outlet through Pye Brook and 
Ipswich River to the ocean. Stiles', of sixty, Cedar, of thirteen, 
and Crooked Pond, of twelve acres, have their outlet through Ipswich 
River by means of Fish Brook. Fish has generally been abundant, 
but the anglers from the city have greatly lessened their numbers. 

Negroes. — The first mention made of the colored people on the 
records is about 1730. From this time to the year 1780, the names 
of about twenty-five people of color appear upon the records. "Can- 
dace" aud "Scipio" are among their curious names. 



Wild Animals. — In 1739, a committee was chosen to inspect the 
killing of deer. 1770, a bounty was offered for killing wildcats. 
Samuel Dorman killed one about this time. During the early settle- 
ment of the town, wolves and other animals of the like nature roved 
through the forests. 

Witchcraft. — Rebecca Eames, wife of Robert Eames, one of the 
early settlers, aged, at this time, about 52 years, was placed in jail in 
Aug., 1692, had her trial for being a witch, was convicted, and con- 
demned Sept. 17th. She remained in jail until the following March, 
when she was pardoned by Gov. Phips. 

Almshouse. — Until 1847, the paupers in the towns were "boarded 
out " among the families. In the year above-mentioned the farm of 
Capt. Jacob Towne was purchased by the town for a "town farm," 
which it has continued to be to the present time. 

Cemeteries. — There are five public cemeteries in the town, — three 
in the East and two in the West parish. The oldest yard is that 
across the street from the residence of Mr. Walter French. Only 
twelve headstones remain standing, the ground having not been used 
as a place of interment for half a century. 

"The Old Elm." — It would not do to leave out a notice of the 
grand old elm-tree in front of the residence of the late Mr. Isaac 
Hale. It was set out in 1767 (we believe), by Samuel Perley, who 
dug it up in the woods, brought it home on his back, and set it out 
whore it now stands. Beneath its branches, Judge Ira Perley and his 
brother Daniel, the doctor, studied and lived their years of minority 
together; in their later years it became a kind of Mecca to them. 
It is the most magnificent and colossal tree that can be found in this 
section of the State. The trunk measures about twenty feet in cir- 
cumference, as high up from the ground as a man can reach. Its 
wide-spreading branches cover an area of nearly an acre. 

Public Library. — A public library was established here in 1874. 
It now contains about 600 volumes. Miss Mary E. Perley, librarian. 
Sustained by subscription. Located in East parish. 

Senators, &c. — Boxford has furnished but two senators for the gov- 
ernment of the State ; viz., the Hon. Aaron Wood, in 1781, and Dea. 
Julius Aboyno Palmer, in 1869. Maj. Asa Perley was member of 

the Provincial Congress, 1775. The politics of the town at the pres- 
ent time ai-e largely Republican, though in the last few years the 
Democrats have increased in numbers. At the first "fall" election, 
held Sept. 4, 1780, the Hon. John Hancock was chosen governor ; the 
Hon. James Bowdoin, lieutenant-governor. 

Boxford is bounded on the north and north-east by Bradford, Grove- 
land, Georgetown, and Rowley ; on the south-east by Ipswich and 
Topsfield ; and on the south-west by Middleton and North Andover. 
Boxford contains about 13,000 acres of land, divided up as follows ; 
viz., English mowing, about 1,400; meadow, 800; pasturage, 
6,500; woodland, 1,300; unimproved, 2,300; and unimprovable 
land, 900 acres. 

The Danvers and Newburyport branch of the Boston and Maine 
Railroad runs through the eastern part of the town. A stage runs 
through the north-western section, conveying the mail and passengers. 
Other railroad stations are handy, but outside the limits of the town. 

Population, 1765,851; 1776,989; 1790, 925; 1800, 852; 1810, 
880; 1820, 906; 1830, 935; 1840, 942; 1850, 982; 1860, 1,020; 
1865, 868 ; and in 1875, 834 — 421 males and 413 females. Ratable 
polls, 253; native voters, 218; naturalized voters, 3; total voters, 
221. Number unmarried, 427 — 219 males and 208 females. Num- 
ber married, 358 — 184 males and 174 females; 31 widows and 18 
widowers. 52 of the inhabitants (1875) were foreign born; 412 
born in Boxford; 270 born in other towns in Massachusetts ; 99 born 
in other States ; and 1 unknown. Of the foreign born, 3 were born 
in England ; 23 in Ireland ; 3 in Scotland ; 22 in Canada ; and 1 in 
Sweden. Number of families, 212. Number of dwelling-houses, 
186 — 177 occupied, and 9 unoccupied. 

Valuation of Boxford, 1860, $649,331 ; in 1865, $631,942; in 1875, 
$604,230 — personal property, $85,790 ; real estate, $518,440. Town 
debt, $5,000, which is balanced, by cash and notes held by the town, 
so that the debt is really nothing, — a situation of which few towns 
can boast. 

The following are the town officers chosen at the annual town-meet- 
ing, March 4, 1878: Town Clerk, Benjamin S. Barnes; Selectmen, 
Ancil Dorman, George W. Chadwick, J. Henry Nason. 






Although the town of Bradford has a distinct and interesting history, 
the date of which commences sometime after its first settlement as a 
part of the ancient town of Rowley, its early and opening record is 
one of much interest, as being identified with the pioneers of civiliza- 
tion in this portion of Essex County. When Ezekiel Rogers, on the 
4th of September, 1639, received a grant for a plantation, to be called 
Rowley, what is now known as Bradford was embraced within its 
limits, or was soon after added, and was then known as ".Merrimack 
lands," from the fact that it bordered on the river bearing that name. 
It was not till ten years after, or in 1(349, that active measures were 
taken for the settlement of these "lands," which was in the early days 
of the settlement of Haverhill, on the opposite shore. 

In the spring of that year, the town of Rowley entered into an 
agreement with Robert Heseltine, John Heseltine, and William Wild, 
to commence the settlement, or to "sett down at Merrimack." The 
grant appears not to have been, at first, fully and clearly expressed by 
the town, which gave rise to many attempts at explanation, and 
much "town-meeting" talk. The specifications agreed upon were, 
that each should have "forty acres of upland, to be laid out to them 
as convenient as may be," with "commons for twenty head of cattle, 
which said commons they shall have liberty to fence, in," but were re- 
strained "from liberty to erect any more than three tenements upon 
any part of the said uplands or commons." In addition, "the towue 
hath granted to each of them twenty acres of meadow, to be laid out 
to them when they claim it, unless some providence of God shall hin- 
der." They were also to have "liberty, each of them, to get a 
thousand pipe-staves yearly, for seven years" and to "cut fire wood for 
their families, and timber for fencing and building, but not within a 
quarter of a mile of the pasture fence." They were, in addition, " freed 
from town charges for the lauds, houses, four oxen, and six cows, and 
•four calves, for seven years." Iu return, they were " to sufficiently 
look to the herd of cattle which Rowley should put into the pasture for 
seven years, and provide convenient diet and lodging to any that the 
towne should send to keep any herds there." 

Soon after the settlement of these men on these " lands," the town 
laid out to them four hundred and fifty acres of upland, and forty 
acres of meadow. The upland was on the river, extending from above 
the present site of the bridge, down, and the meadow was mostly in 
what is now Georgetown and Boxford. 

The next "Merrimack lands" laid out, were two plantations, or 
farms, of three hundred acres respectively, to Rev. Ezekiel Rogers 
and Rev. Samuel Phillips. In addition, were twenty acres of meadow 
to Mr. Phillips, and twenty-five acres to Mr. Rogers, in Jeremie's 
meadow, so called. The town also voted that Joseph Swett should 
have nine hundred and sixty acres of land "in the neck, beyond the 
Heseltine's," and forty acres of meadow elsewhere, in exchange for 
three thousand acres about the Bald Hills. The farm of Mr. Phillips 
was east of Johnson's Creek, and bounded easterly by Mr. Rogers's 
farm, which was bounded by the river, and extended nearly down to 
the present site of the meeting-house. The Jewett plantation was 
" bounded by a runnell of water that falls into the Merrimack River on 

the east, and from said runnell of water to a white oak tree, and from 
thence to Merrimack River by Andover line." The Glover farm was 
soon laid out next adjoining this, and in 1671 the town of Rowley 
caused a succession of river-lots to be laid out, beginning at the Glover 
farm, and extending down river, containing from thirty-five acres to 
one hundred and two acres, and from eleven and a half rods to thirty- 
three and a half rods wide at the river, and are supposed to have 
embraced the territory between the Heseltine grant and Johnson's 
Creek. Iu this town is Chadwick's Pond. 

In 1670, the land between Newbury line and Mr. Rogers's farm was 
laid out, beginning at the Newbury line. Philip Nelson had 483 
acres, 67 rods wide at the river, and Deacon Ezekiel Jewett had 145 
acres, 20 rods wide at the river. From Deacon Jewett's lot, the land 
for the burial-ground was given for the use of the town. The grants 
of land were then quite numerous, indicating a pretty rapid settlement. 
These river-lots, above Johnson's Creek, extended back to what is 
now Boxford line, and those below the creek extended to what is now 
the Rowley line. These lots were all long and narrow, that of Mr. 
Nelson being nearly three miles and a half long, and one hundred and 
forty rods in width. 

These lots were difficult of access, in many instances, on account of 
their depth and narrowness. They were also divided by lines of 
marked trees, indicating bounds, which sometimes led to misunder- 
standings and a clashing of rights. There was the line of "marked 
trees " above the plough land, the "middle range," and the " upper 
range," which were the only designating bounds. No mention is made 
of early clearings of forests, from which it may be inferred that the 
pasture lands spoken of were natural openings, sufficiently free from 
trees or underbush to admit of the growth of grass, and formed the 
pasturage of that day. 

In 1675, this tract of land was incorporated into the town of Brad- 
ford, embracing what is now known as that town, and what is em- 
braced in the present town of Groveland. After the incorporation of 
the town, and at about 1681, the people felt the hardship of sustain- 
ing a distinct town government, and appealed to the town of Rowley 
for some aid, either by an additional grant of "meadow land," or in 
some other way. The old town sympathized with the new township, 
but rendered no further aid than to grant to the Rev. Mr. Symmes 
" six or seven loads of hay yearly," from the Rock-pond meadow. By 
this it may be iuferred that one of the burdens was the support of the 
minister, which was then a town affair. 

The claims of Bradford still continued to be urged for an additional 
grant, till 1701, when an appeal was made to the General Court to 
interfere in their behalf. The appeal was finally settled by reference 
to a committee consisting of Dea. Ezekiel Jewett, Capt. Joseph 
Boynton, and Lieut. Johu Dresser, of Rowley, who met the Bradford 
committee at the house of Samuel Hale, on the 14th of October, 1701, 
where they agreed upon a line running from the great rock by Samuel 
Holmes's house to Newbury line south of Crane Pond, instead of 
north of it, giving an addition of five hundred acres of land to the 
town of Bradford, which, in the light of present judgment, would be 
of little value, being chiefly meadow land, but then considered as 
quite desirable. 

After the river lots were laid out, the town proceeded to lay out 
the remainder of the Merrimack lands, which was done by the joint 
consent of all the proprietors. In this division were teu small lots, 
iu all, 186 acres, all bounded by Little Pond, southerly, and north- 



erly by the "Ministry land," so called. These lots, beginning at the 
west, were laid out to Joseph Chaplin, Abraham Foster, Thomas 
Palmer, John Simmons, Hugh Smith, Jonathan Hopkinson, John 
Eastman, James Dickinson, Dea. Maximilian Jewett, and Jonathan 
Remington. The ministry lot contained forty acres, and "at all 
times forever hereafter, for the use of the ministrie in that town Mcr- 
rimacke, and that it should never be the proper and peculiar right of 
any person or persons, any longer or further than while he or they 
were the orderly ministers of the aforesade towne of Merrimacke " 

The average length of the town was seven miles, with a breadth of 
two and a half miles, containing over ten thousand acres, and of 
excellent soil, bounded by the Merrimac River on the northerly side, 
and lying opposite Haverhill. The first settlers were chiefly Rowley 
men, and though, for a period of twenty-five years, really a part of 
the town of Rowley, they do not appear to have been taxed by that 
town, but were allowed to manage their affairs in their own way, as 
a distinct community, holding town-meetings, in the name of the 
town of Merrimack, till at a meeting, Jan. 7, 1672-3, they voted to 
call the town Bradford, and by that name it was incorporated in 1675. 

The records show that Robert Heseltine, and John Heseltine, his 
brother, were leading men in the town, and that in 1666 Robert was 
paid by the town of Rowley l.s. for services as juryman, and the same 
year 5s. for killing two foxes. In 1655 the same Robert Heseltine 
was ordered by the "Courte" to keep a ferry over Merrimac River, 
"charging 4d. for the ferriage of a stranger, if they pay presently; 
and 6d. if bookt, and to keep entertainment for horse and man for 
one yeare unless the General Courte take further orders." 

The first recorded town-meeting of the Merrimack people was Feb. 
20, 1668-9, while yet territorially a part of Rowley, at which the 
following officers were chosen : Constable, Thomas Kimball ; Select- 
men, Sergeant John Gage, Robert Heseltine, Joseph Pike, John 
Grilling, John Tenney ; Clerk of Writs, Joseph Pike; Overseers, 
Samuel Worcester, Benjamin Gage, Benjamin Kimball, David Hesel- 
tine ; Commissioners to layout all Highways within the bounds of 
the town, Sergeant John Gage, Joseph Pike, John Griffing. 

The same rules of enforcing attendance upon town-meetings, pecu- 
liar to all the colonial towns, existed here. Whoever did not attend 
a regularly warned town-meeting was fined 6>l. per hour during his 
absence, and whoever should speak in town-meeting, without liberty 
from the Moderator, was fined tid. for each offence. The legal places 
"for the publishing of any orders or other business of public concern- 
ment to the whole town, was by setting up a writing or writings at 
the houses of Thomas Kimball and Benjamin Gage, until we have a 
more convenient place." 

The selectmen were given full power to "carry on, and finish the 
minister's house according to Mr. Symm's direction, and to raise the 
pay by rate, upon the estates of said inhabitants." By-laws were 
established containing a variety of wholesome and orderly provisions. 
All swine above half a year old were required to be substantially 
yoked, "the yokes being two feet one way and twenty inches the 
other, on penalty of Is. per hog, for every defect, the which to be 
done by the first of August, and so be kept yoked till Indian corn be 
gathered." Horses and cattle were also required to be yoked or fet- 
tered. A legal fence was a five-railed fence, three feet ten inches 
high, or a hedge, pale or ditch, equivalent to such a fence in the judg- 
ment of the overseers The meeting-house was not forgotten in the 
.provisions for order and comeliness ; and Samuel Heseltine was em- 
ployed to sweep it, receiving the compensation of "one peck of 
Indian corn per year from every man who hath a right to vote in 
town meetings, to be brought to his house." As early as 1671, the 
selectmen, by direction of the town, laid out the burying-ground in 
the First or West Parish. As late as March 27, 1669, they styled 
themselves "The inhabitants of Rowly Village by Merrimack," and 
not till the town was incorporated in the name of Bradford did the 
connection with the old township entirely cease. 

It will be remembered that the Bradford of 1675 contained the 
whole of the territory now embraced in the town of Groveland, its 
eastern boundary being Newbury. It early became a post town, and 
is located thirty miles north of Boston, twenty north of Salem, and 
ten west of Newburyport. In 1810 its population was 1,369, and in 
1820, 1,600. East Bradford, or the East Parish, was a thrifty and 
growing community, and in 1850 the two parishes separated, dividing 
as equally as possible the population and the valuation, creating the 
town of Groveland, which became its eastern boundary. Its south- 
ern boundary is Georgetown and Boxford, with North Andover on the 
south-west, and the Merrimac River on the north and north-west, 
dividing it from Haverhill and Methuen. After the division, in 1855, 
the population was 1,372. In 1875 its population was 2,347, con- 
taining 413 dwellings and 531 families. It had seven manufactories 
with a capital of $21,500 invested, yielding a product of $52,300, and 
an agricultural product of $43,635. 

The surface of the soil is uneven, and in quality various, though 
generally excellent for cultivation. There are several elevations, the 
highest being Powder House Hill, or Head's Hill, commanding a 
delightful prospect of the Merrimac River, and the picturesque 
valley through which it flows, together with a commanding view of 
Haverhill, Lawrence, North Andover, as well as the outlying terri- 
tory of all these thrifty communities, and an extensive view of the 
hill country of New Hampshire for many miles. It has long been 
connected with Haverhill by a bridge, the present iron one taking 
the place of the wooden structure of earlier days, and is one of the 
finest bridges in New England. The Boston and Maine Railroad 
passes through the town, crossing the river just above the populous 
portion, where is located the depot. The Newburyport Railroad also 
passes through the town, having its depot at Haverhill Bridge, which 
road gives direct communication with Newburyport and Salem, and 
furnishes another route to Boston via Georgetown and Danvers. 

The location and character of the soil renders it a natural a°;ricult- 
ural community, and in the early days of its history agriculture was 
its leading interest, though its water-power was utilized for mechani- 
cal purposes, which, at that period, became of considerable import- 
ance. When the shoe-manufacturing interest began to develop 
itself, it was quite extensively engaged in by the enterprising men 
located there ; and'while that industry was becoming established in 
Haverhill, a thrifty business in the same line sprang up in Bradford, 
or West Bradford, as it was then called. Iu 1837 the leading men 
engaged in that business there were, Josiah Brown, Leonard Johnson, 
Samuel Heath, William Day & Co., J. P. Montgomery & Co., War- 
ren Ordway, George K. Montgomery, Humphrey Hoyt, Ordway & 
Webster, Guy Carleton, Jr., and Pressey & Fletcher; with Kimball 
Farrar in the leather business. No more energetic manufacturers 
were in business in this section than the men of this community. 
Gradually the business and the trade began to centre in Haverhill, 
and in a few years nearly all these manufacturers had their places of 
business there, but retained their homes in Bradford, which still con- 
tinues to be the situation with those still living, and with most of their 

Much of the early history, of its mechanical industries is connected 
with what was then East Bradford, Johnson's Creek furnishing water- 
power which caused a concentration in that quarter ; and it became a 
centre for considerable trade. Moses Parker was a leading merchant 
there, and was widely known in the back country. For a century and 
a half this was a prominent and growing centre for trade and manu- 
factures, at that time regarded as leading and important. Many of 
the early settlers of Rowley, who made up the sixty families gathered 
about Ezekiel Rogers in that early settlement, were mechanics, and 
they naturally sought the localities favorable to putting machinery in 
motion. The weavers, the spinners, and the fullers soon located 
themselves on the streams, though it was not for some years after the 
first settlement was made in this section, that much was done in the 



mechanical line. It was not before 1750 that much manufacturing 
activity was shown. In 17(50, Thomas Carleton established a fulling- 
mill on Johnson's Creek, and Aaron Parker had a mill there for dress- 
ing cloth. In this line Benjamin Morse and his sons had a wide 
reputation as superior manufacturers. At a later time Stephen Fos- 
ter was a large manufacturer of pewter buckles and sleigh-bells, on 
the same stream, and Jesse Atwood had a chocolate manufactory 
there. The coopering business was early carried on to a considerable 
extent, but had its decline with the lapse of years. During the Revo- 
lutionary war Deacon Samuel Tenney was a manufacturer of saltpetre, 
but that business was not long sustained. As early as 1770, Moses 
Parker, who is said to have been a man of good mechanical powers, 
constructed machinery for manufacturing tobacco, when only thirteen 
years old, and never having had but one opportunity of observing the 
requisite machinery used in the business. This became quite an 
extensive business in his hands. 

The manufacture of leather was quite extensively carried on in this 
town, and was first established by Shubael Walker in the Upper Parish, 
but was finally transferred to the East Parish where, in 1820, were in 
existence five tan-yards in active operation. In connection with this 
was introduced the manufacture of shoes of a coarse grade which were 
sent to the Southern and Middle States, and to the AVest Indies. In 
1820, and prior to that time, one hundred and fifty men Mere con- 
stantly employed in that business, with a product of fifty thousand pairs 
of boots and shoes yearly ; but it must be remembered that hand-work 
ruled in those days. Daniel Hardy, of Pelham, X. II., was one of 
the leading manufacturers at that time, and was followed by Thomas 
Savory and Nathaniel Mitchell, manufacturing extensively for the 
Southern trade and the West Indies. The business continued to in- 
crease in importance, and about the time of the French Revolution, 
Moses Savory and a Mr. Gage extended the business, so that it became 
the leading one in the town. 

In 1798, William Tenney, Jr., established a chaise manufactory, 
which continued to flourish for thirty years or more. In 1800 the 
manufacture of straw bonnets was commenced, which became a very 
profitable business, continuing for many years, but it has finally 
entirely faded out, not a vestige of it now remaining. 

The extent of the manufacturing carried on upon Johnson's Creek was 
enumerated by the Rev. Gardner B. Perry, in his historical discourse 
delivered in 1820. Up to that time there were, or had been, four 
saw-mills, five grist-mills, three fulling-mills, and two bark-mills. 
The first was a grist-mill set up by Edward Carleton, whose father was 
the first person born in Rowley; Deacon Phineas Carleton, and Mr. 
Aaron Parker built mills there. In connection with the latter enter- 
prise, the venerable divine remarks that the sluice to that mill was 
" dug by the job for $70 by Cuff Dole, a person of color, of remark- 
able strength, steady habits, and who died in the comfortable hope of 
a blessed immortality." In 1740, Joseph Kimball and Eliphalet Hardy 
set up the lower mills, so called. In 1790, Retier Parker built a tan- 
yard near the lower mill, and "contrived to have the stone by which 
the bark is ground, moved by water instead of by horses, certainly a 
useful improvement." 

As early as 1684, the town received proposals from Richard Thomas, 
of Rowley, and John Perle, of Marblehead, to set up a corn-mill on 
Johnson's Creek, which were cordially received and liberal subscrip- 
tions made to aid the enterprise, " upon conditions that the mill should 
be a good and sufficient one, and that the people in this town should be 
served in (urn in preference to those out of town; and also that a suffi- 
cient passage should be left for fish, which conditions were agreed to, 
and the mill accordingly set up," although the terms were in subver- 
sion of the old grist-mill rule of "first come, first served." 

The first saw-mill was owned by the Carleton family, but when built 
is not certainly known. It stood across the road above the first grist- 
mill, and the mud-sills were to be seen as late as 1820, though they 
had probably lain there more than one hundred and fifty years. In 

1784, Mr. Francis Kimball built a saw-mill, and Mr. Benjamin Morse 
a fulling-mill, near the mouth of the creek. Besides these have 
existed five or six saw-mills, and one grist-mill upon temporary 
streams, one of which was on the farm of David How. These appen- 
dages to civilization now appear as insignificant in comparison with 
the improved mechanical facilities of the present day, but they were 
"institutions" in their time. The power on Johnson's Creek still 
remains, reference to which will properly appear in the history of 



In every town the church and the instrumentalities of religious 
instruction were of the first consideration : and the establishment and 
maintenance of the gospel, not only as supplying the proper and prac- 
tical rules of life, but furnishing a system of theological faith, was 
of the first importance with the people of the early times. This 
element of life was a part of the constituent elements of the civil- 
ization that was attempting to establish itself upon these virgin acres, 
and the threads of its life were incorporated into the whole texture 
of society. The ministrations of the altar and the teachings of the 
gospel, as they understood them, were to be waited on and supported 
by contributions to the common treasury, but the organization of the 
church did not always immediately follow the settlement of a town. 

The first church was formed in Bradford, Dec. 27, 1682, and the Rev. 
Zachariah Symmes was ordained the same day. He had previously 
preached here fourteen years, and was the ordained pastor twenty-six 
years. He died in 1708, aged 71. His son was his successor, and 
was ordained in 1708, dying in 1725, a^ed 45. Both were graduates 
of Harvard, and men of learning and piety. The Rev. Joseph Parsons 
was the third minister. The fourth minister was the Rev. Samuel Wil- 
liams, LL.D. He was dismissed in 1780 to become professor in Mathe- 
matics in Harvard College, subsequently removing to Rutland, Vt., 
of which State he wrote a valuable history. The Rev. Jonathan Allen 
was the tifth minister, and the Rev. Ira Ingraham the sixth. The Rev. 
Loami Ives Hadley was the seventh minister ; the Rev. Moses Coleman 
Searle was the eighth minister. The Rev. Nathan Monroe was the ninth 
minister; the Rev. J. T. McCollum was the tenth minister; the 
eleventh, and present pastor of the society, is the Rev. J. D. Kings- 

The church is a flourishing one in point of numbers and zeal in 
religious work. The ordinary instrumentalities for instruction in re- 
ligious knowledge, as the Bible-class and Sunday-school, exist, and 
are in a flourishing condition. 

The East Parish was set off in May, 1726, and the Second Church in 
Bradford organized in 1727, at which time the Rev. William Balch was 
ordained as their pa-tor. The Rev. Ebenezer Dutch, the second min- 
ister, was ordained as colleague with Mr. Balch in 1799. The Rev. Gard- 
ner Braman Perry, the third minister, was ordained Sept. 28, 1814. A 
general history of the church from that time is to be found in the 
history of Grovelaud, which, though it did not exist as an incor- 
porated town, was practically a separate community in all its religious 
interests, and to a great extent in its business affairs. Many years 
were spent in debating the question of being set off as a separate 
parish before the action was reached, and the question of the division 
of the town was sometime agitated before final action took place. 

In 1831 a Methodist church was organized in Bradford, followed 
by the organization of a society and the erection of a meeting-house 
in 1833, in the East Parish, which flourished for several years, when 
it was finally sold to a society termed the Independent Congrega- 



tional Society, rallying around the Rev. D. A. Wasson, who was first 
settled as a colleague pastor with the venerable Dr. Perry, but in con- 
sequence of his liberal religious opinions, did not long remain with the 
society. The associated incidents of this movement will be found in 
the history of Grovel and. 

An early organization of the religious sect then styling themselves 
"Separatists," but finally taking the name of Baptists, established 
worship in this town in the year 1769, and appears to have been 
largely an offshoot from the society in Haverhill which was organized 
under the ministry of the Rev. Hezekiah Smith. In that year they pur- 
chased the old meeting-house of the Second Parish in Rowley, which 
was taken down and rebuilt at the "Four Corners," near the house of 
Jonathan Hale, in Bradford, where public worship was sustained 
a part of each year for several successive years, though they had no 
settled minister. Mr. Eliphaz Chapman, a Congregationalist, who 
afterwards settled in Bethel, Me., preached for them more than any 
other. The supporters of this meeting were principally residents of 
the towns of Rowley, Bradford, and Newbury. The record appears 
to show that on the 4th of May, 1781, the people interested in this 
movement organized as a branch of the Baptist church in Haverhill, 
and by a petition, setting forth their desires, were received into that 
church agreeably to their request. Elder Samuel Harriinan, a mem- 
ber of the Haverhill Baptist church since May 9, 1765, was appointed 
elder of this branch, and is supposed to have been the first person of 
Rowley who united with any Baptist church. This church had some 
immediate growth, thirteen females being soon added. In 1782 the 
' meeting-house was again taken down and rebuilt in the Second Parish 
iu Rowley, near where it formerly stood, and in 1785 this branch 
petitioned the Haverhill church to be set off and established as a 
distinct church, which was permitted, and at its organization the Rev. 
Hezekiah Smith preached the sermon. 

The first meeting of the persons who afterwards constituted the 
Christian church of Haverhill, was held in Bradford, December, 1803, 
at the house of John Marble, the Rev. Elias Smith, of Portsmouth, 
N. H., preaching on the occasion. This movement was styled, 
by those engaged in it, "the reformation in Bradford and Haverhill." 
The record says, "A door was opened Dec. 22, 1803, by Bro. John 
Marble, where Elder Elias Smith preached the Gospel for the first 
time in Bradford. The word had some effect." "Sept. 26, 1804, 
Elder Smith preached again in Bradford. God blessed the word to 
the awakening of some souls, who soon after found peace in believing." 
Iu 1805 and 1806, forty-three persons were baptized in Bradford by 
Elders Smith and Jones, most of whom were between the ages of 
twelve and twenty-five years. The church was organized iu Haver- 
hill, and the meetings established there. Out of that early organiza- 
tion grew the present Christian church in Haverhill. 

After the close of the War of the Rebellion, a community of colored 
people settled in Bradford, forming a society for religious worship, 
and built a small church, but after a brief existence there, its location 
was changed to Haverhill, and now constitutes the Calvary Baptist 
Church. The Congregationalist Church is uow the only one in Brad- 
ford, and all who do not sympathize with the sentiments of Orthodox 
Congregational worship find their religious homes among the various 
organizations in Haverhill. 

The first meeting-house in town was located near the old cemeteiy, 
the usage being to have the meeting-house and burying-ground near 
to each other. A second meeting-house was built in 1705, and 
twenty-five years later another house of worship was built near where 
the present one now stands. There was a small parish fund estab- 
lished in 1800, in support of the minister, by a donation of $1,000 
from Jonathan Chad wick, which has been increased by the sale of 
land, from time to time, belonging to the parish, till it now yields 
about $400 annually. 

In connection with religious instruction, and the maintenance of 
public worship, the educational interests of the town received a proper 

share of attention. The records supply but very little information 
upon this subject, and it is probable that the educational advantages 
for the first fifty years of the settlement of the town were very limited. 
Although not suffering so severely from invasions by the Indians, as 
did some other towns, a constant fear rested over the town for many 
years, which prevented much advance in educational interests. 

The first vote of the town, bearing iu the direction of providing for 
schools, which found its way to the records, appears in 1701, which 
authorized the selectmen to provide a school at their discretion, at the 
town's expense. This plan became modified the next year, and a 
tuition fee required of twopence per week for those learning to read, 
and fourpence for those learning to write, which was about all that 
was taught at that time, except the rudiments of arithmetic. 

The first teacher known to have been employed was Ichabods. 
After him, in 1723, came Mr. "White, at an annual salary of £24 lO.s. 
Succeeding him was Master Hobey and Master Merrill. School-houses 
were not plenty in those days, the first one being built on the "meet- 
ing-house land," at a cost of £25. The usage of the times was to 
teach in private houses in different parts of the town. As late as 
March 7, 1774, the records of the town inform us that " 'Twas 
put to vote to see if the town would supply the schools with wood 
after September next, and so on for the future, and it passed in the 
negative." Without doubt the scholars, and all having any interest in 
the cause of education, regarded that as a very cool vote. 

In 1780, the town voted " one mouth's schooling at the school-house 
near John Burbank's." A little later, and the record began to 
brighten, when a school committee was chosen, iu addition to the 
minister and the selectmen, who were, ex officio, members of the 
board. This committee consisted of Capt. Nathaniel Thurston, Ens. 
James Kimball, Nathan Burbank, and Dea. Seth Jewett. They not 
only created a committee, but voted to raise £340 to defray all town 
charges, and voted to have two months' schooling in the new school- 
house near the Rev. Mr. Allen's, designating January and February as 
the months to be used for that purpose. 

Following this improvement, a code of regulations was introduced 
for the more systematic management of the schools. From this 
advanced step, constant progress was made in the modes of education, 
and the common-school system became accepted here as elsewhere. 
The schools in this town now take rank among the best in the Com- 
monwealth. A high school was established in 1866, though the 
requirements of the State law did not compel it, the number of fam- 
ilies in town not reaching five hundred. The school has adopted a 
four years' course, and has already attained a high position. The 
districts have also been abolished, and a system of graded schools 
introduced. The statistics show that, in amount appropriated for sus- 
taining the educational interests, in proportion to the number of 
scholars between the ages of five years and fifteen years, Bradford 
takes rank as the sixth town in the county, and the forty-ninth in the 

Tracing the line of intellectual development in these communities, 
growing up in the midst of a combination of adverse conditions, a 
philosophical wonder and a metaphysical mystery constantly present 
themselves, while the astonishing fact of the superior power of the 
interior forces over all external and visible elements and conditions, 
is a source of constant surprise and amazement. While the rude and 
imperfect courses of education were in progress, thought was ever 
active, and aspirations for higher things were constantly pressing from 
within, outward, and demanding more perfect realizations. It was 
under these circumstances that an Idea forced itself to the surface, 
and was simultaneously surrounded by the best minds in the town ; 
which was that of founding an academy, which should give to the 
rising generation better educational opportunities, and it was the real- 
ization of that ideal which supplied the stimulus which at once greatly 
aided the general cause of education. 

The advantages of the common school had become a realized fact, 



and the thoughts by day, and the dreams by night, were for higher 
and better things. Following thinking and dreaming, the subject 
became the theme of discussion at the social evening gatherings, till a 
crystallization of plans began to appear. At one of these friendly meet- 
ings of leading men and women in Bradford, early in March, 1803, 
education became the principal topic, and the naked question, "Why 
should not Bradford have an academy of its own?" was squarely put, 
and as squarely answered. The record of the historian is, that "as 
these people in their sleighs glided homeward that night, over the 
wild snow-banks that overlooked the Mcrrimac, and their bells jerked 
out shrill music on the keen March air, the cozy riders, wrapped com- 
fortably in homespun, had already practically founded Bradford Acad- 
emy." There was no delay ; no putting off till next year ; for the rec- 
ord says, "At a meeting of a number of the inhabitants of the First 
Parish in Bradford, March 7, 1803, It was Mutually agreed upon that 
a Building should be erected for an Academy, and the persons there 
assembled became subscribers, to defray the Charges of building said 
House, in the sums affixed to their Respective names." 

This agreement received about thirty signatures, and $1,218.80 was 
the amount of the subscriptions. To this, additions were promptly 
made, the site for the academy selected, and within three months from 
that " 7th of March Resolution," the building was completed, a precep- 
tor and preceptress engaged, the school formally opened, and the first 
term of twelve weeks completed, with fifty-one pupils. This was the 
quick and noble beginniug of a literary institution which has since 
become known in every State in the whole Union, and has become the 
alma mater of thousands who have found spheres of labor and influ- 
ence, and homes in all quarters of the world. 

In 1804, the number of pupils was increased to eighty-seven, of 
whom sixty were females. It was in this year that the institution 
was incorporated, and took its place among the educational forces in 
the Commonwealth. Brilliant as this movement really was, it was 
not unattended by perplexities and discouragements, alike shared by 
the association sustaining it, and those called to exercise the func- 
tions of teachers. The first preceptor received but eighty dollars 
and board, for a term of twelve weeks ; and the compensation of Miss 
Hannah Swau, the preceptress, was three dollars a week and her 
board. At a later time, the compensation of the principal was re- 
duced to four and a half dollars per week. 

To aid the school, an endowment was thought necessary, and the 
sum of $1,450 subscribed, though not actually paid in ; but the inter- 
est was secured b}' a sure guarantee. At times, things moved heav- 
ily ; some became cool in their support, and a discontinuation of the en- 
terprise was here and there suggested. This was the situation in 1807, 
when the warm-hearted friends rallied again, and an outside annual 
income of $72 was secured to the academy for twenty years, but was 
needed and paid for only five years, at which time the school became 
fully established and independent, among the educational institutions 
of the country. 

A great drawback to the success of the academy, was the frequent 
change of preceptors, of whom there were thirteen, whose aggregate 
administration extended from June, 1803, to December, 1814, a pe- 
riod of eleven years and six months. These men were worthy men, 
but not professional teachers, and only two of them became such. 
The compensation was not sufficiently attractive to invite to perma- 
nency of occupation, and they were attracted to other callings. Six 
of the number entered the ministry, and two became merchants. 
Change in preceptors was, of necessity, attended by change in policy 
and modes of instruction, which seriously interfered with settled plans ; 
and successive ruptures of this nature tended to weakness. 

The Rev. Samuel Walker, a native of Haverhill, was the first precep- 
tor ; his successor was Mr. Samuel Greele, a native of Wilton, N. H., 
who subsequently became a merchant. The Rev. Dr. James Flint, a 
native of Reading, was the preceptor in 1805, who was succeeded by 
the Rev. Abraham Buruham, D.D., a native of Dunbartou, N. H. He 

was a man of educational and religious mark. Following him, was 
Mr. Isaac Morrill, a native of Needham, who was followed by Samuel 
Peabody, Esq. , a native of Boxford. His successor was the Rev. Daniel 
Hardy, a native of Bradford, who was followed by the Rev. Luther Bai- 
ley, of Canton ; and he was succeeded by the Hon. Samuel Adams, of 
New Rowley, now Georgetown. Mr. Richard Kimball, of Bradford, was 
the next preceptor, and was the first and only one who had been edu- 
cated in the academy. His successor was the Rev. Eben Peck Sperry, 
of New Haven, Conn., who vacated the position for the Hon. Nathaniel 
Dike, of Beverly. After him, came Daniel Nbyes, Esq., who, in after 
years, was widely known as a druggist in Boston. He was a firm 
friend of the institution, and held position on the Board of Trustees 
twenty-four 3'ears, where his energy and prudent counsel accom- 
plished much for the success of the institution. This chapter of 
changes brings the succession down to the fourteenth and last pre- 
ceptor of the academy. 

On the 12th of December, 1814, following in the footsteps of thir- 
teen predecessors, whose united official relations had extended through 
eleven years and a half, Benjamin Greenleaf, of Haverhill, assumed the 
duties of preceptor, which he held till April 6, 1836, a period of about 
twenty-two years, when the institution ceased to be a mixed one, and 
has since been known as " The Bradford Female Academy." Mr. 
Greenleaf was afterwards principal of the Bradford Teachers' Semi- 
nary till 1848. 

Benjamin Greenleaf was a man of mark, and of peculiar parts, who 
soon attained a high reputation as a successful teacher and pioneer in 
the cause of education, and at length attained the position of a veteran 
in the work. He was born Sept. 25, 1786, and^was a descendant from 
Edmund Greenleaf, born in Englaud in 1600, and emigrating to Amer- 
ica in 1635, making his settlement in Newbury, now Newburyport, 
His father was a farmer, and was one of the patriots of Revolutionary 
days, whose attachment to the cause of American independence gave 
to it local strength and dignity. 

His early opportunities for education were very limited, but he im- 
proved them to the best advantage ; and although finally becoming a 
distinguished teacher in mathematics, he did not know the multipli- 
cation table at the age of fourteen. Though not a man excessively 
abounding in words, he possessed a peculiarity of expression which 
gave great force and point to what he said ; and he was always famous 
for his laconic and quaint expressions. 

In speaking of his early efforts to obtain an education, he once said, 
" If I ever offered up an earnest prayer, it was for rainy days, that I 
might betake myself to my books." Like Horace Greeley, instead of 
spending time in the sports usually attractive to youth, he was usually 
found on winter evenings in his study, the spacious chimney-corner of 
the farm-house, reading by firelight. His spare pennies were in- 
vested in books, in which was centred his pleasure ; and in reference 
to the accomplishments of his youth, he was accustomed to say he 
" could neither sing, swim, skate, or dance." 

In 1805, at the age of nineteen, he commenced preparation for col- 
lege at Atkinson, N.H., spending portions of each year in teaching. 
At the graduation exercises at Atkinson, in 1810, he was the valedic- 
tory orator, and one of the managers of the ball in the evening; but 
it appeal's that this amusement was not particularly attractive to him, 
for, on a subsequent occasion, he entered in his diary, "Had an invi- 
tation to a ball ; conclude it would be folly to attend." He entered 
Dartmouth College Sept. 29, 1810, and graduated in 1813. In col- 
lege he excelled in mathematics, and there calculated and sketched 
the transit of Venus, being the first to work that problem in Dart- 
mouth College. 

After his graduation he became the teacher of a grammar school in 
Haverhill, and from there passed to the preceptorship of the Bradford 
Academy, in 1814. With the entrance of Mr. Greenleaf to that 
institution, in an educational sense, his life became the life of the 
academy, while in its religious tone and tendency, its career and 



destiny was more particularly shaped by the female influences con- 
nected with it. 

When Greenleaf stepped over its threshold it was to commence 
his labors with only ten pupils, so unfavorable to growth had the pre- 
vious frequent changes in teachers been. The number iucreased to 
thirty in a few months, which was followed by constant growth, till in 
1817 it had risen to one hundred and forty-seven. The time had 
then arrived for a catalogue, which is now a curiosity of past days, it 
being "a single sheet, poster form, dull yellow, and untrimmed, 
eleven inches by eighteen." Miss Hasseltine was then preceptress, 
and of the pupils, eighty-seven were females and sixty males. 

As a teacher, Mr. Greenleaf had the elements which led to popu- 
laritv and success, and during his career had uuder his care more 
than three thousand pupils, including among them a large number 
who became eminent men, filling and adorning the highest positions 
in life. One of these, the Hon. Ira Perley, Chief Justice of the State of 
New Hampshire, has very accurately presented the characteristics of 
his preceptor. Of him he says : "His manners were not much regu- 
lated by artificial rules of politeness ; but he had, what is most impor- 
tant, great real kindness of heart, and habitual regard for the feelings 
of others. His loud voice and abrupt address were, perhaps, the more 
remarked from their contrast with the easy self-possession and calmer 
dignity of the excellent lady who presided so long over the other 

department of the school He had drilled himself, as 

well as his pupils, very faithfully in Latin and Greek books which he 
taught, and his tastes did not lead him a great way beyond. He took 
greater pleasure in solving knotty problems in mathematics than in the 

perusal of Latin or Greek classics Mr. Greenleaf was 

an uncommon genius, in the sense of having peculiarities entirely his 
own, in the structure of his mind, the contour of his head and face, 
the expression of his countenance, his utterance, his manners, his 
motions, all his ways." 

He is invariably described by all who knew him as entirely devoted 
to the business of teaching, as a good disciplinarian, and a thoroughly 
honest man, wholly incapable of disguise or false pretences, with 
moral and religious principles firmly established and made the guide 
of his life. Dr. Crowell, of Haverhill, says of him : "His discipline 
was peculiar to himself, being an odd mixture of ridicule, sarcasm, 
and moral suasion, with a wholesome seasoning of corporal punish- 
ment. This was administered, not with the conventional rod, but 
with anything at hand ; an old iron spoon, used for melting the soft 
metals, or a piece of iron or zinc. A smart rap over the knuckles 
with these formidable appliance would illustrate physics in a manner 
not taught in the books." 

It has been truly said of Mr. Greenleaf that he was more than a 
local teacher; he was a public educator. He was an early and 
efficient advocate of the normal school system, and while a member 
of the Slate Legislature, iu 1837, 1838, and 1839 was an earnest 
and enthusiastic advocate of legislative measures for the promotion of 
education, introducing orders there for a geological survey of the 
State, and also for a natural history survey. 

He was also a pioneer educator in the natural sciences by illustrated 
public lectures. As an author, he was extensively and eminently 
known, publishing works on arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonome- 
try, practical surveying, rules of syntax, and other valuable works. 
Millions of these works have been published, and have for long years 
been the text-books in the schools. His literary labors fully justify 
the statement already made, that in an educational point of view, the 
Bradford Academy was largely indebted to him for the ultimate 
triumphs it achieved. Mr. Greenleaf was a man full of purposes and 
plans, as an educator, and his vital energies endured to the last. 
With mind unimpaired, and without a struggle or groan, he passed 
over to the other shore on the twenty-ninth day of October, 1864, at 
the ripe age of 78 years. 

The retirement of Mr. Greenleaf from the academy, in 1836, closed 

the institution forever after to the admission of male pupils, and Miss 
Abigail C. Hasseltine, who had already been preceptress there for 
twenty-one years, became the principal of Bradford Female Academy. 
Since 1828, there had been an entire separation between the two 
departments, with the direction of the female department substan- 
tially in the hands of Miss Hasseltine. A sister of Miss Hasseltine 
became the wife of Dr. Adoniram Judson, and gave her life to the 
missionary enterprise in India. Her education was accomplished at 
the Bradford Academy, and at that time the religious sympathy and 
interest connected with the school all pointed in the direction of fos- 
tering the missionary spirit. A powerful revival had moved the 
hearts of many young people there, and a religious enthusiasm had 
been awakened. Many of the associates of Miss Hasseltine had been 
converted, and among them Harriet Atwood, afterwards Harriet New- 
ell, who became committed to the missionary interest. Subsequently 
the conversion of Miss Hasseltine placed her in full religious sympathy 
and interest with her associates, and the missionary spirit, of neces- 
sity, became the ruling religious thought which surrounded this 
literary institution. 

The decided religious character of the school was favorable to its 
success, at that time, and it grew strong with the advance of years. 
The remarkable executive ability of Miss Hasseltine, united with 
excellent qualities as a teacher, commanded the confidence of the 
patrons of the school, and its success became fully established. The 
old academy had become unequal to the practical wants of the institu- 
tion, and a new Academy Hall was erected and consecrated to the 
purposes of Christian education on the 15th of April, 1841. In 
1853, the semi-centennial was celebrated, which drew together many 
of its friends from abroad to enjoy the jubilee, which concluded with 
a banquet, at which fifteen hundred were gathered. In 1848, Miss 
Hasseltine resigned her position as principal, and was succeeded by 
Miss Ellison, but returned again in 1849, on the resignation of Miss 
Ellison, beiug associated with Miss Crocker as assistant principal. 
In 1852, however, the principal retired again, and was succeeded by 
Miss Crocker, who soon resigned; and her place was filled by Miss 
Gilman, who held the position till 1858. The next principal was Miss 
Abby Hasseltine Johnson, having sole management, but associated 
with Miss Hasseltine as honorary principal, at liberty to come and go 
at pleasure. In 1866, a re-union of the friends of the academy took 
place, at which it became certain that a new academy would be built 
for the accommodation of the increasing number of pupils; and 
measures were at once taken to secure the necessary funds for its con- 
struction. The subscriptions were liberal, and the preparatory work 
was at once entered upon. Iu the meantime, the venerable and beloved 
principal began to show signs of sinking beneath the infirmities of 
age and the burden of years ; and in June, 1866, she was thrown 
from a carriage, by which she sustained severe injury upon the head, 
from which she never fully recovered, though able to participate in 
the pleasures of the re-union. Infirmity and disease, however, had 
gained fast hold upon her, and on the thirteenth day of January, 
1868, she passed to her repose, at the age of eighty years, after having 
been connected with the academy as preceptress and principal for full 
fifty years, exerting a measure of influence which can never be fully 
estimated. From an intimate acquaintance with her for many years, 
her physician, Dr. George Cogswell, said of her, "Without any hesi- 
tation, I place Miss A. C. Hasseltine among the remarkable women 
of the world." 

In 1869, the new academy and dormitory was completed, and dedi- 
cated in May, 1870, the occasion being one of great rejoicing by its 
friends and patrons. Its location is near the centre of the town, upon 
an eligible swell of land, containing about twenty-five acres, twelve 
acres of which are covered by a thrifty growth of wood, forming a 
beautiful park ; and the remaining portion being embraced iu a mag- 
nificent esplanade, stretching its slope from the edifice to the verge 
of the street, where it reaches a solid granite face-wall, extending 



along the whole front line. At the entrance to the grounds on 
either side, are massive granite posts, three feet square, composed of 
Cape Ann, Concord, and Nova Scotia granite; and fountains are 
distributed through the grounds. 

The edifice is two hundred and sixteen feet in its front line, in 
shape cruciform, and four stories high. In its construction it is finely 
adapted for its intended use, and is supplied with all the appoint- 
ments which belong to an establishment of this character. The 
grounds have already been extensively improved and adorned. From 
its site is a fidl view of the entire city of Haverhill, and of the Mer- 
rimac valley for many miles, presenting a picturesque and charming 

Till 1875, Miss Abbie H. Johnson remained as the principal, when 
she resigned. Her successor and present principal, Miss Annie E. 
Johnson, is successfully conducting the institution. Dr. George 
Cogswell has for forty years or more been intimately connected" with 
the management of its business affairs, and was chairman of the build- 
ing committee for the erection of the hall in 1841, and for the dormi- 
tory in 1869. 

The fame of this institution is wide-spread ; and for many years it 
was the leading female academy in New Eugland, and now stands in 
successful competition with the institutions of a similar character 
which have made their appearance in later years. Its influence upon 
the educational interests of the town has also been highly beneficial. 

In 1821, Merrimac Academy was established in the East Parish, 
which has also had a successful career. The division of the town in 
1850 transferred this to Groveland, which then become the new town. 
That and other interests whose history stretches back to the time 
when the two communities were one, will be noticed more at length 
in the sketch of that town. A post-office was established here in 



The early history of Bradford is invested with the peculiar interest 
surrounding nearly all colonial towns, though its record may not 
be so full of thrilling events as communities more exposed during the 
days of Indian invasion. The river was a protection, the skulking 
savage preferring to make his dashes where there was an opportunity 
to retreat, without exposure to the cover of the wilderness. Fear and 
solicitude, however, continually surrounded the people, and they 
occasionally suffered from their murderous invasion. 

On the 3d of May, 1676, immediately after an attack upon Haver- 
hill, the house of Thomas Kimball of this town was attacked, and 
Kimball killed. Mrs. Kimball and five children were taken captives. 
Their names were Joanna, Thomas, Joseph, Priscilla, and John. 
This house was situated on the Boxford road, aud the site, with indi- 
cations of the cellar, may yet be traced. Mrs. Kimball and her chil- 
dren were afterwards liberated, through the influence of Wannalancet, 
chief of the Pennacooks, who were friendly to the English, though 
Mrs. Kimball, with her nursing infant, was twice condemned by 
their captors to be burnt, and the fires lighted for their torture and 

This outrage was committed by three converted Indians. 8ymon, 
Andrew, and Peter. The tradition is, that their inteution was to kill 
somebody in Rowley, whom they claimed had injured them; but, the 
night being tar spent, they abandoned their purpose, and, instead. 
perpetrated a slaughter in Bradford. Symon was the leader, being 
very bloodthirsty aud revengeful. He openly threatened the life of 
Mrs. Kimball if she ever returned to her home, which led her to 
petition the Governor and Council for the protection that would en- 
sure her safety. 

This is the principal historic record of Indian brutality within the 
township of Bradford; but. in common with all the colonial settle- 
ments, the inhabitants shared in the fears and solicitude which were 
constant attendants upon frontier life, and there was an ever-ready 
co-operation in supplying men for common defence against the skulk- 
ing and murderous invaders. The record by Winthrop, as contained 
in Gage's history of Rowley is, that "Sept. 1, 1642. by warrant to 
Ipswich, Rowley, and Newbury, to disarm Passaconamy, who lived 
near Merrimack River, they sent forth forty men. armed, the next day, 
it being Lord's day. But it rained all day. as it had done divers days 
before, and also after; so they could not go to his wigwam, but they 
came to his son's, and took him. which they had warrant for. They, 
fearing the son's escape, led him in a line; but lie, taking an oppor- 
tunity, slipped his line, and escaped from them. The warrant was 
issued because there was suspicion of a general conspiracy of Indians 
against the English. Each soldier received one shilling per day, 
(Lord's day included, on account of the extremety of the weather,) 
and the officers double. The}' were out three day-." 

Bradford then being embraced in the township of Rowley, was in- 
cluded in that call ; and, doubtless, some of the inhabitants on the 
"Merrimac lands" participated in that scout, as they also did in other 
armed marches and conflicts for the common defence ; but, the com- 
munity escaping from any general massacre, and there is a leanness in 
the record of what was done, and of the participators in the service. 

It was the policy with every town to purchase the land of the 
Indians, and take a deed therefor. That was done by Rowley, but 
the instrument was lost, and does not appear in any existing record. 
An Indian deed exists of the town of Bradford, bearing date Jan- 
uary 30, 1700, and recorded April 13, 1702. This deed is very loug 
and explicit, and is to be found entire in Gage's history of Rowley, 
duly signed by three Indians, Samuel English, Joseph English, and 
John Vmpce, and attested to by Nathaniel Saltonstall, Justice of the 
Peace of Haverhill, and Dudley Bradstreet, Justice of the Peace of 

The action of the town, in reference to this purchase of the Indians, 
is as follows : " Att a Legall meeting of y e proprietors of Bradford, 
in y e 23 of November, 1700, Ensign John Teuney was first chosen 
Moderator : he appointed 3 men to treat w' \ Englishmen and Indians 
if they come, concerning y* title of our land. Y" 3 men were to voat 
singly, namely Insign Baly, Corporall Richard Kimball, and John 
Bointon, and they all passed on y c affirmatives. Afterwards, at y* 
same meeting added to v c former Three, Insign Tenny and Phillip 
At wood. y° Proprietors gave them full power to act in behalf of y" 
town, according to their best Judguv*, or any thereof of them. On 
the same day. y e 23 d of Noveml/, 1700, there was a discourse how y* 
charges should be defrayed y* miaht arise as to purchasing of v° 
heathen, if need were, and also y* charges as to y e committee for their 
expenses of his. was put to voat, if y e charges should not be laid on 
every man's* land according to his proportion of land as Wilderness 
land, and it passed on y' affirmative, y* so y e Charges should arise. 

"The Town Clerk being absent, y e Proprietors then chose me to 
write w' they did act. 

"Exam J pr Step. Sewall, Record". 
"Essex, ss. Registry of Deeds, Sept. 10, A. D. 1840. 

"The foregoing is a true copy of record, Book 15, Leaf 136. Ac. 

R Att. R. H. French, Register, by D. Pulsifer 3V 

Immediately following the harassing times with the frontier settlers, 
by the invasion from small bands of Indians, came the more formid- 
able hostilities, by the combined forces of French and Indians, to 
resist which every town was required to bear its share of the burden 
and peril, the effect of which was to continue the distress and anxiety 
which all shared. This state of things was succeeded by the French 
War. in which every town had a common interest. In 1755. a 
company was raised in Bradford, under command of Capt. William 
Kimball, which marched to Stillwater, N. Y., all of whom, after 

performing all the service required of them, returned to their homes 
in safety. 

Next following those days of conflict came the stirring ones of the 
Revolution, in which the patriotic people of this town bore prompt 
and honorable part. Early in the struggle, the people of this thinly 
populated town, numbering less than a thousand, and scattered over 
eight miles of territory, began to hold meetings for deliberation and 
conference. The first one on record was held in the West meeting- 
house, January 7, 1773, to see what instructions they could give to 
their representative in General Court, and to consider the correspond- 
ence from the committee of the town of Boston. Capt. Daniel 
Thurston was then the town representative, and he was instructed in 
the name of His Majesty to "use his influence to obtain redress of all 
grievances, and in particular to enquire whether the support of the 
Judges of the Superior Court had been adequate to their services, 
offices, and station ; if not, to use your influence in obtaining suitable 
grants and establishments, as may be thought sufficient to remove all 
pretence that government is not supported among ourselves, — which 
was voted unanimously." 

Their next vote was to constitute Dudley Carleton, William Grccn- 
ough, Benjamin Gage, Jr., Thomas Webster, and Amos Mulliken a 
committee of correspondence with the Boston committee. There was 
no uncertain sound in what they said, and no hesitancy of action. 
Although still holding the attitude of loyal subjects, while asking for 
just government, there was no Tori/ spirit exhibited. They were jealous 
of their liberties, and were not backward in measures to maintain 
them. Events iruoved rapidly, and resort to arms was soon anticipated. 
To meet that emergency, on the 17th of May, 1773, they voted to 
build a powder-house, and provide "six barrels of powder, with 
bullets and Hints proportionable." In 1774 more ammunition was 
provided, though none had yet been used, and the enlistment of 
minute-men commenced. 

While these men were being drilled, the town provided them with 
equipments; and "bayonets which thought" were the ones in use 
about that time. Frequent town meetings were held, alternately at 
the East and West parishes, to hear reports of committees, vote 
supplies, and indulge in encouraging debate. The cry of distress 
from the poor of Boston, while under British siege, was heard by this 
people, and responded to by aid. 

At length the crisis came, with the notes of battle sounding from 
Lexington and Concord, and they began to realize that the powder, 
which they had been "seasoning" for two years, would soon be called 
for. On the 23d of May, 1775, the first town meeting, after hostil- 
ities had commenced, was held, and the appeal to the town for aid 
considered. Supplies to the army were voted, and deserters from the 
Provincial army instructed to be reported to the county committee, 
unless they returned to duty. 

Soon following Lexington was the battle of Bunker Hill, in which 
Capt. Nathaniel Gage, with a company of forty men from this town, 
took prominent part, and, though in a much exposed position, prov- 
identially escaped without the loss of a single life. This company 
was regarded as oue of the best disciplined and most effective of any 
engaged in that memorable contest, having been disciplined and in- 
structed in military tactics by an English deserter. The heart of their 
commander was also in the work, and he is said to have already given 
one-half of his property to aid the cause. 

The impending events had completely fired the hearts of the inhabi- 
tants, and all their pulsations were in harmony with the cause of the 
patriots. The town-meetings were frequent and the minds of all 
were in singular harmony. Votes were frequent and free, for raising 
money for the support of the cause, for the supply of ammunition, 
and to encourage the enlistment of men. On the 4th of January, 
1775, Capt. Daniel Thurston was chosen to represent the town in the 
Provincial Congress, at Cambridge, which was to be held on the first 
of February. At that meeting it was voted that the constable pay 

the province money to Henry Gardner, of Stow, instead of to His 
Majesty's treasurer at Boston, which was a practical separation from 
the parent government. Trade in articles subject to taxation was 
interdicted, and Benjamin Gage, Jr., Thomas Webster, Peter Russell, 
John Burbank, Dudley Carleton, Capt. Eliphalet Hardy, and Dea. 
Thomas Kimball were chosen a committee of inspection in relation to 

Particular attention was given to raising minute-men, and to en- 
couraging them in the service. They were required to train one-half 
day in each week, and were voted one shilling each for a drill of three 
hours. They were to be provided with bayonets and cartouch 
boxes, at town cost, and each man paid one dollar for his billeting 
when called to march ; and seven dollars a month when in actual ser- 
vice. At a later time the minute-men were instructed to drill two 
half days in each week, and belts and scabbards were added to their 

On the 15th of March it was voted to pay Capt. Benjamin Gage for 
a fire-raft to take to Newburyport, which indicated their intention to 
operate on the water as well as the land. In addition to their votes 
providing men, ammunition, and money to aid the cause, there soon 
came declarations of principle which show that their thought and 
determination of spirit were in complete harmony with the men who 
were leading the Colonies up from the position of dependencies upon 
the Crown, to that of independence and nationality. 

On the 20th of June, 1776, a town-meeting was held to consider 
the recent action of the House of Representatives, passed on the 10th, 
declaring these united Colonies independent States. A committee 
was appointed, consisting of Thomas Webster, John Burbank, Capt. 
Nathaniel Gage, Benj. Muzzy and John Savory, who made an able 
report, addressed to Dudley Carleton, Esq., representative of the 
town of Bradford in the General Assembly, reviewing the despotic 
plan of the king, ministry, and Parliament of Great Britain, to en- 
slave the American Colonies, and concluding with the following: 
'Therefore, utterly despairing of a happy reconciliation ever taking 
place between Great Britain and the Colonies, you are herby desired 
as our Representative, to use your utmost endeavors that our dele- 
gates in General Congress be instructed to shake off the tyranical 
yoke of Great Britain and declare these United Colonies independent 
of that venal, corrupt and avaricious Court, forever, provided no pro- 
posals for a happy reconciliation be offered which the Hon. Congress 
think proper to accept; and we hereby engage that we will, at the 
risk of our lives and fortunes, endeavor to support them therein." 

At another meeting in October, 1776, the subject of a Constitution 
to govern the Province, which had already thrown off the British Gov- 
ernment, was up for consideration. Jealous of their rights as a 
people who had just declared themselves free and independent, they 
objected to the adoption of an organic law they were not permitted 
to first consider and pass upon, and requested the "Council and House 
of Representatives, each acting in their respective capacities, to draft 
a form of government for this State, and present attested copies 
thereof to the several towns for their inspection and approbation 
before it is ratified and confirmed." 

Not long after this the cause began to look gloomy and discourag- 
ing, but these patriots never lost their hearts. The few who had not 
heartily endorsed the cause of the resisting Colonies began to show 
signs of active opposition, and much was feared from the internal 
enemies of the colonial cause. A meeting was held on the 19th of 
May, 1777, and another on the 5th of June following, to adopt meas- 
ures of protection against the " machinations of internal foes." An 
adjourned meeting was held on the 26th of June, at which decisive 
action was taken, by choosing Abraham Day, Jr., as a committee to 
procure evidence against all such as were acting and combining 
against the cause of independence. From this time the public senti- 
ment became intense against those animated by a Tory spirit, and most 
of them left the country for homes in the British dominions. 




Whatever may have been the feelings of discouragement or dis- 
pondency possessing the hearts of individuals in this town, during 
the long and severe struggle for American independence, it is certain 
that such feelings never found expression in any vote of the town at 
the numerous meetings held for deliberation and action. More than 
fifty of these meetings were held, nearly all of which were marked by 
important and harmonious deliberation. Sept. 23d. the town voted to 
expend £41 15*. 2d. for gun-locks, lead, flints. Arc. ; also to pay £14 
for each soldier drafted from the militia. Oct. 11, 1770, voted £1,905 
to hire ten men to join Gen. Washington's army in New York; June 
12, 1780, voted to raise £12,527 to defray town charges in hiring 
twenty men for the Continental Army for six months ; also nineteen 
men to serve in the militia for three months. Following this, Oct. 12, 
1780, they voted to raise £43,844 12s. fit?, to defray town charges. 
Immediately following this was a call from the State for 10,750 
pounds of beef for the army. In December following, Bradford was 
again called to furnish 20.G42 pounds of beef for the use of the 
army. This call was responded to on Jau. 3, 1781, by a vote rais- 
ing the sum of £61,926 with which to purchase the beef. 

In less than six months, as shown by the recorded votes, the town 
voted to raise over £100,000 to defray the expenses of the war. De- 
preciation in the currency was then a calamity, as it has since proved 
to be under a state of war. For some reason not mentioned, the 
record shows that instead of supplying the beef the town voted to pay 
the money, which they did at the rate of $4.50 per pound, so low had 
the currency fallen in value at that time. 

The close of the Revolutionary struggle found Bradford firm and 
true to the colonial cause, in her words, votes, and deeds. The feel- 
ing of contempt for those who left the country during the war, or who 
conspired against it, or in any way gave ''aid and comfort" to the 
enemy, was intense, and by vote of the town the representative was 
instructed to use his best efforts to prevent all such from returning 
to again find homes in this Commonwealth. From worthy sires has 
descended a line in whose hearts the spirit of freedom has dwelt, and 
in whom a will to maintain the right has ever been supreme. 

The next occasion for a manifestation of patriotic devotion to coun- 
try, was in the war of 1812, upon which there was more of a pro- 
nounced division of opinion in the country, as to the necessity of the 
war, than existed before that date or has existed since. In that hour, 
when the temper and tone of the people were tested, there is nothing 
in the history of this town reflecting upon its integrity and patriotism. 
and if at times party strife may have been instrumental in producing 
an apparent division of feeling, purpose, and desire, it all ended in 
honorable position and action, and unflinching support of the govern- 

In the later and more important conflict of arms, when the North 
and the South became arrayed against each other in deadly conflict, the 
aim of those appearing in open revolt against the fairly expressed will 
of the majority, being clearly directed to destroy the government 
and the Union, there was not a single moment of halting or hesitation 
on the part of the people of this ancient town ; but in every word and 
act a disposition was shown to " keep step to the music of the Union," 
and to vote men and money as both were called for. Referring to this, 
the orator on the centenuial occasion, Harrison E. Chad wick, Esq., 
remarked: "There were some, indeed, who stood aloof, and some 
who openly opposed the measures taken to preserve the Union. But 
their opposition was weak amid the great outburst of popular feeling 
for the cause of the right and the freedom of the oppressed. This 
feeling was put into active operation by the enlistment of volunteers, 
and the furnishing of supplies immediately, on the first armed opposi- 
tion to the government." 

The first official act of the town, in preparation for the events of the 
war of the Rebellion, was to provide for the families of soldiers who 
might volunteer, or be called into the service. At a meeting of the 
town, April 26, 1861, the sum of one thousand dollars was voted to 

be used for the benefit of soldiers thus enlisting and serving. In the 
distribution of this money, E. F. Brigdon and George Johnson were 
chosen to act with the selectmen. It was also voted that no soldier 
receiving aid from the town shall, for that cause, be subject to any 
disability as a citizen. 

The selectmen were fully authorized to borrow money necessary to 
furnish State aid to the families of volunteers, in conformity with the 
laws of the Commonwealth. On the 21st of July, 1862, the selectmen 
were directed to " raise money to pay each person now resident of 
Bradford, who shall enlist and be accepted within three weeks, the 
sum of one huudred and fifty dollars in addition to all other bounty 
and pay," payable when the volunteer is accepted and mustered in. 
They were also authorized to borrow money to aid the widows and 
children, living in the town, of volunteers who have died in the service 
of their country. August 19th, a bounty of two hundred dollars was 
authorized to each volunteer who shall enlist for nine months' service, 
and be mustered in, and credited to the quota of the town. December 
16th, authority was given to fill the quota of the town by enlisting 
volunteers either for three years or nine months " not paying over two 
hundred dollars to each man." 

In 1863 there was a succession of votes as the wauts of the town 
called for, authorizing the raising of money, aud the issue of town- 
bonds for the payment of aid to the families of deceased soldiers. In 
addition, the bounties for twenty- men were raised by private sub- 

In 1864, all necessary sums were voted for war purposes aud the 
payment of a bounty of one huudred and twenty-five dollars to en- 
listed men. The filling of the quotas, as they were called, was a mat- 
ter of popular interest, and on the 20th of August a unanimous vote 
of thanks was passed to the selectmen "for their energy and success 
in filling the quota of the town."' The matter of returning the bodies 
of soldiers, falling or dying in the service, paying transit charges aud 
funeral expenses, was left to the discretion of the selectmen. 

The history of Massachusetts in the civil war shows that this town 
had a surplus of men in the service "over and above all demands, of 
thirty-one at the end of the war," which indicates that 167 men were 
furnished. Four of the number were commissioned officers, and the 
graves of thirty-one fallen sous are annually decorated. The town 
appropriated and expended $22,149.42 on account of the war. In 
addition to this amount, $8,756.63 were raised by private subscrip- 
tion, making in all $30,906.05. Besides these amounts, $11,915.03 
were paid out for State aid. to the families of volunteers, which was 
afterwards refunded by the Commonwealth. The war debt of the 
town was sometime ago extinguished. 

In measures of relief, the ladies of the town were faithful and en- 
thusiastic workers. Their large sewing-circle was in practical har- 
mony with the Haverhill organization, and the two constituted the 
- ldiers' Relief Society of Haverhill and Bradford.*' In supplying 
comfortable articles for the sick and wounded, their labors were 
unceasing so long as any demand for them existed. 

The war selectmen were, in 1861, Richard Hazeltine, Samuel W. 
Hopkinson, Leverett Kimball; in 1862, Edmund Kimball, John 
Perley, Samuel W. Hopkinson ; in 1863, Samuel Hopkinson, Wulter 
Goodell, Nathaniel Carleton ; in 1864 aud 1865, Charles B. Emerson, 
John Perley, A. Judson Day. The town clerk, during the whole 
time, was Nathaniel Hatch. The town treasurer in 1861, and till 
August 19, 1862, was William Tenney, and from that time during 
the remainder of the war period, and still longer, Harry M. Towle. 
Among the men who, by discreet counsel, encouraging words, and 
liberality of purse were constant in aid of the loyal cause, were Hon. 
George Cogswell, the Internal Revenue Collector for the Essex dis- 
trict, and Hon. Henry Carter, who was represented in the field by 
four sons. Such is the record made by this town in sustaining the 
government of the country through the most gigantic sanguinary 
conflict which is spread upon the history of modern times. 



Upon the recurrence of the one hundredth anniversary of the 
"Declaration of Independence by the United States of America," 
liberal arrangements were made for its celebration by the town of 
Bradford in a manner becoming so important a national event. The 
demonstration was on a liberal and impressive scale, the principal 
exercises taking place in the newly hud-out park on the grounds of the 
Bradford Academy, the Hon. George Cogswell being the president of 
the day, and Harrison E. Chadwick, Esq., the orator of the ccasioo. 

Within a few years increased interest has been shown in agricult- 
ure, and much improvement has been shown in modes of farming, 
resulting in an increase in the amount and value of products. Con- 
siderable attention has also been given to the improvement of stock. 
Many valuable cattle and blooded horses are owned there. In 1875 

a Farmers' Club was organized, which has sustained public meetings 
for discussion and for lectures during the winter months, and an- 
nually brings the whole people together for a show of products 
and an autumn festival. The first president was Warren Ordway ; 
Secretary, William Hilton ; Treasurer, George W. Ladd. The pres- 
ent presiding officer is Albert Kimball, with the same secretary and 

The Washington hotel has been kept by its present landlord, D. C. 
Knowles, forty years, thirty-three years of which it has been con- 
ducted on strictly temperance principles. Within these pages are 
presented the leading features in the local history of Bradford, which 
have necessarily been much condensed. The historic material, re- 
corded and traditional, is still abundant. 




For a considerable period prior to the year 1752, there had been a 
growing feeling of discontent between the yeomanry and husbandmen 
of Salem Village and the wealthy merchants and traders of the First 
or Harbor Parish. The farmers of the Middle Parish, and what was 
known as the Village, objected to travelling the great distance between 
their abodes and the First Parish in Salem, which was required when- 
ever it became necessary to hold a town-meeting, or other public dis- 
cussion of public affairs. The dwellers in the First Parish were, for 
the must part, engaged in commerce, and undoubtedly enjoyed a 
greater share of this world's goods than fell to their brethren of the 
other or inland parishes, the most of whom were thrifty farmers and 
tillers of the soil. Their tastes were naturally not kindred, and there 
appears to have been a spirit of rivalry between the two, which engen- 
dered many disputes : for the one profession, with its vast sources of 
income and spirit of venturesome speculation, proved a quicker means 
of wealth than the other, with its hard and manly toil. But without 
detriment to the patriotism of the merchants of Salem, it may be said 
that from the latter class was recruited that sturdy democracy, from 
whence, subsequently, sprang the Republic. 

These differences culminated, in 1752, in a division of the parishes. 
January 28th of that year, an Act establishing the district of Danvers 
was passed by the General Assembly, which was substantially as fol- 
lows : — 

"Anno Begni, Regis Georgius Secundi. 

"Whereas the town of Salem is very large, and the inhabitants of 
the middle parishes so called live at a great distance from the First 
parish in Salem, where the publick affairs are transacted, and also from 
the grammar school in the First parish, and whereas the inhabitants 
of the First parish, are merchants, traders and mechanics, and those 
of the middle parishes chiefly husbandmen, from whence many dis- 
putes have arisen. 

"Be it enacted. That that portiou of the town of Salem, which now 
constitutes the Village and Middle parishes, be erected into a sepa- 
rate and distinct district by the name of Danvers." 

It was further stipulated, that the said inhabitants of this district, 
thus set off, "shall do the dutys, that are required and enjoyned on 
other towns, and enjoy all the privileges, which they enjoy, except 
that of separately chusiog and sending one or more Representatives at 
the General Assembly. "' 

This Act was read several times and passed, to be enacted January 
25, 1752, receiving the signature of T. Hubbard, Speaker. January 
28, 1752, it was signed by J. Willard, Secretary of the Council, and 
on the same day received the signature and consent of Lieutenant- 
Governor Phips. 

Under this Act, Daniel Eppes, a justice of the peace, and the village' 
schoolmaster, was authorized to warn and summon certain of the free- 
holders to meet together for the purpose of fixing the time for calling 
the first town-meeting. Jonathan Kettle, Malachi Feltou, Jasper 
Needham. Samuel King, David Putnam, Xathan Proctor, Joseph Os- 
borne, Daniel Gardner, Jonathan Buxton, John Proctor, Thomas 
Flint, Cornelius Tarbell, James Putnam, Samuel Flint, and James 
Prince, being thus warned, held a meeting, and on the 18th of Febru- 

ary, 1752, caused the first town warrant to be issued, under the hand 
and seal of Daniel Eppes. By this warrant. Xathan Proctor was 
notified, in His Majesty's name, to warn and give notice to ye free- 
holders and other inhabitants lawfully qualified to vote, that they 
meet and assemble at the First Parish meeting-house for the purpose 
of holding a town-meeting on the fourth day of March, 1752. The 
meeting, thus called, was held on the day appointed. Daniel Eppes, 
Esq., was chosen moderator; Dauiel Eppes, Jr., Esq., town clerk; 
and James Prince, town treasurer. Seven selectmen were chosen : four 
from the First Parish, and three from the Second Parish. They 
were Daniel Eppes, Jr., Esq., Capt. Samuel Flint, Dea. Cornelius 
Tarbell, Mr. Stephen Putnam, Mr. Samuel King, Mr. Daniel Gard- 
ner, and Mr. Joseph Putnam. This body also constituted the board 
of assessors and overseers of the poor. There were also four consta- 
bles chosen : David Goodale and Samuel White from the First Parish, 
and Roger Derby and Jonathan Twiss from the Second Parish. Be- 
sides these officers, thei-e were elected five tithing-men, surveyors of 
highways, two clerks of ye "markett," four men to see to the preser- 
vation of alewives in the town brooks aud streamlets, and a man to 
take care that "the laws relating to ye preservation of the deer be 

Danvers was then a charming rural hamlet of from five to seven 
hundred souls — a typical New England farming town, divided into 
hills and dales, with here and there a patch of sombre woodland, to 
add to the beauty of the landscape. It is not believed, however, that 
there was anything like a forest in that locality at that time, the town 
bavins been settled for more than a hundred years. 

The selectmen were empowered to agree with the town of Salem as 
to the proportion of the poor belonging to the new district then in 
Salem almshouse, to settle the number and take care of them as they 
thought best, and to report at an adjourned meeting. 

This meeting was adjourned until the eighteenth of the same month. 
On that day, the freeholders again assembled, and voted to raise £200 
in lawful money to defray the charges of the district aud county tax, 
exclusive of highways, and an additional sum of £150 for the cost of 
the latter. The selectmen were to settle with the town of Salem as 
to the amount of school money, and were also empowered to agree 
with some person to keep a grammar school in the district, thus show- 
ing the early importance attached to the necessity of education. There 
were, at this time, four schools in the district. It was voted to warn 
the freeholders of future meetings by posting notices on the meeting- 
house doors in both parishes. 

This meeting, as stated, was held in the First Parish meeting-house, 
which was located on what had beeu known as '' Watch-house Hill," 
at what is now Danvers Centre. 

The hill took its name from the watch-house built upon its summit, 
— a log structure used as a place of observation, and also of refuge 
and defence during Indian attacks. This watch-house stood upon the 
northern brow of the hill, within what is now known as the Parsonage 
pasture, and about twenty-live rods from the meeting-house, which 
occupied the site of the present First Parish church, although facing to 
the north, upon the "Old Meeting-house Road." The building was 
erected in 1701, and was the second edifice occupied as a place of 

The territory comprised in what was at this time (1752) known as 
Salem Village, was originally set off and defined for parish purposes 
by conditional assent of the town of Salem, and authority from the 



General Court or Assembly, Oct. 8, 1672. There were settlers upon 
it as early as 1632 or 1633, although it was not until 1635 that steps 
were taken to plant a formal settlement in the village. The original 
bounds of the village parish commenced at the " wooden bridge'' at 
the head of Endicott or Cow-House River, afterwards called Waters 
River, near what is now known as Felton's Corner, and ran in a gen- 
erally north-easterly direction across the head of Crane River, cross- 
ing Frost-fish Brook to the Horse Bridge, so called, on the Wenham 
line, a point just beyond Alford, now Cherry Hill, which was included 
in the territory. From thence it ran in a general north-westerly 
direction, with slight deviations, following the present boundary be- 
tween Danvcrs and Wenham to the Topstield line. Thence, turning 
south-west across Smith's Hill and Nichols Brook, to the Ipswich or 
Great River, the line traversed nearly the same boundary as now 
established, and passing in the same general direction across the river, 
it continued until it met the river again at a point near the north- 
western corner of Peabody, and from here it followed about the pres- 
ent course of the Peabody boundary on the Lynnfield border to a 
point, at that time known as the "Seven Men's Bound," near the pres- 
ent village of Brookdale. From here the line turned eastward, 
through the middle of the pond to Felton's Corner, at the wooden 
bridge, the point of beginning. 

In the year 1710, the Second or South Parish was established for 
the maintenance of preaching, comprising in a large part the territory 
now included in the town of Peabody. This tract did not include 
what was then known as the New Mills, now Danversport, nor that 
portion of Royall Side, Beverly, now included in the present limits 
of Danvers. It included a large proportion of the present town of 
Middletou, then known as " Bcllingham's Grant," which was added 
at the request of its owners, and more especially upon the petition 
of one Bray Wilkins, who desired it for public reasons, and because 
of his wish to be included in the Salem church, and within the limits 
of Salem. At the town-meeting, held March 4, 1753, a committee 
was chosen to set the line between the town of Salem and the district 
of Danvers, the line to commence on Trask's Plain, so called, and 
running from thence to Trask's Mills, taking in said mills, and thence 
running northerly, through the North Fields, to the Great Cove in 

On the 7th of May, 1753, "It was agreed between Ichabod Plaisted, 
Benjamin Pickering, Joseph Bowditeh, Timothy Pickering, Thorndike 
Proctor, Jonathan Gardner, John Gardner and Abraham Watson, on 
behalf of the town of Salem, on the one part, and Daniel Eppes Jr, 
Thomas Flint, Samuel Holton, Samuel King, David Putnam, John 
Proctor, and Jasper Needham, on behalf of the district of Danvers 
on the other ; that the fixed boundary line between the said town 
and the district from ye Great Cove, so called, in North Fields, to 
Trask's Plain, shall be and remain as follows : Beginning at a stake 
standing in the lower part of the thatch bank at ye northerly part 
or point of Peter's Neck, so called, owned or claimed by Joshua Orne 
of Marblehead, by the cove aforesaid, and running south a little 
westerly eighteen poles to a stake and stones five feet west of a 
Red Oak on Oriie's land, and thence westerly ending a little to the 
eastward of Trask's grist mill, and from the end of that line running 
southerly to the eastermost elm tree on said plain, [probably the 
present great tree on Boston Street, Salem,] and by the northerly 
side of the highway, there called the Boston road, leaving the grist 
mills within said district. The several stakes and bound trees on 
this line shall be marked with a Marking iron." 

The origin of the name Danvers, as applied to this territory, is a 
matter of conjecture, and will probably never be definitely deter- 
mined. The word itself is D'Anvers, meaning in the French tongue, 
Antwerp, of Belgium. There was, too, at the time, a noble family of 
England by the name of Danvers, who were of considerable promi- 
nence ; and there is a theory that the farmers of Salem Village came 
originally from the vicinity of their estates in the mother country. 

But the later and more probable theory is, that the name was given in 
honor ot Sir Danvers Osborne, the governor of New York in 1753. 
With the establishment of the new bounds, the New Mills became a 
portion of the district, and its people united themselves with the First 
Parish. The acquisition was a valuable one, for extensive manufact- 
ures were carried on here, and also the business of ship-building. 

The first tax was levied upon the inhabitants of the district, June 
19, 1752. The surveyors of highways were ordered, in his majesty's 
name, to collect tax of ye several persons, his or her proportion, for 
the cost of the highways. Those who wished, were allowed to work 
out their proportion upon the roads, each man to be allowed two shil- 
lings and eightpence per day for his labor, the value of the labor by 
hoys and teams " to be set by the surveyors." Should any person fail 
to pay his tax, either in money or labor, they were authorized to dis- 
train his goods and chattels ; and then if not paid, "ye distress, or 
distresses, were to be exposed openly at an outcry for payment," no- 
tice of such sale being duly posted. " For want of goods and chat- 
tels," the order ran, "you are to seize ye bodies of ye person or per- 
sons, and commit them to the common gaol, there to remain until the 
amounts of distress are satisfied, or until the Court of General Ses- 
sions shall order any part of the taxes abated." 

At the commencement of the year 1755, a movement was set on 
foot looking to a general union of all the English governments and 
Colonies in America. This, perhaps, may have been the first germ of 
the desire among the colonists to erect an independent government, 
which subsequently found fulfilment in the great struggle of twenty 
years later. The " farmers " of Danvers, although imbued to a re- 
markable degree with the spirit of true independence, as evinced by 
all their acts from the time of their separation from Salem, down to 
the present, were not inclined to look with favor upon this early 
movement, and at a special town-meeting held in the North Parish 
meeting-house (as the First Parish was now called), February 3, 1755, 
Daniel Eppes, Jr., Esq., named in the records as the town's represen- 
tative, was instructed to use his utmost endeavors to prevent the 
plans for such a union " from taking effect in the Great and General 
Court." He was also to oppose any other plans of union that he 
should think would be an infringement on ye liberty and privileges 
of the people of this district. At the same meeting, Mr. Eppes was 
empowered to prefer a petition to the General Court, that the District 
of Danvers be erected into a township. The Act of incorporation only 
gave it district rights as a district, but the final organization of the 
town, including the rights of representation in the General Court, 
which were denied in the Act of incorporation, was completed June 
16, 1757. The bounds between Danvers and Wenham were renewed 
and fixed April 23, 1754. The line between Danvers and Beverly, 
from Frost-fish Brook to Salt River, and by its side to where it comes 
out opposite ye Great Cove, was fixed on the same date ; and within 
the same month the Topstield and Middletou bounds were definitely 
settled. The Lynn line, running by Otter-hole Brook, and through 
Humphrey's Pond, was established May 13, 1754. 

The history of the ancient roads in Danvers, is of considerable local 
interest, many of them being the cause of many a bitter contest and 
protracted struggles. The oldest highway, is that known as the "Old 
Ipswich Road," which dates from 1630. It was uot laid out, however, 
by the General Court, till 1643. The original road from Salem to 
A ndover, crossed the brook at " Hadlock's Bridge," near the present 
carpet-factory in Tapleyville, and followed the line of Pine Street, 
turning upon Hobart Street at the residence of S. Walter Nourse ; 
the latter highway is the " Old Meeting-house Road." From here it 
passed westerly to " lugersoll's Corner," by the present First Parish 
meeting-house, and thence along the line of Centre Street, past the 
house of Joel Kimball, keeping what is now an untravelled way to 
the " Log Bridge " over Ipswich River, nearly half a mile west of the 
estate now occupied by Charles Peabody. From this point it passed 
across " Will's Hill " to Andover. The " Old Boston Path " to Read- 



ingand Boston, bj' Medford Bridge, is the present little used road, 
turning from Centre Street, just beyond the present school-house, 
and leading southward near the house of Zephaniah Pope, to the place 
which is owned by the Goodell family, and from thence to Bos- 
ton. This was a favorite route with many travellers, although the 
Ipswich road was the greater thoroughfare of the two. The present 
highway from the meeting-house to Tapleyville, by Centre and Hol- 
ton streets, was opened about the year 1725, although it may have 
been a private way before that year. 

Eastward from Hobart Street, at the corner of Forest Street, was 
the "Old Boxford Road." According to tradition, this followed an 
Indian trail toward the Merrimac Valley, at North Andover and 
Haverhill. Its general course was along what is now Forest and 
Nichols streets, crossing the Newburyport Turnpike by the house of 
Edward Wyatt ; passing the house of Henry Verry, ascending the 
hill to the north-west by a way yet discernible, and leading thence to 
"Rowley Village" or Boxford, or turning a little more to the right to 
Topsfield. From the hill beyond Henry Verry's there is also a path 
westward to Middleton. At Beaver Brook, near the "Log Bridge," 
there was also a path leading in at the lane by Jacob E. Spring's 
place, and William A. Lander's, and (rowing to Putnamville, entering 
upon the present Locust Street by the lane south of I. H. Putnam's 
house ; and also passing by a branch to Wenham, north of the Great 
Pond. This way was used in commi n with the "Ipswich Road " by 
travellers to Wenham and the towns 1 eyond. The line of the "Box- 
ford Road" may also perhaps have been continued in some manner 
past the place once occupied by Joseph Hutchinson, and across the 
fields to the vicinity of "Hadlock's Bridge." A branch may also have 
led to the right, towards the house of Joseph Holton, at the place now 
owned by the family of the late Isaac Denvsey, and thence south-west- 
erly over the meadows. 

Sylvan Street, from Ash Street, by the mills of Otis F. Putnam to 
the town house, was opened in 1842, and is simply a straightening 
of the "Ipswich Road." 

The road along High and Water streets, from the Plain to Crane 
River, at Danversport, was opened in 1755, and relocated in 1802. 
Before the opening of this way, which was continued in 1761 to the 
North Bridge, in Salem, the "Ipswich Road" was the only highway 
leading toward Salem. The population at the "Port," or the "New 
Mills," was at that period very small. 

April 14, 176U, Samuel Clark petitioned for a way through Capt. 
Samuel Endicott's land, and a bridge across Waters River. This was 
violently opposed by Israel Andrews and a strong faction, and was 
the subject of heated controversies at the town-meetings for several 
years subsequent to its construction. 

Thus, November 5, 17(54, it is recorded that the suit of Capt. 
Hutchinson, for amount expended in repairs upon the Waters River 
Bridge, was decided against the town. On the first of April, 17C5, 
the bridge was torn to pieces by a violent storm, and the town refused 
to repair it. April 8, of the same year, a committee was chosen to 
examine the bridge and report its condition, and the committee was 
also empowered to see what could be done towards getting the town 
relieved of the burden of the bridge. May 14, 1766, a committee was 
chosen on the part of the town to attend a hearing at the Great and 
General Court, upon the petition of John Proctor and others, for a 
bridge over Waters River. The petition appears to have been granted, 
for it is recorded that Mr. Sawyer repaired the bridge. October 2, 
1770, the bridge was again destroyed by a terrible storm, and occa- 
sioned another bitter controversy. May 20, 1771, a committee was 
chosen to examine into the repairs upon the Waters River Bridge, and 
to see what could be done towards throwing the expense of the same 
upon other towns. At the same time, it is recorded that Enoch Put- 
nam and Aaron Putnam, who repaired the bridge, refused to hand in 
their accounts for the same ; and iu the following September, the town 
voted to choose agents to commence actions against the Putnams for 

the conversion of the town's timber to their own use in the repairs 
upon Waters River Bridge. 

The committee was chosen, but the town lost its case ; and Dec. 2, 
1771, it was called upon to raise money to defray the costs of a judgment 
against it in favor of the Putnams, amounting to £258 14s. 2d. The fol- 
lowing spring, we find the town calling its committee-men and repre- 
sentatives in this bridge case, to account for their inability to win its 
cause. The bitterness engendered was not wholly obliterated for 
many. years. Liberty Street, with its bridge over Porter's River, was 
laid out in 1803. The bridge known as "Liberty," or otherwise as 
"Spite" Bridge, was built to draw travel from the famous Essex 
Bridge, constructed in 1788. The latter caused a great deal of bitter- 
ness in Danvers, and its proprietors were compelled to pay the town 
of Danvers the sum of ten pounds, annually, for fifty years. Liberty 
Bridge was built with the anticipation that it would prove of great 
public benefit, and would materially attract business from Beverly. 
Locust Street occupies mainly the route of the "Old Topsfield Road." 
It was relocated in 1807, the bounds beginning from near where the 
flagstaff now stands at the Plain and in front of the Post-Office. North 
Street, which runs north-west from Locust Street, passing to the south 
of the house of Samuel Wallis, crosses the turnpike, and leads off into 
Topsfield, is an old road, relocated in 1785. 

The road from the old Judge Lindall place upon Locust Street to 
Beaver Brook, following in part the routes of Poplar and Maple 
streets, was opened in 1793. Previous to that period, the travelled 
way had been by Hobart and Pine stieets, by the corner, at Mr. S. 
Walter Nourse's place. The continuation of Maple Street, from Beaver 
Brook, past the residence of Dea. William R. Putnam, to the inter- 
section with Preston Street, by M. S. B. Swan's house, now the main 
line from the Plain to Middleton, was constructed in 1813. 

It will be remembered, that one of the first acts of the inhabitants 
of Danvers, was to look after the proportion of poor belonging to the 
town, then in the almshouse at Salem, and to this end the select- 
men, chosen at the first meeting, were to take care of such poor per- 
sons in that institution as rightfully belonged to the district to support. 
This matter of the care of paupers and the town poor, continued to be 
a prominent subject for discussion at the town-meetings from the very 
commencement of the town organization. The different means 
adopted for the maintenance of sundry poor persons, thrown upon 
the town's charity from time to time, present some quaintly humorous 
phases to us of the present day. Here is a copy of an agreement en- 
tered upon the records, and dated June 4, 1759, in which Jonathan 
Kettle agrees for an annual consideration of the sum of thirteen shil- 
lings and fourpence, paid by the town to himself, lawful attorney or 
his heirs, to take care of his mother-in-law, Mrs. Bridget Webb, and to 
supply her with all necessaries whatever, during the term of her 
natural life, and thereby save harmless the town of Danvers. But it 
is agreed, that it shall be so long as he shall live and no longer, and 
that upon the decease of ye said John Kettle, this agreement shall 
immediately become void and of none effect. 

(Signed) Jona. Kettle. 

And again, June 7, 1762, Nathaniel Nurse, and Daniel Nurse, 
of Salem, agree for the sum of £7 16s., lawful money, in seasonable 
payments, to take care of their honored father, Mr. Benjamin 
Nurse, during the term of his natural life, and thereby " save 
the town of Danvers harmless of him." The remaining conditions 
beimr the same as in the case of Kettle. What a wealth of sarcasm in 
that word honored. In 1761, an attempt was made to cause a poor- 
house to be erected, but it was voted down. At the town-meeting of 
March 14, 1763, Benjamin Prescott, Joseph Southwick, and Archelaus 
Dale, were voted a committee upon a poor-house. There is no further 
mention made of the matter, but there are entries from time to time, of 
action taken by the town in reference to divers poor persons, who 
were thrown upon its hands. In the year 1808, a substantial poor- 
house was erected. 



The cause of education was also early made one of the most impor- 
tant matters to be considered. One of the articles in the first warrant 
Mas to authorize the selectmen to obtain a schoolmaster, to keep a 
grammar school in the district as soon as may be. Danvers claims 
the honor of the first free school in this county, although Salem can 
fairly dispute the title, as it, at that time, included the territory. 
September, 1641, the selectmen of Salem ordered, that a notice be 
published on lecture day, that such as have children to be kept at 
schools would bring in their names, and what they will give for one 
whole year ; and also that "if anie poor bodie hath children, or a childe, 
to be put to schoole, and is not able to pay for their schooling, that 
the towne will pay it by rate." Under this order, it is claimed that the 
school, which was established under the care of Endicott himself, as 
governor of the Colony and chairman of the selectmen of Salem, was 
held at the Orchard Farm at " Skelton's Neck," Danversport, on what 
is now Dauvers soil. However that may be, the first notice in the 
parish record of a school, which was held within the limits of the 
present Danvers, occurs in 1701, when it was voted, that "Mr. 
Joseph Herrick and Mr. Joseph Putnam, and Mr. John Putnam, 
Jr., arc chosen and empowered to agree with some suitable person 
to be a school-master amongst us, in some convenient time ; 
and make return to the people." These men constituted the first 
school committee. It is probable that schools, or classes for instruc- 
tion, had been held from early times, though without much regularity, 
at the houses of the farmers in different parts of the town. 

No further allusion is made to the matter, and there is nothing to 
show that this committee accomplished their object. The next men- 
tion of the subject is not till 1712, when the records tell us that a 
committee appointed to receive the school money from the selectmen 
of Salem, were directed to pay to "ye widow Dealand five pounds, 
which is her due for keeping ye school in ye village formerly," and 
also "to invite her to come and keep school in ye Village again, 
and to engage her five pounds a year for two years of that money, 
that is granted to us by the Town for a school." Almost a year later, 
there is a receipt signed by "Katherin Daland," for this five pounds, 
due "for keeping school at Salem Villig at ye School House near Mr. 
Green's." In the year 1708, the diary of that gentleman, has this 
record : — 

"March 11. My lectures ; full assembly, few strangers. I spoke 
to several about building a school house, and determined to do it etc. 
. " 18. I rode to ye neighbors about a school house, and found them 
willing to help. I went to Wenham r. m. Bad riding as ever was. 

" 22. Meeting of the Inhabitants. I spoke with several about build- 
ing a school house. I went into ye Town Meeting and said to this 
effect ; Neighburs, I am about building a school house for the good 
education of our children, and 'have spoken to several of the neigh- 
burs, who are willing to help it forward, so that I hope we shall 
quickly finish it ; and I speak of it here that so every one that can 
have benefit, may have opportunity for so good a service. Some 
replyed that it was a new thing to them and they desired to know 
where it should stand, and what the design of it was. To them I 
answered that Deacon Ingersoll would give land for it to stand on, at 
the upper end of the training field, and that I designed to have a 
good school master to teach their children to read and write and 
cypher and everything that is good. Many commended the design, 
and none objected against it. 

" 25. Began to get timber for the school house." 

Further on in his journal, the minister describes the work of rais- 
ing and underpinning the building, and getting the "mantel tree." 
The pastor built the school-house, and the generous deacon, who had 
already given the training field to the parish, gave it also a spot for 
its school-house. Soon after this, however, it became the custom at 
town or parish meetings, to direct that the school should be kept a 
few weeks at a time, in rooms in private dwellings in different parts 
of the parish. 

On the 7th of April, before the new school-house Avas wholly fin- 
ished, Mr. Green hired "Mrs. Deland " for a teacher, and on the next 
day he hired a room of Mr. James Holton for school purposes, and 
his two boys, "Joseph and John, went to school." He paid "ye 
school dame" himself to 1709, inclusive. The salary due the lady in 
1712 was not for this school. In 17 14 "Captain Putnam and Lieutenant 
Putnam wher choasen to look after" a schoolmaster "and to get him as 
Cheap as they can for the benefit of the pepell." Samuel Andrew was 
engaged. His receipt for his first payment of his salary reads as 
follows: " Saillem Vileg November the 3 in the year 1714. These 
may Certifie horn it may Consarn thatt I have Reseived of Capt. Put- 
nam and Licutt. Putnam the sum of seaven pounds, and forty shillings 
of Sevarall persons for teaching ther children, the wich nine pounds 
I have Reseived in full for keeping scholl in Saillem Villeg I say 
Reseived By Me, Saml" Andrew." This is a copy of the original 
receipt Ivy David Judd, the clerk, who is probably responsible for the 
orthography. It continued to be the custom from this time on, to 
determine the number of schools, and where they were to be held, at 
the successive annual town-meetings. The first school-master at the 
New Mills was Caleb Clark, who kept a school in the house of farmer 

It is stated that four schools had been erected in the middle par- 
ishes in 1736, and they were all, without doubt, in existence at the 
organization of the town. 

March 8, 1757, Daniel Gardner, Daniel Purrington, Daniel Eppes, 
Jr., Nathaniel Felton, and Lieut. David Putnam were appointed a 
committee .to investigate the grammar school. It appears that there 
was some cause for complaint, for on the 17th of the same month it 
was voted, "that the selectmen agree with and choose a suitable 
school master and determine where school shall be kept." March 
12, 1759, Daniel Eppes, Jr., Esq., John Andrew, and Daniel Pur- 
rington, were chosen as a committee with full power to regulate the 
schools and to "draw money and pay the school master." 

March 14, 1763, the school committee was increased to five men. 
May 22, 17(55. by advice of the school committee, it was voted to 
keep the grammar school half the year in the North Parish, and half 
the year in the South Parish. In 1765 a school-house was erected in 
the middle parishes. In 1793 the district school system first came 
in vogue. In 1809 there were nine districts. In 1814 an order was 
adopted requiring a report of the condition of the schools to be made 
at each annual town meeting. In 1820 an order was adopted requir- 
ing an annual census of the children of the town between four and 
sixteen years of age, to be made by the prudential committees on the 
first of May, and recorded by the town clerk. This order w T as prior 
to the passage of the State law to the same effect. Danvers now has 
(1878) twenty schools, including the Holton High School and three 
grammar schools. 

The attention of the town was largely taken up at its meetings with 
its highways, schools, the poor-house project, and general matters of 
minor importance, for some years succeeding its incorporation. The 
organization as a township in 1757, giving it the right of representa- 
tion in the Great and General Court, Daniel Eppes was chosen in 
that year as the first representative. The town had probably been 
moving in this matter of securing its own representative for a year or 
two prior to this. And, as already stated, it sent its representative 
in 1755 to oppose the plans for a proposed union, but it is probable 
that this official was only sent to do the business in hand, and that 
when it was performed he returned home to his people, receiving his 
stipend for performing the mission. 

From June to September, 1762, the town suffered severely from a 
terrible drouth. The wells dried up, and vegetation was scorched. 

In 1755, November 18th, the town had been shaken by the great Lis- 
bon earthquake. Slavery was in existence in Danvers at this time, 
though practically only in name. Most of the slaves were regarded 
in the light of valued, trusty servants. They could testify in the 



courts, serve in the militia, hold property, and be members of the 
churches. None were ever born to be slaves in the eyes of the law. 
Their condition was thus very different from the former bondmen at 
the South. In 1755. there were nine male and sixteen female slaves 
in Danvers. 




The year 17f>j brought the odious Stamp Act. and with it the first 
organized resistance to the tyrannical and unjust demands of the 
mother country. The Danvers farmers, as their history has shown, 
were possessed in a remarkable degree with a spirit of manly inde- 
pendence and of determined resistance to any acts encroaching in the 
slightest degree upon their rights as freemen. They were not bo 
bound to the Crown as were many of the merchants of Salem, whose 
aristocratic tastes and business connections brought them into more 
intimate relations with the nobility of Great Britain, whose monarchi- 
cal views a portion of them to some extent adopted. With the 
passage of the Stamp Act the clear-sighted farmers of Danvers, in 
common with those of other towns, saw at once the dangers which 
threatened their rights and privileges, and they acted with equal 

At a meeting held on the 21st of October, 1765. Thomas Porter, 
then the town's representative in the Great and General Court, was 
instructed in reference to this infamous measure of Parliament, that 
"v freeholders of Danvers. while professing the greatest loyalty to 
their most gracious sovereign, and their sincere regard and reverence 
for the British Parliament as ye most powerful and respectable body 
of men on earth, yet being deeply sensible of the difficultys and dis- 
tresses to which that august assembly's late exertions of their power 
would necessarily expose them : desired him to promote and readily 
joyn in such dutiful remonstrances and humble petitions to the 
King and Parliament and in such other decent measures as may 
have a tendency to obtain a repeal of ye Stamp Act or an alleviation 
of ye heavy burdens, thereby imposed on the British Colonies. Ye 
great tumult in ye Capital of ye Province was deprecated." and their 
representative was further instructed to do all in his power to prevent 
riotous as-emblies and unlawful acts of violence upon ye persons 
<>v substances of any of his Majesty's subjects: and further that he 
should not give his assent to any internal tax or imply the willingness 
of his constituents to submit to its imposition, other than "by ye 
Great and General Court of ye Province according to ye constitution 
of ye Government." Again, ''that he be careful not to give his con- 
sent to any extravagant grants out of ye publick treasury." At the 
same meeting, the town voted to dispose of its stock of powder, 
which seems to imply a desire for peace and harmony: but at a sec- 
ond meeting, December 23. 1765, at which Daniel Eppes. Jr.. was 
moderator. Representative Porter received instruction- of a still more 
decided character, containing the ring of true metal. While express- 
ing love and respect for their sovereign and his ministry, still the 
inhabitants of the town of Danvers felt deeply affected and grieved by 
"ye great difficulties and distresses imposed on them by ye king and 
parliament." and their representative was again instructed "to promote 
and fall in with decent measures of remonstrance." He was not to 
give his vote for any acts that shall imply a willingness on ye part of 
his constituents to submit to any internal taxes not levied by ye Gen- 
eral Court as authorized under the provincial charter. And finally 
they would instruct him to favor ye raising of men and money to 
defend his majesty's loyal subjects" rights and privileges, thus showing 
their determination to maintain their rights and liberties at whatever 

May 21, 1766, Daniel Eppes was chosen representative. May 21, 
1768, a fine of forty shillings was imposed upon strangers, who had 
remained in the town for more than a year previous : an assessment 
equivalent in a measure to our modern poll-tax. At the same meet- 
ing a fine of £50 was imposed for failure to bring in lists of taxable 
property to the assessors. Samuel Holton, Jr., then a rising young 
physician, in his thirtieth year, was chosen to represent the town in 
the Great and General Court, at this meeting; and on the 20th of 
September, 1768, was deputed '' to join ye Boston committee in a 
convention at Faneuil Hall, to be held September 22d." This was the 
Provincial Convention, called without authority of the royal govern- 
ment by a Boston town-meeting, which Dr. Wadsworth of the First 
Parish records as in session upou the landing of the British troops in 
Boston on the 28th of the same month. The convention is believed 
to have adjourned on the 27th, however. For this service, on De- 
cember 19, 1768, Samuel Holton. Jr.. is allowed £2 15s. 8d. 

The next event of importance in the town's history was the "Tea'' 
meeting of May 28, 1770. Dr. Amos Putnam was moderator of this 
meeting. Messrs. Samuel Holton, Jr.. Archelaus Dale. Capt. Wil- 
liam Shillaber. Dr. Amos Putnam, and Gideon Putnam were chosen 
" a committee upou ye public grievances as to ye duty on tea." After 
such due deliberation as the gravity of the case required, the com- 
mittee submitted the following report : 

"That this town highly approves of ye spirited conduct of ye Mer- 
chants of our Metropolis and ye other Maritime towns in ye province 
in an agreement of non-importation well calculated to restore our 
invaluable rights and liberties. Voted, that we will not ourselves (to 
our Knowledge) or by any person for or under us as directly or indi- 
rectly purchase of such person or persons any goods whatever, and as 
far as we can effect it. will withdraw our connection from every per- 
son who shall import goods from Great Britain contrary to ye Agree- 
ment of ye merchants aforesaid." 

It was also voted not to drink foreign tea. or to allow their families 
to indulge in the beverage until the Act of Parliament imposing a duty 
upon it was repealed, or general importation took place, cases of sick- 

3S excepted. A committee was chosen to carry a copy of these 
votes to every household. All persons who refused to sign these 
copies were to be looked upon as enemies to the liberties of the people, 
and their names were to be registered accordingly. 

It is related that one Isaac Wilson, who kept the famous old Bell 
Tavern in the South Parish, then standing near the present monument, 
was caught selling the forbidden, fragrant Bohea, and in public assem- 
bly was obliged to recite, with bowed head, the following line- : 

• I. Isaac Wilson, a Tory I 1>e. 
I. Isaac Wilson, I sells tea." 

Other indignities were also heaped upon him by his patriot neigh- 
bors. A short time thereafter there was a jolly coterie of tea-drink- 
round Isaac's groaning board, enjoying the forbidden beverage. 
Cup after cup was drank, until the tea-pot was drained, when, to the 
disgust of the assembly, Isaac informed them his chest was empty. 
( >ne reveller, it is recorded, in his desire to get just one more cup. 
removed the cover from the pot to drain its very dregs, when to the 
horror and amazement of the company, forth from the leaves there 
sprang a mammoth toad, none the worse for his steeping. It is prob- 
able that Isaac found balm in this for his recently wounded pride. 
The old Bell Tavern was a favorite hostelry and rendezvous in days 
"lang syne." It stood for many years at the corner of Washington 
and Main street-, close beside the site of the present monument. 
Francis Symonds was the jolly host of the Bell in its early days : his 
sign was the origin of the tavern's name. Over his doorway was the 

couplet. — 

■■ Francis Symonds makis and sells 
The i>t-sr of Chocolate also slu-lls 
I'll toll you in, if you have need 
And feed you well and bid you speed." 



There was also here, during these early days, a printing-office, kept 
by Mr. Russell, who published Amos Pope's almanacs, a " Wenham 
Price Current," and other publications. He subsequently removed to 
Boston. Here, at the old Bell Tavern, Fosters minute-men halted 
on that memorable April morning in '75, when the infant republic 
was born. Here, too, were received the martyred dead from Cam- 
bridge. Here, again, Pickerings regiment halted on its way to 
Bunker Hill ; and from the old tavern a hearty Godspeed Avas given 
to Arnold's men ere they plunged into the wilderness to perish at 
Quebec. A little later, the halo of romance was thrown about the 
old inn, when it received the beautiful woman and charming writer, 
Eliza Wharton, whose sad and sinful life was closed within its walls. 
She was buried in the old parish ccmetciy, now within the limits of 
Salem, where her grave has since become a favorite Medea for the 
curious, who have left its sleeper scarce a remnant of a tombstone. 
Miss Wharton came to the tavern in 1788, under an assumed name, 
and died in a few weeks after her arrival. Her marvellous beauty, 
and her talents as a poetess, have been the theme of many a tradition. 
which has been handed down from generation to generation. She 
was born in 1751. and was therefore in the thirty-seventh year of her 
age at the time of her death. 

June 14, 1770, Francis Symonds, upon his petition, was granted 
permission "to erect a convenient pair of skails or stilyards, that will 
answer to weigh cart or sled loads of hay, that are bought and sold in 
ye markets, on condition, that he keep them in good order and charge 
no more for his waving hay or anything else than ye common price." 

From the organization of the district the town-meetings had been 
held alternately in the North and South parishes. This appears to 
have caused some feeling in the South Parish, which evidently felt 
that it should have all the meetings. Decemher 2. 1771, it carried its 
point, and it was voted that all further meetings should be held in the 
South meeting-house, and should not be shifted as heretofore. The 
vote was carried by fifty-eight in the affirmative, to thirty-eight in the 
negative. The following February, 1772, the town voted to resume 
the old way of holding its meetings, by a vote of ninety-three in the 
affirmative, to ninety-two in the negative. A proposition to build a 
town-house, and thus settle the difficulty, was voted down, although 
its friends were very persistent in their efforts to carry their project. 
In March, 1772, the town had considerable trouble with delinquent 
constables, who were behindhand in their accounts. One of them, 
Humphrey Marsh, who was forty pounds in the town's debt, was 
lodged in Salem jail. The age of defalcation was not entirely con- 
fined to the nineteenth century. 

In 1773, the town again felt called upon to take some action in ref- 
erence to the encroachments of Great Britain upon the rights and 
privileges of the colonists. 

Matters were gradually approaching a focus, and the colonists 
looked with alarm upon the rapidly gathering war-clouds, which 
threatened to enwrap them in the horrors of civil war. But above 
all, and beyond all, towered their glorious principles of liberty and 
independence. Their spirits never quailed, nor did their courage fal- 
ter ; and on the 25th of January, 1773, in town-meeting assembled, 
the farmers of Danvers chose a committee to take into consideration 
the state of its civil privileges, and to draw up something proper for 
the town to act upon, that its civil privileges may be restored, and 
transmitted inviolate to the latest posterity. 

The following seven were chosen : Francis Symonds, Benjamin 
Proctor, Gideon Putnam, Capt. William Shillaber, Dr. Amos Put- 
nam, Tarrant Putnam, and William Pool. A series of six resolutions 
were adopted. 

After declaring their adhei'ence to the Provincial Constitution, and 
their loyalty, they declared the necessity of checking the tyrannical 
course of the government, by Avhich the rights of the colonists in gen- 
eral had been greatly infringed upon. Allusion is made to the affair 
with the " Gaspee" at Providence, in which " the colonists for theirloy- 

alty had been getting the punishment due to rebellion." It was re- 
solved, "that we use all lawful ends for recovering, maintaining and 
preserving the invaluable rights and privileges of this people and 
that we stand ready if need lie to risk our lives and our fortunes in 
defence of those liberties, which our forefathers purchased at so dear 
a rate." 

A committee was appointed to correspond with the committee of 
the town of Boston upon this matter, and Dr. Samuel Holton, Jr., 
Capt. William Shillaber, and Tarrant Putnam were chosen as its mem- 
bers. Their expenses were granted by the town. In the fall of this 
year, the small-pox became epidemic in the town, and raged with 
such violence, that, on the 25th of October, the town met to take 
action upon the best means to abate the pestilence. The selectmen 
were authorized to take such action in the premises as they deemed 

In 1774, the atmosphere of Boston becoming too warm for Gen. 
Gage, then governor, on the 5th of June of that year he removed to 
Danvers, and took up his abode at the residence of Robert Hooper, 
the present mansion-house of the Francis Peabody estate. Hooper 
was a noted loyalist of the time, and a man of vast wealth, in conse- 
quence of which he was familiarly dubbed "King" Hooper. Gage 
was accompanied by two companies of the 64th regiment, who en- 
camped upon the wide field occupied by Tapley's brick-yards. It is 
stated, that the conduct of the soldiery towards the villagers was in 
every way courteous, and tales of numerous little acts of politeness 
on their part, have been handed down. It does not appear, however, 
that the farmers reciprocated their attentions. From the tenor of 
their recent town-meetings, it was hardly to be presumed that thej- 
would. The patriotic husbandmen, and the village youth made it so 
uncomfortable for the camp, that its occupants were underarms almost 
every night. The tiles of the "Essex Gazette," for August 23, 1774, 
state, that the troops at the camp were on guard all night on the Fri- 
day previous, in evident fear of a collision with the inhabitants. 

After two months of constant worriment, the regulars gave it up, 
and on the 5th of September returned to Boston. 

September 27, 1774, Dr. Samuel Holton was chosen as representa- 
tive to the Great and General Court, and was instructed b} r his towns- 
men to adhere firmly to the charter given by William and Mary, and 
to do no act that could possibly be construed into an acknowledgment 
of the act of the British Parliament for altering the government of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay. More especially, that he recognize 
the honorable board of councillors chosen by the General Court. In 
the event of an anticipated dissolution of the assembly, their repre- 
sentative was to join with the members to meet, at some future time, 
to be agreed upon, in a general Provincial Congress. 

He was instructed to act in such a way as may be most conducive 
to the best interests of this town and Province, and most likely to 
preserve the liberties of all America."' 

These instructions were passed unanimously, receiving seventy- 
eight votes in the affirmative, out of a total of seventy-nine. 

It will thus be seen, that the people of Danvers were ripe for the 
coming struggle. It needed but the application of the torch to kin- 
dle the fires of patriotism. Upon the organization of the Provincial 
Congress, Danvers was one of the foremost towns to recognize its 
allegiance to it. At a special town-meeting, held November 21, 1774, 
it was voted, "that ye resolves of ye Provincial Congress ought to be 
complied with," and it was also voted, "that ye constables pay ye 
province money to Henry Gardner of Stow ye Receiver-General ap- 
pointed by ye Congress." The constables were further instructed to 
collect such sums, in aid of the Provincial Congress and its work, as 
might be possible. These votes were all passed nem. con., in the lan- 
guage of the records. They were, of themselves, overt acts of rebel- 
lion, as the rights of the Provincial treasurer were ignored, and the 
demands of the government appointed by the Crown set at defiance. 

On the 9th of January, 1775, Dr. Samuel Holton was chosen as the 



town's first representative in the Continental Congress, to be convened 
at Cambridge on the 19th of the same month. 

It was voted, that the association entered into by the American Con- 
tinental Congress, ought to be strictly adhered to. Capt. William 
Shillaber, Capt. Jeremiah Page, Dr. Samuel Holton, Jr.. Mr. 
Jonathan Proctor, Dr. Amos Putnam, Capt. William Putnam, Capt. 
Benjamin Proctor. Capt. Samuel Eppes, and Capt. Israel Hutchinson, 
were voted a committee of inspection for the town, to see that the 
association be strictly kept by every person within its appointment, 
and its resolves adhered to. It was decided that dancing and similar 
festivities were against the articles adopted by the American Conti- 
nental Congress, and the committee Mere instructed to see ''that ye 
said eighth article," referring to these simple pleasures was strictly com- 
plied with by the towns-people. The time had come for stern 
measures, and with the awful pall of civil war hanging over them, the 
patriots of Danvers felt it incumbent upon them to check unseemly 
levity. Companies of minute-men had already been organized, for at 
this meeting it is voted to provide each minute-man with an effective 
fire-arm. bayonet, pouch and knapsack, together with thirty rounds of 
cartridge and ball, and it was further stipulated, that they be disci- 
plined three times a week. A bounty of one shilling per head was 
voted to the train-band soldiery to encourage them to enlist, and for 
every half day's attendance at military duty. The selectmen were 
instructed to take effectual care that the town be provided with its 
full stock of arms and ammunition. These warlike measures on the 
part of the town caused it to be suspected by Gage and his officers as 
a depot of supplies for the patriots, and such it undoubtedly was. in 
a measure, although not to the extent supposed by the British 
governor. On the 26th of February, 1775, Col. Leslie, with 
three hundred British regulars, landed at Marblehead, and marched to 
Salem, on his way to Danvers to seize and destroy such supplies and 
ammunition as he should find. His bloodless repulse at the North 
Bridge is a matter of Salem history, and the claim is made by Salem 
antiquarians, that the Colonel's primary object was the seizure of some 
cannon owned by Capt. Richard Derby, a successful and wealthy mer- 
chant of Salem, which were concealed in the north fields in the neigh- 
borhood of the present Devereux homestead on School Street. They 
were claimed to be old ship's howitzers, and subsequently proved of 
no value for service. It is also a matter of record, that one Capt. 
David Mason, by instructions of a committee appointed by the Conti- 
nental Congress, had committed to the care of one John Foster, who 
lived at the time on the north side of the bridge, seventeen cannon, 
which Foster mounted on carriages in his shop, at the present corner 
of Franklin and North streets. The carriages for these guns were 
made by Richard Skidmore, of Danvers, a veteran of the old French 
war. Mho saw service with Pepperell at Louisburg, and Mas present 
at the death of Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham before Quebec. Skid- 
more subsequently served throughout the Revolution, and as a soldier 
in the last Avar with England, he beat the reveille on the same drum, 
which had rattled the charge before Louisburg. He Mas a noted wit 
and jester, and a great favorite with his townsmen. Danvers authori- 
ties claim that these cannon, the object of Leslie's expedition, Mere 
scattered about, some in the north fields, some at the new mills, Dan- 
versport, and others at "Blind Hole," or on the Gardner farm. As 
Capt. Derby is not claimed to have been the OMiier of all of them, and 
it is probable that they were contributed by different persons in this 
section, the theory may be probably correct. Neither is it probable, 
that the patriots Mould have risked so many pieces of artillery, then a 
scarce arm of the service, in one spot. 

The coming of Leslie was heralded throughout all the country 
round, and Danvers patriots Mere at the bridge to dispute his passage, 
notably (apt. Samuel Eppes's company of train-band soldiery. Others 
Mere posted at convenient points along the road over which he must 
pass. It is not to be supposed, that Gov. Gage and the British offi- 
cers in Boston had viewed the preparations of the Danvers towns- 

people with their brethren of the surrounding towns for the coming 
storm, with feelings other thau those of alarm and uneasiness. The 
governor knew the determined character of the people. He and his 
body-guard, of Leslie's own command, had had a taste of their temper 
and their hospitality towards the king's minions during his short tarry 
at "King" Hooper's residence, the previous summer. Although 
there is a letter extant from Gage to Dartmouth, in which he speaks 
of having received intelligence that foreign cannon had been landed at 
Salem, and that upon sending an expedition he found them to have 
been valueless, condemned ship's guns, still, it is not probable, had 
Leslie succeeded in crossing the bridge, without binding himself, that 
his march Mould have ended there. It was but a very short time 
previous to this, that Danvers had voted to instruct its selectmen to 
purchase powder and ball. Gage had his spies there as well as at 

The theory is, that Gage sent Leslie out under the belief that these 
cannon M'ere brass hoMitzers imported from Holland. They Mere, 
however, ordinary iron ship's guns, brought in from time to time by 
merchant vessels, which had accumulated on the wharves. Whatever 
they Mere, Skidmore, of Danvers. made the carriages for them, which 
would seem to imply a Danvers interest in them. There is, too, from 
the revengeful spirit evinced by the British soldiery in Boston and 
elsewhere, the strongest reasons to believe that Gage's ultimate object, 
besides the capture of the guns, Mas the aiming of a blow at Danvers, 
and the quelling of the rebellious spirit of its people. Had the 
result at the bridge been less pacific, the bloody scenes at Concord 
and at Lexington, with the awful carnage of the retreat, would have 
been forestalled here. As it was, it is stated, that within a few hours, 
forty thousand men Mould have been under arms. Capt. Samuel 
Eppes's company of minute-men marched to the bridge, and with them 
went the Rev. Mr. WadsMorth, the beloved pastor of the First Parish 

The Mar spirit at this time ran high, as is evinced by the statement, 
that the third alarm-list, as it Mas called, chose its officers and organ- 
ized as a company on the 6th of the following March. In the win- 
ter and spring of 177,">. the parishioners of both parishes Mere much 
interested in the relief of the patriot poor of Boston, and the North 
Parish appoints a committee, consisting of Capt. John Putnam, Lieut. 
Enoch Putnam, Ensign Archelaus Dale. Capt. William Putnam, 
Francis Nurse. Capt. Nathan Pope, and Capt. Samuel Flint, to gather 
a contribution, which Enoch Putnam Mas instructed to carry to Bos- 
ton and deliver to the Committee of Donations in the town of Boston, 
in the name of the North Parish in Danvers. He reported the deliv- 
ery of " 8 pair of Men's shoes, 2 pair Boys', 8^ yards of Check, and 
2 skeins of thread, and one pair of Moose-skin Breeches, also the sum 
of twenty six pounds fifteen shillings, and four pence Lawful Money 
to the said Committee." The South Parish gave £13 13s. 6d. for 
the same object. 

There Mere at this time four companies of train-band soldiery, offi- 
cered as follows : The first company by Capt. Israel Hutchinson. First 
Lieut. Enoch Putnam. Second Lieut. Aaron Cheever, Ensign Job 
Putnam. This company contained about fifty men, some of whom 
Mere residents of Beverly. 

The officers of the second company M"ere Capt. Samuel Eppes, First 
Lieut. Benjamin Jacobs, Second Lieut. Gideon Foster, Ensign Francis 
Simonds. It contained about seventy men. 

The third company had as officers, Capt. Jeremiah Page. First Lieut. 
Joseph Porter, Second Lieut. Henry Putnam, Ensign Richard Skid- 
more. It mustered thirty-five men. 

The Fourth Company had as officers : Capt. Samuel Flint, First 
Lieut. Daniel Putnam, Second Lieut. Joseph Putnam, Ensign Israel 
Putnam, and contained about forty men. These companies are 
all that are upon the rolls deposited in the State archives. Prior 
to this period, this body of militia had been denominated min- 
ute-men, from their instructions to be ready for duty at a minute's 



warning. Capt. Gideon Foster appeal's to have been promoted from 
a lieutenancy in Eppes's company, to a command of his own : for it is 
recorded, that John Endicott was elected second lieutenant in Eppes's 
company to take the place of Capt. Foster, and it was Foster's com- 
pany which covered itself with immortal glory on the British retreat 
from Concord and Lexington. The news of the British advance on 
Lexington reached Danvers at four o'clock on the morning of the 
19th of April, 1775. Young Foster, then twenty-six years of age, 
summoned his men at the first sound of the alarm. They met on the 
green in front of the Bell Tavern ; and, having received permission 
from the commander of their regiment to start in advance, after re- 
ceiving the parting blessing from the Rev. Mr. Holt, they marched to 
the Bell Tavern, where the final leave-takings were made, and at nine 
o'clock started for Lexington. The command pushed on rapidly, 
making the most of the journey on the run, and reaching "West Cam- 
bridge, now Arlington, a distance of sixteen miles, in four hours. 
They took a position on the main road west of the meeting-house hill, 
in a walled inclosure, where they entrenched themselves behind a bar- 
ricade, consisting of bundles of shingles. It is supposed, that Capt. 
Foster's first intention was to intercept the retreat of the British, 
either under a mistaken estimate of their strength, or from a spirit 
of reckless bravery, enhanced by the excitement and awful carnage 
of the hour, and by the indiscriminate slaughter of his countrymen 
at Lexington, whose blood he burned to avemre. The British main 
column followed the road, guarded by strong flanking parties, thrown 
out to the right and left, to protect it as much as possible from its 
infuriated enemies, who hung like clouds of angry hornets on its 
flanks, and whose death-dealing rifles rapidly depleted its ranks, turn- 
ing its retreat into a rout. 

Of the existence of these flanking parties, Foster may have had no 
knowledge, although a statement has been handed down from succes- 
sive generations, that he was warned of this method of conducting a 
l-etreat, by one of his men, who had seen service in the old French 
war, when it was frequently adopted by the British commanders as 
the best means of protection from Indian attacks. 

Very soon after entrenching themselves, Foster and his men saw 
the British column descending the hill on their right, and, at the 
same time, a strong flank guard advancing on their left. They made 
a good fight, and, for a time, poured in a hot fire on their enemies ; 
but they were between two fires, and wei*e speedily enfiladed by the 
guard in their rear. The little enclosure soon became a charnel- 
house. Seven of the men of Danvers were shot dead, and the lives 
of all were in imminent danger from the exasperated British soldiery. 
Under these circumstances, there was but one alternative, and brave 
Capt. Foster at once adopted it. The gallant little band cut its way 
out into the road, and passed directly across the front of the British 
column, along the margin of the pond, taking a new position behind 
a ditch wall on the north side of the road. In this fight, the most 
shocking barbarities were perpetrated on the wounded by the Regu- 
lars. Denuison Wallis, who surrendered as a prisoner, received 
twelve bullets in his body, and was left for dead ; but he subsequently 
recovered. Joseph Bell was more fortunate in his captors, who 
took him to Boston, where he was imprisoned for two months on 
board a British frigate, at the end of which time he was released. 
The regiment containing the remaining companies marched to the 
scene of action, but arrived too late to be of much effective service. 
Nearly every able-bodied man in Danvers responded to the call ; and 
it is related that but two men were left at the New Mills, one of whom 
was sick in bed, and the other returned in the evening to tell the tale 
of sorrow and woe. 

The martyred dead, — Samuel Cook, aged 33 ; Benjamin Daland, 
aged 25 ; George South wick, aged 25 ; Jotham Webb, aged 22 ; 
Henry Jacobs, aged 22 ; Ebenezer Goldthwaite, aged 22 ; and Perley 
Putnam, aged 21, were brought to Danvers the day after the battle, 
and were interred with military honors. The monument to their 

memory, now standing at the junction of "Washington and Main 
streets, was erected in 1835. It is built of hewn granite, and is 
twenty-two feet in height, and seven feet square at the base. Its cost 
was about $1,000. 

On the 1st of May, 1775, at a public meeting, at which Capt. Wil- 
liam Shillabcr was moderator, it was voted that there be two watches 
kept in the town of Danvers, one on the road near the New Mills, 
and the other at the crotch of the road near Mr. Francis Symonds's. 
Also, that each watch shall consist of thirteen men every night. Any 
person refusing to watch without sufficient reasons, his name shall be 
posted in the newspapers. It was further voted to procure teams to 
cart stores to Watertown ; and it was voted to be "concerned with ye 
neighboring towns, in establishing a post between Newburyport and 

The firing of guns was disapproved of, except for the purposes of 
an alarm. These records show the sense of insecurity and alarm 
which the Danvers towns-people felt at this time, and also the warlike 
excitement which pervaded the community. It appears that the noted 
loyalist and Tory, " King" Hooper, felt called upon at this time to ex- 
plain his position to his fellow-townsmen, for a letter was read from 
him at this meeting, the contents of which were voted unsatisfactory 
to the inhabitants. Mr. Hooper was very unpopular at this period. 
He appears to have been a man possessed of considerable hauteur and 
aristocratic pride, and to have kept himself aloof from his townsmen 
in all their transactions, even prior to the Revolution. He was pos- 
sessed of vast wealth, and was a 103'alist to the core. His grounds 
were tastefully laid out, and handsomely decorated. 

The house, still standing, is now the mansion of Col. Francis Pea- 
body. In Hooper's time, there were a number of leaden ornaments 
upon the gateway and around the entrance. A party of recruits for 
the patriot army at Cambridge, while passing the house, stopped to 
strip the lead from the posts, for use in their bullet-moulds. The 
loyalist owner appeared at the door, and, calling them knaves, rebels, 
and other harsh epithets, ordered them to desist. For answer, one of 
the party levelled his gun and fired, the bullet entering the door, as it 
hastily closed. The mark remained until some years since. 

Capt. William Shillaber and Samuel Holton were chosen to repre- 
sent the town of Danvers in the Provincial Congress, to be held at 
AVatertown, May 25, 1775. 

In the summer of 1775, Dr. Calef, of Ipswich, built a ship at the 
New Mills, then a famous locality for ship-building. The vessel was 
intended for the East Indies, and was quite large for that day, being 
of four hundred tons burden. Her building excited the curiosity of 
the towns-people, and Dummer Jewett was instructed to apply to 
Calef to find out for whom he was building it. The vessel, it seems, 
did not find a purchaser. It was launched in the night, and drifted 
to the south side of the river, where it laid for several years, and 
ultimately decayed. 

At this time, the ship-building interest at the New Mills, Danvers- 
port, was a very prosperous industry. As many as seven vessels were 
at one time on the stocks, in the various yards, in process of con- 
struction. Here were built the "Jiqfiter," "Harlequin," "General 
Greene," and other famous privateers and war vessels of the Revolution . 
besides four twenty-gun ships. A large fleet of merchant-men have 
also been launched here from Danvers ship-yards. Several fine Eng- 
lish prize vessels were also towed into Porter's River during the war. 

September 14, 1775, Benedict Arnold's ill-fated expedition, designed 
to effect the conquest of Canada, and to induce its people to join with 
the Colonics in their struggle for liberty and independence, halted in 
Danvers, on its passage through the town, en route for Quebec. The 
town furnished generous support to its soldiers' widows all through 
the struggle. 


Col. Timothy Pickering's famous Essex regiment passed through 
Danvers on its way to Bunker Hill. The regiment was not engaged 
in that battle ; but there is a statement that it met the retreating 



Americans on Charlestowu Neck, and supplied them with ammunition, 
Capt. Gideon Foster and Ids Danvers men being principally engaged 
in this work. It will be remembered that at this time the British 
frigates and gunboats wire pouring a hot tire across the Neck, which 
must have rendered Foster's task one of no little hazard and risk. 
Gen. Israel Putnam, of Connecticut (a Danvers boy), and Mi - - 
Porter, of Danvers. are the only two persons from Danvers. of whom 
there is record as being actively engaged in the right. A few days 
before the battle, Foster and Iris men Mere summoned to an arduous 
undertaking, by their own desire. Gen. Putnam having called for vol- 
unteers. The company supposed that it was to be detailed on secret 
service : but, after a thorough inspection by "Old Put" himself, their 
arms were exchanged for axes, and they were ordered into a swamp, 
to cut faggots for the earthworks and entrenchments. The only serious 
peril which they incurred appears to have been from the mosquitoes, 
and their only exposure to tire was to that of the good-natured raillery 
of their comrad< s. 

June 18, 177(i. prior to the immortal Declaration of Independence, 
Danvers voted to support the government, should the Continental 
Congress declare itself independent. 

In 1777. the towns-people were severely afflicted with the small- 
pox, and a pest-house was built. In the same year, they appear also 
to have suffered from the hard times and the influx of paper money, 
an irredeemable currency raising the prices of commodities and the 
necessities of life. Gideon Putnam is posted this year as an enemy 
to his country, for breaking the resolves of Congress, in presuming to 
sell cheese at nine shillings the pound. 

The next year. 17*4. it strongly opposed the removal of the Court 
of Common Pleas to Newburyport, and in 1786 it was as emphatic in 
its denunciation of paper money. On the 2d of August, in that 
year, the citizens, in town-meeting assembled, sent the following in- 
structions to their representative, Israel Hutchinson : "We deem that 
it will give you satisfaction to receive instructions from the town }ou 
represent at so critical a time as this is. when it appears to the by- 
stander that there is almost an end to all publick Faith, which we appre- 
hend will end in the dissolution of the Government, in order to give 
energy and respectability to government and to make it a blessing to 
the Subject we wish to see it supported with dignity. Thi> can only 
be done by a steady ami most sacred regard to justice in all publick 
engagements, the least departure from whitch will be productive of 
want of confidence and excite the most distressing anxiety in the best 
of Subjects and disaffection and opposition to others to the distraction 
and embarrasments, and finally to the dissolution of all government. 
We conceive there are no promises or obligations more solemn than 
those entered into for supplies advanced and for the most honorable 
and hazardous services in defence of the Sacred and invaded right- of 
this State — when destitute of monies, funds or resourses, the cred- 
itor, devoutly hoping a happy issue of a precarious unequalled and 
calamitous war. did not hesitate to accept the Solemn pledge of his 
Country'-- faith as his only Security, and most confidently relying on 
her justice, resolved to stake his all on her ability and Suece>s. — If 
for these obligations, valuable considerations were received, especially 
if those considerations were previous Services and aids in support of 
what we had solemnly resolved to defend with our lives and fortunes 
there can be none for whose fulfilment, justice pleads more loudly. 
And we hope it impossable that injustice Shall ever be confounded 
with policy in the government of this State — Whether the original 
proprietor, through indiscretion or Severe necessity has been com- 
pelled to part with them, for a valuable or a vile consideration the 
obligations of the >tate remain in their nature unchangeable and ouirht 
to be inviolable. 

" The emission of a paper currency we deprecate as a calamity ; 
to prevent which we charge you to use your utmost influence. The 
integrity of the upright shall guide them to Safety, but the injustice 
of transgre rs shaU be their destruction." 

These instructions were prepared by Eobert Shillaber. Caleb Low. 
Edw. Southwick. and also included instructions to representative 
Hutchinson to apprise the Great and General Court that a man in 
Danvers was taxed much more for £100 in value than if he resided in 
Salem. Iu this same year, Col. Benjamin Tupper raised a company 
in Danvers and Beverly to aid iu the suppression of the famous 
Shay's rebellion. 

In 1808, an attempt was made to annex the Xorth Parish to Salem, 
but it failed of accomplishment, the inhabitants not being favorable 
to such a movement. 

In 1812, came the second war with Great Britain, or as it is 
familiarly termed the " Last War." Danvers was violently opposed 
to this struggle from it> first inception. At the first sign of hostilities 
in 1812, it chose Frederic Howes, Jonathan Ingersoll, Andrew Nichols. 
Jr.. Sylvester Osborne, and Thomas Putnam a committee to report 
upon the awful situation of the country. This committee submitted 
a -erics of resolutions, which were adopted. They opposed the course 
of the nation in reference to France, and regarded the war as ruinous 
to the prosperity and dangerous to the union, liberty, and indepen- 
dence of the United States. It was unjustifiable and unnecessary, 
because, as the towns-people of Danvers believed, the differences 
between Great Britain and the United States could be -ettled by 
honest negotiation. Four delegates were chosen to the Count}- Con- 
vention called to consult upon the proper means to secure peace. 

The town refused to take any active part in the war. although the 
anchors of the famous frigate "Essex" were forged at the iron works 
at the Port, and the stern-post of the same vessel came from the old 
camp-ground of Gage's troops near "King" Hooper".- house, being 
cut from an old oak-tree, which stood on the plain occupied by the 
camp, and in which was found the iron staple to which the delinquent 
soldiery Mere tied when whipped for minor ofl'ences. 

Two companies of militia were organized, one commanded by 
Capt Samuel Page, and the other by Capt. Gideon Foster, both 
veterans of the Revolution. These two companies formed a home 
guard, and their only service appear- to have been, when called out 
by sudden and uncalled-for alarms in their near vicinity. Some 
pieces of artillery were posted at Hospital Point, and there was a 
fort of turf, an earthwork, mounting two iron four-pound guns at 
Hooper's factory wharf. 

On one occasion a boat laden with sea-Meed passing Hospital Point 
M-as fired upon by the battery, the sound of whose gun> summoned 
the militia. The artillery Mere again alarmed, sometime later, by fish- 
ermen drawing a seine, and began a fusilade, creating such a eommo- 
tion, that not only Mere the home compauies called out. but the alarm 
spread as far into the country as Coos County. X. H. 

This appears to have been the only glory won by Danvers in this 
struggle. The old warlike spirit was slightly roused, however, as 
shown by the following document, still in existence, announcing the 
organization of Capt. Page's company. 

"Attention ! The subscribers (exempt by law from military duty; 
viewing the present as a time, when every American should be in 
readiness to give his aid in repelling any hostile attempt on our 
homes, and in consequence of the exposed state of the country, do 
hereby voluntarily unite to equip and form themselves into ail inde- 
pendent company, hereafter to be called the 'New Mills Minute 
Men.' This company Mill be under no military authority but that of 
its commander, and Mith 'Always Ready." for its motto, the defence 
of our common' country shall be its object, and Invasion the sign, at 
which every man Mill start into the ranks and be found alert in his 

"Danvers, New Mills, July 1814." 

This company had its Maruiug-post, or meeting-place, in Capt. 
Samuel Page's " front yard" at the Port. 

June 12, 1815, the toMU remon>trated against an attempt to annex it 



to Salem. March 7, 1836, the town voted to sustain a railroad to go 
directly to Boston, avoiding the inconvenience of ferries. The first 
railroad through Danvers, the Salem and Lawrence branch of the East- 
ern Railroad, was not opened, however, till July 4, 1848. The road 
from Newburyport and Georgetown to Boston via the Boston and Maine 
Railroad from Wakefield Junction was opened for public travel in 
June, 1855. 

The present First National Bank, formerly the Village Bank, was 
established in 1836. Sept. 22, 1843, occurred the great fire in the 
South Parish, now Peabody, The Second Congregational Church, the 
Essex Coffee-house, twelve stores, a large number of houses, sheds, and 
out-buildings were consumed. The Unitarian Church also narrowly 
escaped destruction, being on fire several times. The loss amounted 
to $75,000. June 10, 1845, the North Parish was visited by a similar 
calamity. The business of the Plains village received a severe check. 
A large number of houses, shops, and sheds were destroyed by the 
flames, and the loss was $80,000, on which there was an insurance of 
$30,000. The recovery of the parish and its subsequent growth 
were largely aided by the opening of the Essex Railroad, as before 
stated, in 1848. In 1844, Danvers was visited a second time by the 
small-pox, in epidemic form. There were in all thirty cases in the 
town, of which four resulted fatally. 

Dec. 16, 1847, at a special meeting, resolutions were passed by the 
town strongly condemnatory of the Mexican war. In common with 
her sister towns in the State, Danvers saw no need for a resort to 
arms, and she gave the movement neither aid nor sympathy, although 
it is stated that five of her citizeus served in the war. 

The Danvers Savings Bank was established in 1850, and in 1854, 
the present bank building was erected. The present town hall, in 
which are located the rooms now occupied by the Holton High School, 
was built in 1854, and first occupied at the annual meeting, March 5, 
1855. In the same building, there was opened in 1857, the Danvers 
branch of the Peabody Public Library. This library was given by 
George Peabody, Esq., the munificent London banker, who was born 
in the South Parish of Danvers on the eighteenth day of February, 
1795. The house in which he came into existence is still standing on 
Washington Street, Peabod}-, next to the Upton Glue Works. The 
library was first established in South Danvers; as its location there 
did not conveniently accommodate the inhabitants at the north, the 
present branch was established. 

May 18, 1855, the south parish of Danvers was incorporated as a 
separate and distinct town, by the name of South Danvers. April 
13, 1868, the new town adopted the name of Peabody, in honor of its 
distinguished townsman. 

The decade from 1840 to 1850 marks a transition period in the 
history of Danvers. Before that time, from its first settlement, it had 
been known as the Farms, the Village, Salem Village, or the North 
Parish. Its public centre and place of gathering had been at or near 
the present First Parish meeting-house ; but during this period the seat 
of business was removed. The present village of the Plains had been 
gradually developing as a trade centre, dating its present business 
prosperity from about the }*ear 1830 ; and within this period of which 
we are speaking, it became the chief business and public centre of 
the town. The old appellations were dropped, and those of to-day 
instituted ; — the vicinity of the old meeting-house becoming Danvers 
Centre ; the locality of the present carpet factory, Tapleyville ; the 
present business centre, Danvers Plain; and the New Mills, Danvers- 
port. Blind Hole became Putnamville. 



The patriotism of the sons of Danvers burned as brightly during 
the recent Kebellion as that of their fathers in the days of the Revolu- 
tion. The best blood of Danvers watered man}' a Southern battle- 
field during the civil war. The town furnished some 800 soldiers 
during the struggle, and at its close had a surplus of 120 men 
above the number required for its quotas. Of this number, but forty- 
four received commissions. Five hundred and ten of this number 
were enlisted directly from the inhabitants of the town. Xinety-five 
of her sons laid down their lives that the nation might live, and Dan- 
vers, proud of their heroism, in 1870 erected the present beautiful 
granite memorial, which stands in front of the town hall. The sub- 
ject of the soldiers" monument was first brought before the town at the 
annual meeting in March, 1868. As a result, the following commit- 
tee were chosen : Wm. Dodge, Jr., E. T. Waldron, J. F. Bly, Wm. 
R. Putnam, Dean Kimball, Timothy Hawkes, George Andrews, 
Rufus Putnam, S. P. Cummings, Simeon Putnam, Henry A. Perkins, 
Josiah Ross, Edwin Mudge, and Daniel P. Pope. About $3,000 
was raised by subscription. Of this sum, nearly one-half was given 
by Mr. Edwin Mudge, who contributed to this purpose his salary for 
two years as the town's representative in the Legislature. The town 
added a somewhat larger amount, making the sum total $6,298.20. 
The monument is of Hallowed granite, is 3o\ feet in height, and 7| 
feet square at the base. On its front face, is the following inscription : 

" Erected 

Br the Citizens of Danvers 

In Memory of 

Those who Died in Defence of Their Country 

During the War of the Rebellion, in 1861-65." 

On the remaining faces are the names of the ninety-five patriots 
who gave up their lives. The list commences with the names of Maj. 
Wallace A. Putnam and Lieut. James Hill. The monument was 
dedicated with befitting ceremonies Nov. 30, 1870. Its design is 
especially pleasing and appropriate. 

Danvers raised by subscription, and paid in soldiers' bounties dur- 
ing the Rebellion, $6,342. It also raised for the purposes of drilling, 
clothing, equipments, &c., $4,606. The amount of State aid paid by 
the town, over and above the amount re-imbursed by the Common- 
wealth, was $1,884. The whole sum raised for all purposes during 
the war by the town of Danvers was $38,838.44. 

In 1869, the present building of the Peabody Institute was built 
upon the Park, south of the town house, from donations received 
from Mr. George Peabody. The institute was made entirely inde- 
pendent of the Peabody institution. The present library contains 
many thousand volumes. The building has an audience hall, in 
which courses of free lectures are given each year. The permanent 
funds of the institute amount to about $66,000. The building is 
gothic in design, with a tower, and is a handsome structure. 

Nearest akin in interest, to the history of the town itself, is the 
past history of its churches and religious institutions. For, prior to 
the incorporation of the town, the parish organization was in exist- 
ence, and was in itself, in a measure, a municipal corporation on a 
small scale. 

The First Parish in Salem Village was made a separate parochial 
organization, with the conditional assent of the town of Salem, Oct. 
8, 1672. The inhabitants of the village first presented a petition to 
this end in 1670, and the assent of the town of Salem was obtained 




in March, 1672. The order of the General Court granting the divi- 
sion is as follows : — 

" At a generall court held at Boston 8th of October 1672 — In answer 
to the Petition of the faro* Salem, Richard Hutchinson Thomas 

Fuller Sic., the Court judgeth it meet, that all persons living within 
the tract of land mentioned in the town's grant of land to the Peti- 
tioners, together with all lands and Estates lying within the said 
bounds shall Contribute to all Charge? referring to the maintainauce 
of a minister and erecting a meeting house there, and that they 
shall have liberty to nominate and appoint persons among themselves 
or town of Salem not exceeding the Number of Five, who are here- 
by impowered from time to time for the making and gathering of all 
rates and levies For the ends above expressed — and that in ease of 
refusal] or non payment of the same by any person or persons amongst 
them, that then the Constable? of Salem shall and hereby are impowered 
to make distress upon the goods of any that shall so neglect or refuse 
to afford their help in that use. And the same to deliver to the per- 
sons aforesaid to be improved accordingly and that when a minister 
shall be settled amongst them, they shall be freed from Contributing 
to the ministers of Salem — That this is a true Coppy taken out of the 
Court records Attests Edward Rawson, Secretary." 

There was a mutual understanding that no church was to be organ- 
ized at once, for there was an expressed unwillingness on the part of 
the Salem church to part with so large a number of its members at 
once, savoring somewhat, too. of a distrust as to what the new 
church might do, if allowed to become independent. As there was 
no church, the distinction customarily made between church members 
and others in voting was not strictly followed, and all householders 
in the parish were allowed a voice in the parish affairs. The parish 
in this case, therefore, instead of being an adjunct, as was customary, 
to a town, was given certain incidental functions as a town. 

The first meeting of the farmers was held Nov. 11, 1672. Lieut. 
Thomas Putnam. Thomas Fuller. St., Joseph Porter. Thomas Flint, 
and Joshua Rea. were chosen a committee, "to carry along the 
affairs according to the Court order." They instructed the committee 
to lay taxes on this basis: "All Vacant land at one half penny per 
acre ; all improved land at one penny per acre : all heads and other 
estate at country price." The latter was probably a rate established 
by the colonial government. It was also voted to make a rate of 
forty pounds in that year for Mr. Bayley. Mr. James Bayley had 
been in the parish but a few months, at the time of this organization. 
By this vote he became, not the settled pastor, but what might now 
be termed a " stated supply." 

At a meeting on the " 26th of the 10th mouth."' that is. December. 
1672. it was voted to build a meeting-house, "of 34 foot in length. 
28 foot broad, and 16 foot between joints:" and Nathan Putnam. 
Henry Henny. Joseph Hutchinson, and Joseph Putnam, were joined 
with the general committee before chosen for a building committee. 
A rate or tax was made to pay for the work. A little later, in March, 
"at a meeting of the farmers, it was voted, that the fifth part of the 
rate for building the meeting-house and finishing the same shall be 
paid in money, or butter at rive pence the pound, or wheat at the 
money price, and the rest of the payment in such pay as shall carry it 
along. This money and butter and wheat is to provide nails and "' 
[glass, probably, the word being partially obliterated] "for the meet- 

This meeting-house was built according to vote, though it was not 
wholly completed for a considerable period. In 1684. it was voted 
that the meeting-house " shall be filled and daubed at where it wants 
below the beams and plates. And that six casements shall be Hanged 
in the meeting-house, and that there be a canope set over the pulpit." 
A little later, galleries were added. This house was a two-story 
wooden building, with peaked roof. It stood upon the flat, north- 
east of the present site, upon the north side of Hobart Street, which 
is the old meeting-house road, and between the houses now occupied 

by Harriet and Hiram Hook. Joseph Hutchinson, a neighbor hard 
by, owned the meadow, and gave an acre of laud to the ''Inhabitants 
of the Farms, for the meeting-house and ministry amongst them." 
Those who desired were allowed to build " a house for their horses, on 
that side of the meeting house next the swamp." that is. at the rear 
towards the north-east. 

During the second year of his pastorate. Mr. Bayley? salary was 
made £47. He was to find his own firewood, or, if he preferred, to 
give up the extra £7. and receive his wood from the parish commit- 
tee. This supply of wood was reckoned at from thirty to thirty-six 
cords. In this second year. 1673. the parish voted to build a house 
for the minister, "the dimensions to be 28 foot in length. 13 foot be- 
tween joynts, and 20 foot in breadth, and a leentoo of 11 foot at the 
end of the house." This does not appear to have been carried into 
efl'ect. for. seven years later, in February. 1680, the vote is renewed ; 
"the Dimensions of the House are as folio weth: 42 foot long, twenty 
foot Broad: thirteen foot stude, fouer chimleis. no gable end?.'' "A 
Ratte" was made to meet the expense, to the amount of two hundred 
and twenty-one pounds, nine shillings, and six pence. On the " 26th 
of Genewarv." 1681, the work was well under way: and in Febru- 
ary. 1683, the house is stated to stand in need of being "Repaired." 
This hou?e stood some fifty rods north-west of the present parsonage, 
and a little less than twenty rods from the present course of Centre 
Street, on the north-eastern side, to the rear of the houses of John 
Roberts and Henry Prentiss, upon land now owned by E. and A. 
Mudge & Co. A lane near the house of John Roberts lead? into the 
ancient site. It was upon the south-western border of a tract of land 
containing about five acres, which Joseph Houltou had given in 1 
to the inhabitants of >alem Village, "for the use of the ministry." 

Mr. Bayley's ministry was not harmonious. There were many dis- 
putes between himself and his people, some of them arising from the 
delay in building this house, which caused a great deal of annoyance 
to the minister, and some expense. He was a young man. lacking 
in judgment and tact. The trouble was augmented from year to year, 
till it reached such a height as to require the assistance and counsel 
of the mother church, in Salem, and subsequently the intervention of 
the General Court of the Colony. Neither of the latter succeeded in 
removing the difficulty, and Mr. Bayley's ministry probably closed 
near the end of the year 1679. He did not remove from the limits 
of the parish, for. in the year 1680, certain of his late parishioners. 
Thomas. Nathaniel, and John Putnam. Joseph Hutchinson, and 
Thomas Fuller. Sr., gave him a tract of about forty acres of land, 
lying, in part, upon the hill and meadow east of the meeting-house. 
Here he had a house, in which he lived, apparently for several years, 
and which he continued to occupy occasionally, "for some years after 
the witchcraft transactions." After leaving the ministry, Mr. Bay- 
ley became a physician, and practised in Roxbury, where he died, 
in 17<>7. 

Mr. George Burroughs, also a Harvard man. came to the village to 
preach, in November. 1680. The farmers voted, "that Mr Bur- 
roughs for his mentenance amongst us Is to Have for the year ensu- 
ing sixty pounds In and as money one third part in mony cartain 
the two thirds in provision at money price as followeth : Ry and 
barly and malt at three shillings per bushel : indian corn at two 
shillings a bushel beaf at three half-pence a pound and pork at 
2 pence a pound Butter at 6 pence a pound and this to be paid 
at each half year's end : it is to be understood, that It shall be 
at the Inhabitants Liberty to discharge the wholl Sixty pounds in 
all mony if they se cause and his firewood.'" It appears that Mr. 
Bayley's friends still continued to. maintain his cause in the parish, 
and troubles continued in the church. Mr. Burroughs gave up his 
engagement, and left the village, in 1683, his ministry covering two 
years, and probably one-quarter of the third. This pastor's experi- 
ences here, appear to have been stormy and sad. and also his su - - 
quent career. His salary was neglected, and when his wife died, he 



had not the means to accord her a proper burial. He was the cause 
of what proved a bitter and deadly enmity among his parishioners, 
to whose hatred he became a martyr, in the subsequent years of the 
terrible witchcraft delusion. In those awful days, when the gallows 
were made to subserve the interests of petty spite, Mr. Burroughs 
was the minister, who, dragged from the far-off wilds of Maine, was 
granted a trial with mere mockery of justice, and, when riding through 
the streets of Salem to his execution, exercised his divine calling 
by the repetition of such touching scriptural quotations, that the 
populace were moved to tears ; and but for the intervention of 
Cotton Mather, might have procured for their former pastor a 

The early church of Salem Village, appears to have been rent and 
torn by internal quarrels and petty dissensions, and December 27, 
1681, it was "agreed upon and voted for the filter by the Inhabitants 
of Salem Village : that the Ratte made for the Defraing: of all our 
charges for the year 1681 : both for Houses and Lands with all other 
Consarnes belonging to the Ministry amongst us shall Be entered In 
our Book of Records with the names and pellicular summes : And 
that it shall not Bee Lawful for the Inhabitants of this Village to con- 
vey the Houses or Lands or any other consarnes Belonging to the 
Ministry to any particular person or persons not for any cause by 
Voat or other ways : But this estate to stand good to the Inhabitants 
of this place and to their successors for ever (for them.)" These 
votes are significant with respect to the nature of the troubles ex- 
isting among the farmers, which had to do largely with pecuniary 
affairs. This resolve, as to the conveyance of the lands and houses 
belonging to " the Ministry," had evident reference to the attempted 
donation of land to Mr. Bayley, or, perhaps, to Mr. Burroughs. The 
'"rate" for 1681 follows upon the record with the names of the men 
assessed, of which there are ninety-four, indicating a population of 
about five hundred. The whole tax amounted to a fraction above two 
hundred pounds, indicating the collection of a considerable sum, in 
payment for the minister's house then building. 

Mr. Deodat Lawson succeeded Mr. Burroughs. It would appear, 
by the records handed down, that this gentleman was of a mercenary 
disposition, and rilled with worldly greed. There was a long period 
of bargaining before a trade was fairly made, and then the reverend 
gentleman appears to have settled upon the same terms as granted to 
Mr. Burroughs. Mr. Daniel Eppes, the schoolmaster, supplied the 
pulpit during the interim. The new pastor finally came and settled, 
in February, 1684. As to his ministerial work, little is really known. 
It is certain, however, that dissensions among the people, both 
old and new, continued with increasing bitterness. Efforts were 
made to secure Mr. Lawson's permanent settlement, but the resist- 
ance was too strong ; and there being no prospect of a change, the 
minister left the parish in 1688. He visited the neighborhood again 
in 1692, however. 

Mr. Samuel Parris was the third pastor. This gentleman was born 
in London, and was thirty-five years old at his first arrival in Salem 
Village, in 1688. He had been a member of Harvard College, but 
was not a graduate, and had also been engaged in mercantile pursuits 
in the "West Indies and in Boston. He also drove a sharp bargain 
with the parish, and it was more than a year before he finally accepted 
its invitation. The exact terms of his settlement became a matter of 
dispute between pastor and people, which they were never able to 

June 18, 1689, there is an entry of a vote offering Mr. Parris a 
settlement of sixty-six pounds, one-third in money and two-thirds in 
provisions at specified rates, he being required to find his own fire- 
wood, and to keep the ministry house in good repair. Mr. Parris, 
however, never admitted that he settled on the basis of this vote. 
After his ordination, when the entry was read in a parish meeting, at 
which he was present, he declared, according to the testimony of three 
of his parishioners, that he knew nothing of any such vote, and 

would have nothing to do with it, and that " they were Knaves and 
Cheaters, that entered it." Upon the 10th of October, after reference 
to the repeal of the vote of 1681, forbidding the conveyance by sale 
or gift of the real estate of the parish, it is said to have been "voted 
and agreed by a General Concurrence, that we will give to Mr Parice 
our menestrye house and barn and two akers of Land next aioyneing 
to the house : and that Mr Parice take office amongst us and Live 
and dye in the worke of the menestrye amongst us." Mr. Parris, 
under the supposition that he had obtained the property, was now 
ready to take the office. 

On the 19th of November (29th N. S.), 1689, he became the min- 
ister of the parish aud pastor of the church. Mr. Parris's engagement 
appears, however, to have dated from the first of July preceding, his- 
receipts for salary being reckoned from that date. 

A covenant, " agreed upon and cousented unto by the Church of 
Christ at Salem Village, at their first Embodying, on ye 19 November, 
1689," is entered on the church book of records in the handwriting of 
Mr. Parris. It was probably drawn up by him. The covenant gave 
promise of better things than subsequently followed. The witchcraft 
delusion began to show itself about the end of February, 1692. It 
originated in the house of the pastor of the First Parish, and he, more 
than any one else, aided and abetted its spread, and urged on to the 
deeds of public wrong that were wrought. The parish book contains 
uo record of the witchcraft troubles, and it never contained any, for 
there are no erasious or missing leaves. In this whole affair, Mr. 
Parris evinced the same spirit to the end, with which he commenced. 
He made no attempts to conciliate those whom he had offended, or to 
make such amends as he might for the wrongs they had some of them 

He remained hard and unyielding. He was sharp in all his dealings 
with his people, standing for trifles, and tenacious of the ground he 
held. He opposed the calling of a council to consider the troubles 
and difficulties of the parish, and delayed it upon the most trifling 
pretences, even when to directly oppose it, had become hazardous. 
He did not finally consent to its assembling, until he found it would 
go strongly against him if he longer opposed it. His confession, 
which he styles " My Meditations for Peace," in which he in some 
sort admits his error, is not satisfactory. He appears in it to be 
humiliated, on account of the breaking out of the delusion in his own 
family ; but his expressions and language are still consistent with the 
maintenance of the ground that the punishment meted out to the 
unfortunate victims of the delusion was justifiable. He admits that 
he may have made mistakes with others, but denies that he was actu- 
ated by any wrong spirit. The council met on April 3, 1695. It 
was constituted favorably to Mr. Parris, but it was not unfair in its 
award of censure and advice on either side. The council did all that 
was to be expected in its attempts to restore peace and harmony, with 
the continuance of Mr. Parris in the ministry. The large minority 
opposed to him did not rest, and they continued to evince such enmity 
to their pastor that the Mathers and members of the council urged 
him to resign. This he was not ready to do, and neither were the 
larger part of the church prepared to have him. The next year, how- 
ever, with the last Sabbath in June, Mr. Parris closed his ministry. 
Mr. Parris refused to give up the ministry-house and land, which he 
held, and there ensued a bitter struggle for possession. The matter 
went to court, and thence before a board of arbitration, consisting of 
the "Hon. Wait Winthrop, Elisha Cook, and Samuel Sewall, Esqs." 
The latter awarded Mr. Parris £79 9s. 6d. in addition to the arrear- 
ages of his salary due him from the inhabitants, and required him to 
give a quitclaim of the ministry-house and land. This litigation was 
not finally settled until September, 1697. In the meantime, the min- 
ister's wife had died, just after his resignation. Her remains lie in 
the Wadsworth Cemetery, and over the grave is a stone with this 
inscription : 

"Elizabeth Parris aged about 48 years, Dec. July y e 14 1696 



1 Sleep precious Dust, no stranger now to Rest. 
Thou hast thy longed wish in Abraham's Brest. 
Farewell Be>t Wife, Choice Mother, Neighbur, Friend. 
We'll wail thee less for hopes of thee i' th' end. 

S. P.' 

This is all which is left to bind the name of Parris with the history 

of the town. It is a singular coincidence, that each of the four first 
ministers buried a wife during his residence in the village. 

Mr. Parris. after removing from Salem Village, was Bettled in Stow 
in the same year. 1697 : and subsequently he preached in Dunstable 
and Sudbury, dying in the latter place in the midst of poverty. 
crushed and broken, on the 20th of February. 1720. 

The parish was at some trouble, after the departure of Mr. Parris, 
to supply itself with a minister, and "by a unanimous consent" it is 
recorded, "that we will keep Tuesday the 12th of this instant Octo- 
ber (1697) as a day of fasting and prayer to seek direction of the 
Wonderful Counsellor about providing us a minister.'" On the 19th 
of November, following, the people agreed "by a unanimous con- 
sent " in the choice of a committee "to treate with the Rev. Mr. 
Joseph Green : to see if they can prevaile with him to come and 
preach with us awhile in order to a further settlement." 

The next week, the church had a special day of tasting and prayer, 
and a meeting at the house of Dea. Edward Putnam. Prayer was 
offered, "that God would provide a pastor for this his church accord- 
ing to his promise made to his people, that he would give them pas- 
tors after his own heart, who should feed his people with knowledge 
and understanding, that his church may uot he as sheep without a 
shepherd." "After prayer being ended, the church having before 
this day had some experience of the ministerial preaching and teach- 
ing of Mr. Joseph Green amongst us, it was then consented to and 
voted by the church that we desire him to continue in the same work 
still amongst us. and that in order to take office upon him : if it shall 
please the grate Shepherd of the Sheep to besto such a blessing 
upon us." 

December 20, 1697. the parish took corresponding action "by a 
universal consent.*' A salary of seventy pounds, with the use of the 
ministry house and land, and his firewood, which last was commuted 
after some years for eight pounds, was offered the new pastor. The 
minister came and remained with the church many months prior to 
his formal settlement, which was deferred to see if the people would 
hold to the same mind concerning him. In June, the church and 
parish gave him another call, and on Thursday. November 10, 1698, 
the new pastor was formally ordained. He then lacked two weeks of 
being 23 years old. His marriage with Elizaheth Gerrish, a daugh- 
ter of the Wenham minister, occurred the next spring. Mr. Green 
labored assiduously with his people to restore harmony and peace, 
and attained so much success that, soon after his coming, the church 
voted to drop the action that had been pending for years against the 
offending, or aggrieved, brethren, declaring that they "looked upon 
it as nothing," and that it " should be buried forever." Mr. Green 
has a minute in the church-book for Feb. 5. 1699, of "a matter of 
thankfulness " in the presence of these brethren and sisters at the com- 
munion with the church on that Sabbath for the first time since 1692. 

The meeting-house was now in need of extensive repairing, and in 
the year 1700 it was voted to build a new house. It was placed on 
" Watch-House Hill," on the site of the present church edifice, but 
fronting towards the north, upon the " Old Meeting-house Koad." It 
is described as being "before Dea. Ingersoll's door." The hitter's 
house stood about on the site of the present parsonage, but probably 
a little further to the rear, or toward the north-west. Dea. Ingersoll 
gave the land; but with the added condition that "Deacon Putnam 
and John Buxton and John Putnam and Benj. Putnam becom bound 
in a bond of a hundred pounds apeece to defend the title of said land 
to the peple as long as they make use of it to that end." This pro- 
vision was made on account of some question, afterwards adjusted, ' 
with respect to the validity of the title, by which Dea. Ingersoll held 
his real estate. The house was raised in the spring of 1701, and the 

work of building occupied rather more than a year, so that the people 
did not meet for the first time in the new house until July 26, 1702. 

Its dimensions were forty-eight feet by forty-two ; and twenty feet 
between the joints. It had a tower, or " turret," and a hip roof, or 
"gable ends." There were galleries in the interior, and the walls 
were plastered up to the plates, but left unfinished above. The esti- 
mated cost of its construction was £330, which fell short of the sum 
required. About £36 more were subsequently raised by subscription 
among the " neighburs " ; that is. persons who attended the meeting 
at the village, but who lived outside of the parish bounds. Of this 
sum. Mr. Green gave as his own contribution, he not being regularly 
taxed, £10, and some help was received from Salem. 

The building committee were Capt. Thomas Flint, Mr. Joseph Pope, 
Lieut. Jonathan Putnam, Mr. Joseph Herrick, and Benjamin Putnam. 
It was voted, that those that had their road shortened to the meeting- 
house by the change of location, should do the work of levelling the 
new ground ; and, further, this work was required to be done satis- 
factorily before the house was raised. This house stood until 1785.- 
It played a very important part in town affairs, being used as one of 
the places of assembly, or town-houses, after the incorporation of the 
district and organization of the town. 

It was during Mr. Green's beneficent administration that the first 
schools were established, in a building erected for that purpose, as we 
have before mentioned. The first notice of the thanksgiving collec- 
tion for charitable distribution occurs in his diary in 1707. Whether 
the custom existed before that period is not known. The use of the 
"Halfway Covenant" was introduced by Mr. Green. This was an 
arrangement by which persons, who had themselves been baptized in 
infancy, but who did not feel prepared to unite with the church, 
were yet brought so far into connection with it as to be allowed the 
privilege of having their children baptized. From this time forward 
there were many that thus "owned the covenant " who did not thereby 
become members of the church, and who did not regard themselves as 
having become, experimentally, Christians. The custom was not set 
aside for more than a hundred years, and until after the settlement of 
Dr. Braman. Mr. Green, though not a man of unusual ability, was 
an acceptable preacher. He was sometimes called upon to preach on 
public occasions in other towns. He has left no sermons, but his 
journal remains, which contains a valuable record of his daily life and 

His tastes were rural, and he was fond of farming and a great lover 
of nature. He liked hunting, and it is related of him that he killed, 
on one occasion, eighteen pigeons at a single shot. He was the owner 
of a considerable estate, of which there is an inventory which describes 
his landed property as follows : — 

"About 110 acres of land near ye ministry house — 400 pounds. 
Five acres of orchard lot westward of ye house — 120 pounds. Twenty- 
four acres of meadow and upland at Will's Hill — 80 pounds. Three 
hundred acres on ye north side of ye Merrimack — 150 pounds. With 
the personal property, the whole estate amounted in round numbers 
to 1,050 pounds. The farm north of the Merrimack near Haverhill 
was bought by Mr. Green the spring before his death." 

Good old Bray Wilkins, one of the former pillars of the church, 
died at the opening of the year 1702, and his pastor thus affection- 
ately records it in his diary : — 

"1702, Jan. 1. Cold. I at study. Bray Wilkins dyed, who was 
in his \)2 year. He lived to a good old age and saw his children's 
children and peace upon our little Israel. 2. The church here kept a 
day of prayer for ye outpouring of ye spirit of God upon us and ours. 
Lord hear us. Old William Buckley dyed this evening. He was at 
ye meeting ye last Sabbath and dyed with ye cold (I fear) for want of 
comfort and good tending. Lord forgive. He was about .SO years 
old : I visited him and prayed with him on Monday and also ye even- 
ing before he dyed. He was very poor, but I hope had not his portion 
in this life." 



This Mr. Buckley was one of the many sufferers by the witchcraft 
delusion. His wife and daughter had been imprisoned during the 
prosecutions of that awful time, and the old man and his family had 
been impoverished by the costs of the court, unjustly laid upon them. 

The Rev. Mr. Green's pastorate covered a period of eighteen years, 
and he died among his people, while still in the exercise of his duties 
as their spiritual guide and friend. He passed away on the 26th of 
November, 1715, being forty years and two days of age. 

More than a year and a half elapsed before the dead pastor's place 
was filled, — the pulpit being supplied in the interim by candidates. 
On the 7th of August, 1716, a call was extended to Mr. Peter Clark. 
Negotiations followed, and it was not until June 5, 1717, that he was 

Mr. Clark was a native of Watertown, a graduate of Harvard in 
the class of 1712, and was about twenty-five years of age at the time 
of his settlement. He married Deborah Hobart, of Brain tree, Nov. 6, 
1719. The father of the lady, Peter Hobart, moved to Salem Village 
some years later, or about 1730. He purchased land of Robert Hutch- 
inson, and occupied, perhaps for a time, his house. But soon after, 
and using, it may be, portions of the old building, he put up upon 
Hobart Street, which is named for him, the house now owned and 
occupied in part by his descendants, the family of Perley Clark. The 
wife of the late John Hook, Jr., and the family of Benjamin Millett 
are also among the descendants of the Clark and Hobart families by 
this marriage. 

Mr. Clark continued in the ministry in this parish for more than half 
a century, his pastorate covering a period of almost exactly fifty-one 
years to the day of his death, June 10, 1768. He differed strongly 
from his predecessor in character, and was yet well suited to his 
people. His mind was sharp and vigorous, and he had a taste for 
theological discussions, which led him into the field of religious litem- 
ture. He has left a large number of published discourses. 

The first church bell in the village was placed in the "turret" of 
the meeting-house in 1725, the cost being defrayed by subscription. 
It weighed 326 pounds. The bell-rope came down from the "turret" 
above to the middle of the broad aisle, where the bell-ringer stood. 
This bell continued in use almost to the close of the century. 

The year 1727 was marked by the occurrence of a very violent 
earthquake, which shook the town of Danvers to its centre, and of 
which the Rev. Mr. Clark makes the following record : 

"On ye 29th Day of last October, Being Lord's Day, at night, 
between 10 & 11 o'clock, y re happened a very Great Earthquake, 
accompanied with a terrible Noise and Shaking \v c was greatly sur- 
prising to ye whole Land, ye Rumbling Noise in ye bowels of ye 
Earth with some lesser trepidation of ye Earth, has ben Repeated at 
Certain Intervals for Divers weeks after." A great fear appears to 
have fallen upon all the people, and a special day of prayer was 
held. The circumstance became the occasion of a revival, and many 
were added to the church. 

The people at "Wills Hill" withdrew, after some little opposition, 
from the Danvers brethren, and organized the first church in Middle- 
ton, Oct. 22, 1729. " Wills Hill " and its vicinity had been incorpo- 
rated as the town of Middleton the year previous, 1728. Mr. 
Andrew Peters, the first pastor of Middleton church, was ordained 
Nov. 26, 1729. An addition was made to the ministry house in 

Mr. Clark was very much enfeebled by age in his latter years ; his 
death occurred in his seventy-sixth year. His wife had died three 
years before, and his remains were interred by her side, in the Wads- 
worth Cemetery. 

The parish was without a pastor for four years after the death of 
Mr. Clark. A call was extended to Mr. Amos Sawyer, of Reading, 
which Mr. Sawyer declined. A second invitation was extended to 
him, couched in somewhat different terms, which he accepted, and a 
a call was issued for a church meeting to be held early in September, 

1769, to arrange for his settlement. There was a minority in the 
church opposed to his coming, and the people were not entirely har- 
monious in acting in the matter. In the midst of their consultations 
and disputes in regard to the settlement, Mr. Sawyer suddenly died. 

The population had more than doubled at Mr. Wadsworth's settle- 
ment, and there were one hundred and fifty families in the parish. 

Mr. Wadsworth was born in Milton, July 18, 1750. He graduated 
with distinction at Harvard, in the class of 1769 ; he taught school 
for a year, then studied theology at Cambridge, and was licensed with 
Mr. Williams, of Weymouth, to preach, in 1772, and ordained in Dan- 
vers in the same year, while he was yet in the twenty-third year of 
his age. He married Mary Holson, of Rowley, and took for his sec- 
ond wife Mary Carnes, of Lynn, who survived him. He received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity, from Harvard University, in 1816. 

In 1786, a new meeting-house, the third occupied by the parish, 
was erected, pursuant to a resolve of the year before. It was used 
during the subsequent winter, but was not finished until the spring of 
1788. This house was sixty feet long, by forty-six feet wide, with 
posts twentj'-seven feet high. It had a well-proportioned steeple at 
the northern end, which was fourteen feet square at the base. At the 
opposite end was a porch, twelve feet square. This house was paint- 
ed ; its cost was £1,606. The interior was supplied with pews, built 
under the direction of the parish, and sold at auction. Prior to this, 
it had been the custom for persons who desired, to construct their own 
pews. There were sixty-three of these pews on the ground floor, 
and twenty-five in the gallery. The old bell of the former meeting- 
house was hung in the steeple of the new building, but was exchanged 
in 1802 for a bell weighing 674 pounds, and costing $299.50, for the 
bell alone. This meeting-house was destroyed by fire, on the morn- 
ing of the 24th of September, 1805. It was discovered to be on fire 
before daybreak, and soon burned to the ground. The fire was be- 
lieved to have been set by one Holten Goodale. He was arrested 
and tried before the next term of the Superior Court at Salem. He 
was adjudged non compos mentis, and was committed as an insane 

Eight silver cups, of the value of twenty-five dollars each, belong- 
ing to the communion service, were lost by this tire. One of these 
was presented by Judge Lindal, for whom Lindal Hill is named, and 
the others by different members of the church. A small amount of sil- 
ver, though, Dr. Wadsworth says, not sufficient for one cup, was found 
in the ruins ; a circumstance which renders it probable that the church 
was robbed by some unknown persons, before it was fired. Judge 
Timothy Lindal, who gave the cup before mentioned, lived at the foot 
of the present Lindal Hill, at about the middle of the last century, in 
the house now occupied by Richard Flint. He frequently had repre- 
sented Salem in the General Court, was Speaker of the House sev- 
eral times, and was also a Justice of General Sessions and of Common 
Pleas. He died, Oct. 25, 1760. 

A brick edifice, with " tower and dome," succeeded the structure 
which was burned. It occupied the same site, but was made to face 
in a different direction from its predescessor, fronting, as the present 
building now does, upon "the great road leading from Andover to 
Salem." The corner-stone was laid, May 16, 1806, and the building 
was occupied, November 23d, of the same year. It cost nearly $12,- 
000, including the expense of a new bell to replace the one which 
had been melted. This new bell weighed 1,116 pounds, and cost 
$444.75. No attempt was made to heat the house, and it was not 
until 1821, that stoves were introduced, they being furnished by sub- 
scription. There were seventy-six pews in this house, on the floor, 
and thirty in the gallery. The dimensions of the building were sixty- 
six feet by fifty-six. Height to the eaves, twenty-eight feet. The 
tower, as stated by Dr. Wadsworth, was "sixteen feet, four inches 
square at the base, having two wings, crowned with a cupola, and ter- 
minated with a vane ninety-six feet from the foundation." 

In the winter of 1805-6, the inhabitants of the New Mills, or Dan- 



versport, incorporated themselves with the First Parish. Under the 
old regime, they had formed ft part of the South Parish, or '' Middle 
Precinct": and as long as the parish taxes had been levied on the 
inhabitants of the New Mills, as members of the South Parish, they 
had found it difficult to transfer themselves, although some of them 
had worshipped in the house which was burned. At this time, how- 
ever, the South Parish raised its funds by taxes on its pews, and not 
on the inhabitants ; and the people of the New Mills availed them- 
selves of the opportunity offered, to withdraw their connection. They 
wire transferred, by Act of the General Court. March 8, 1806, " for 
so long a time as the Act empowering the South Parish to tax its pews, 
keeps in force/' The tiist temperance movement in Danvers, origi- 
nated during the latter years of Dr. Wadsworth's ministry. Intem- 
perance had become a serious evil ; and in 1812, the first society in 
this State was formed, to take steps to check this curse. Dr. Wads- 
worth, and Judge Holten, of Danvers, were both member.-; and, 
through their efforts, an auxiliary society was formed, in Danvers, in 
1*13. Dr. Wadsworth delivered an address before this society in 
LSI 5. 

In 1 8 1 •"> . a Sabbath school was organized, in connection with the 
First Parish Church. Dea. Samuel Preston was its first superin- 
tendent. Dr. Wadsworth closed his long ministry on the 18th of 
January, 182ii, the day of his death. He was seventy-five years and 
six months old, and had been pastor of the church for fifty-three years 
and twenty-six days, outranking his predecessor in this respect. The 
Rev. Samuel Dana, of Marblehead, preached the funeral sermon on 
this occasion, and the remains were interred in the Wadsworth burv- 
iug-grouud. Dr. Wadsworth was a man of tine personal appearance, 
and of great bodily vigor. 

Milton Palmer Braman, son of the Rev. Isaac Braman, of New 
Rowley, now Georgetown, succeeded Dr. Wadsworth in the ministry 
of the First Parish. He was born. Aug. 6, 1799 ; graduated at Har- 
vard, in the class of 1819, and at Andover Theological School, in the 
class of 1*24. He was ordained. April 12, 182n\ and. November 15th 
of that year, married Mary, daughter of John Parker, of East Brad- 
ford, now Groveland. 

The " Halfway Covenant,' - before alluded to. was abolished under 
Dr. Braman's mini-try. as also the old method of raising money, by 
levying money upon all the inhabitants of a parish. From early time-, 
each parish had had its special territory, and all persons living within 
that territory, had been obliged to contribute to the general parish 
expenses, and for the maintenance of preaching. This arrangement 
had caused no trouble in the days of it- origin, for the people were 
all of one faith ; but. with later years, other settlers came, who de- 
sired to contribute to other sects than the dominant one, or to none 
at all, and the parish tax soon became a grievance. Abatements 
were made gradually, but they became more frequent and more gen- 
erous in their provisions, and near the close of the last century, there 
was no serious legal obstacle in the way, to prevent a person from 
paying his assessment where he chose. The parish rate, or tax. how- 
ever, continued until 1828, when the last one was laid. In 1*38, an 
Act of incorporation was obtained, and that which had been known as 
the North Parish, the old First Territorial Parish, became the ''First 
Religious Society in Danvers." 

In 1831, the society entered into negotiations for a parsonage, 
and began to take steps to secure the dwelling and estate formerly 
owned by Dea. Nathaniel Ingersoll, situated north-west from the 
meeting-house. The property had passed through many hands, until, 
in 18<>2. it came into the i ssion of Ebenezer Goodale, known in 

later years as Gen. Goodale. 

He mortgaged the property to Elizabeth Williams, of Salem : and 
as he could not fulfil the conditions of the deed, she foreclosed and 
took possession. This was the opportunity that had been waited for, 
and the place was deeded at once, May 26, 1832, to Moses Putnam. 
Samuel Preston, Gilbert Tapley, and their associates, for a parsonage. 

From Mr. Tapley comes the modern name of Taplevville, applied to 
that section of the town in the vicinity of the present carpet factory. 

The old house of Dea. Ingersoll was standing in 1733. The present 
mansion was probably built twenty years later on the same site. This 
second house underwent extensive alterations and repairs, upon its 
(•fining into the hands of the parish. An addition was made along 
the whole length in the rear, by which the width of the main building 
was increased. The repairs and improvements having been completed, 
the house was first occupied by Dr. Braman, Jan. 8, 1833, and has 
since furnished a home for the parish minister. 

Jesse Putnam, Samuel Preston. William Preston, Nathaniel Pope, 
Peter Cross, Daniel F. Putnam, and John Preston were chosen as a 
building committee for a new ediffice. A year later. Nathan Tapley 
was chosen to till the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel F. Put- 
nam. Levi Preston was the master carpenter. The work was done 
by the day. The new building was eighty-four feet in length by sixty 
in breadth, and its cost was about twelve thousand dollars. The pulpit, 
as originally built, was high, and enclosed in front. It was lowered 
and remodelled in 1864. The new house was built with a basement 
story, in which was finished a large room for a Sabbath school and 
other public uses. This was named Village Hall. The designation, 
though still in use, is growing somewhat less familiar than in former 
days. The house was dedicated November 21, 1839, Dr. Braman 
preaching the sermon from Titus i. 3. 

In 1840, Dr. Braman asked for a dissolution of the pastoral relation 
on the ground of ill health, but he was persuaded to take a leave of 
absence in Europe. He returned, with restored strength, at the open- 
ing of the period of the great discussion upon American slavery. He 
declared that he regarded slavery as an "atrocious system, — an abom- 
inable system of oppression and mischief." — "one of the heaviest curses 
that ever afflicted man or provoked Heaven," to quote his own lan- 
guage. He did not approve, however, of the particular measures that 
some advocated for its removal. His course in declining to give cer- 
tain political notices from the pulpit at this time caused the passage of 
the following endorsement by the society in 1841 : — 

"Resolved, that our ordained minister does, and of right ought to 
stand before his people in the discharge of the duties of bis office in a 
free and independent pulpit ; that we approve the stand he has taken 
in the communication read to us yesterday, so far as relates to the 
giving of notices, and that we adopt the same as the rule by which we 
wish him to be governed while God shall spare him to labor amongst 
u- " The resolution was adopted, by a vote of forty-three to five. 

On the 25lh of March. 1*44. the inhabitants of the "Plain." having 
long desired a church of their own. organized the "Third Orthodox 
Congregational Society in Danvers." The meeting for organization 
was held in the school-house at the " Plain," and Benjamin Turner, 
Samuel Brown, and Nathaniel Silvester were chosen as the standing 
committee. Moses J. Currier was chosen treasurer and collector. A 
meetiugdiouse was erected during the same year on the site now occu- 
pied. The first meeting was held in the basement, then called Granite 
Hall. Nov. 4. 1*44, and the house itself was dedicated Jan. 22. 1845. 
A permanent church organization, with forty-two members, had been 
formed Dec. 5. 1844. The Rev. Richard Tolman. the first pastor of the 
church, was ordained Sept. 17, 1845. He resigned Nov. 8. 1848. The 
Rev. James Fletcher succeeded June 20, 1849. The church suffered 
seriously in the great tire of 1845, and on the 10th of July, 1850, was 
burned by the act of an incendiary. A young man, who was con- 
victed of the crime, was sentenced to the State Prison for life; but 
nine years subsequently, on the petition of members of the society, 
he was pardoned.* 

Measures were taken immediately to rebuild, and on the 17th of 
September, 1851. the present edifice was dedicated. In 1854. a 
clock was placed in the tower. In 1857, the term "third" having 

* The authority f<>r this sketch of the First Parish is taken from tin- Rev. Charles B. 
Rice's "History of the First Pariah iu Danvers." 



lost its appropriateness by the division of the town, the present title 
of the "Maple Street" Church and Society was adopted. Mr. Fletcher 
resigned May 21, 18(54, and the Rev. William Camithers was installed 
as pastor April 18, 1866. A revival was in progress at his settlement, 
as a result of which eighty persons became members of the church. 
Mr. Carruthers resigned March 28. 1868. The Rev. James Brand was 
ordained as his successor on the 6th of October, 1869. The Rev. 
W. E. C. Wright succeeded Mr. Brand in 1874. 

In 1860, Dr. Braman prepared again to resign his pastoral relations 
with his people of the First Parish, but it was not until the last Sabbath 
of March, 1861, that he closed his ministry. He retired with the 
strongest expressions of affection and esteem from his parishioners, 
mingled with regret at his going. Strong efforts had been made to 
dissuade him from his purpose, but without success. He was minister 
of the parish but a little less than thirty-five years. 

The present pastor, the Rev. Charles B. Rice, preached here, 
for the first time, on the 24th of May, 1863. He was called, with 
unanimity, by church and parish, during the next month, and was 
installed on Wednesday, the 2d of September, 1863. He is a native 
of Conway, Mass., and had been pastor of the church in Saco, Me., 
for two years ending with December, 1861. 

In 1864, a large part of the parsonage land was sold. Included in 
it was the original gift, by Joseph Holten, for the use of the ministry. 
No part of this original "ministry land " is now owned by the parish, 
it is believed, saving only a narrow lane just beyond the house of Mr. 
John Roberts, running into the north-east from the main road toward 
the site of the first parish, or ministry house, and, perhaps, also a 
small strip at the north-eastern corner of the present parsonage land. 
The portion thus sold lay mostly to the north-west of the land now 
belonging to the parsonage, though a part of it was to the east, extend- 
ing in that direction to Forest Street. 

On the 8th of October, 1872, the two hundredth anniversary of the 
establishment of the First Parish, at Salem Village, was appropriately 
observed by the society. 

The Baptist Church at Danversport is the second, in point of age, 
in the town. The society was formed Nov. 12, 1781. The Rev. 
Benjamin Foster was invited to preach for the society, which he did 
for about two years. A meeting-house was built in 1783, and 
while Mr. Foster was still in the place. After his removal there was 
no resident minister for nine years, though there was preaching for 
most of the time, The church was organized, with thirty-six mem- 
bers, July 16, 1793, and the Rev. Thomas Green became, at the same 
time, pastor. Mr. Green resigned his pastorate, Nov. 26, 1796, and 
the church was without a settled pastor till 1802. 

In May, 1802, the Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin, afterward president of 
Waterville College, in Maine, became pastor. His ministry lasted six- 
teen years. Dr. Chaplin resigned in 1818, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
James A. Boswell, who remained only till April 25, 1820. The Rev. 
Arthur Drinkwater was installed, Dec. 7, 1821, and remained until 
June 26, 1829. In 1828 a new meeting-house was erected and the 
old building was sold. It was subsequently removed to the Plain, 
where it is now used as a currying-shop, by Mr. John A. Learoyd. 

The Rev. James Barnaby succeeded to the pastorate in July, 1830, 
remaining until May, 1832. The Rev. John Holyrod followed him, 
and continued until his death, Nov. 8, 1837. The church prospered 
under his charge. The next incumbent was the Rev. E. W. Dickin- 
son, who held the pastorate from May, 1838, to Oct. 26, 1839. The 
Rev. John A. Avery succeeded, from February, 1841, to April, 1843. 
Several members of the church and society withdrew at this time, to 
form, at the Plain, "what was styled a Free Evangelical Society." 
The Rev. J. W. Eaton followed in the pastorate, from July, 1843, to 
August, 1849. The meeting-house of 1828 was burned, Sept. 6, 
1847, the people losing heavily thereby. The present house was 
built in 1848. The Rev. A. W. Chaflin was ordained April 24, 
1850. He remained the pastor until he resigned, April 26, 1862. 

The pastoral succession was continued as follows : The Rev. Foster 
Henry, from Dec. 5, 1862, to May 1, 1865; the Rev. Charles H. 
Holbrook, from Nov. 14, 1865, to Sept. 2, 1870; the Rev. J. A. 
Goodhue, from Nov. 22, 1870, to May 1, 1872. The Rev. G. W. 
Mc Cullough was ordained June 20, 1873. 

The Universalist Society was organized in 1829, although there had 
been a partial organization from 1815, with only an occasional service. 
Meetings were held, for two or three years after the organization, in 
the old Baptist meeting-house, after its sale and before its removal. 
A meeting-house was begun in 1832, and made ready for occupancy 
by June, 1833. The present church, with " Gothic Hall" in the base- 
ment, was built in 1859. The pastors have been : the Rev. F. A. 
Iiodsdon, 1831-32; the Rev. D. D. Smith, 1833; the Rev. W. H. 
Knapp, 1831-35 ; the Rev. Samuel Bremblecom, 1836-39 ; the Rev. 
Asher Davis, 1840-41; the Rev. D. P. Livermore, 1842; the Rev. 
S. C. Buckley, 1843-45 ; the Rev. J. W. Hanson, 1846-48 ; the Rev. 
J. P. Putnam, from 1849 to Nov. 30, 1864, the date of his death; 
the Rev. H. C. Delong, 1865-68 ; the Rev. G. J. Sanger, 1869-75 ; 
the Rev. H. P. Forbes, in 1875. 

The first Catholic service was held in Dan vers Nov. 1, 1854, at the 
house of Mr. Edward McKeigne. The officiating clergyman was the 
Rev. Thomas H. Shahan, then pastor of the Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception in Salem. Regular services began soon to be held in 
Franklin Hall, and subsequently in a chapel which stood on the south 
side of High Street, near the old cemetery. In 1859, the house, first 
built by the Universalist Society, was purchased, and after an occu- 
pancy of several years, this building having been greatly enlarged and 
remodelled, was dedicated anew by the Right Rev. Bishop J. J. 
Williams, of Boston, April 30, 1871. Prior to 1864, pastoral duties 
were performed by clergymen from Salem. Oct. 13, 1864, the Kev. 
Charles Rainoni was settled in charge of this parish, and also of the 
Catholic parish in Marblehead, having his residence in Danvers. In 
1872 he removed to Marblehead, the parishes being separated, and 
his place was taken by the Rev. Mr. O'Reilly ; to whom succeeded, in 
April, 1873, the present pastor, the Rev. Joseph Haley. 

The church is known as the Church of the Annunciation. The 
Catholic parish of Danvers includes the towns of Middleton and Tops- 
field, and it embraces a population estimated at more than 1,500. 

Episcopal services were first held in Danvers, in the hall in the 
bank building, June 28, 1857 ; the Rev. George Leeds, then of 
Salem, officiating. The church was organized under the title of 
Calvary Church, April 14, 1858, the Rev. R. T. Chase being ordained 
as rector. The church building was consecrated by Bishop Manton 
Eastburn, of Boston, May 25, 1859, and the parish was incorporated 
in October of the following year. Nearly the whole cost of this 
building was borne by Joseph Adams and E. D. Kimball, and to their 
liberality the parish owes its possession free of debt. Mr. Chase held 
the pastorate about four years, the Rev. S. J. Evans about three 
years, and the Rev. W. I. Magill entered upon his duties in June, 

The Unitarian Society began its worship in the town hall on the 
first Sunday in August, 1865, the Rev. A. P. Putnam conducting the 
services. The preaching was supplied by various ministers until the 
coming of the Rev. Leonard J. Livermore, April 1, 1867. A chapel 
was subsequently built on High Street and dedicated in 1871. The 
cost of the building was $13,000, including its site. Mr. Livermore 
was formally settled as pastor in 1872. The number of families con- 
nected with this society is about fifty. 

The Methodist Society began to hold its meetings in the summer 
of 1871 in Lincoln Hall, which had formerly been the school-house in 
Tapleyville. Its meeting-house Mas commenced the next year, and 
was dedicated in the spring of 1873. The entire cost of the building 
was about $15,000. 

The Swedenborgians have held occasional meetings for several 
years. They began to be held with somewhat of regularity in 



December, 1869, at the house of Mrs. Mary Page ; and in 1872 
regular service was established at Bowditch Hall. There is no 
formal organization, but the services are conducted by the pastor of 
the New Jerusalem church in Salem. 

The literary societies of Danvers form another of the distinctive 
features of this charming old New England town. 

One of the earliest institutions of which there is mention, was the 
"Danvers Social Library," established about the year 1794. It was 
owned in shares, and the books were loaned to shareholders. 

A library association, known as the Ilulten Circulating Library, 
was formed about the year 1836, and existed for five years. 

The North Danvers Lyceum, a literary and library association, 
existed for some years prior to 1840. 

Of the later associations, the Bowditch Club was formed in the fall 
of 1857 in the school-house at Putnamville. The first formal meeting 
was held Dec. 1, 1857. The membership of the club included both 
sexes, and its meetings were both entertaining and instructive. For 
many years, prior to the incorporation of the Peabody Institute, this 
club constituted itself the town's lvceum, and conducted some tine 
courses of lectures, for which the best talent iu the country was 

A debating society, which had existed for several years at the 
Centre, under the name of the Holten Lyceum, was merged, in the 
fall of 1875, with a new organization under the title of the Wadsworlh 
Association. The objects of the latter were similar to those of the 
Bowditch. The Danvers Shakespeare Club was organized in the 
winter of 1873-4. The Danvers Choral Society, a musical organ- 
ization, was formed in December, 1873. 



Of the older mechanical industries of the town, the manufacture of 
iron at the Port, perhaps, takes precedence, from the fact that we are 
told, upon excellent authority, that even as far back as the days of the 
ancient " Orchard Farm," and the residence of the colonial governor 
at the New Mills, that Endicott himself speaks of his iron-works 
{vide Upham) ; and from that time to the present, with varying for- 
tunes, the manufacture of rolled iron has been prosecuted upon nearly 
the same spot. 

Prior to the Revolution, the records tell us that the business of ship- 
building was a thriving industry at the New Mills, as has been pre- 
viously mentioued in this sketch. Without doubt, that was its halcyon 
period, for since that time it has steadily declined. 

Tanning, and the manufacture of leather, stands next in point of 
age, although to-day this business is of minor importance. The with- 
drawal of the South Parish took with it nearly all the leading firms 
engaged in this pursuit, and there are but very few remaining within 
the present limits of the town. Edward Southwick has the honor of 
being the first tanner of whom there is mention, and the fouuder of 
the business in Danvers. He carried on the manufacture of leather 
at the outset, after a very primitive fashion, — his first vats consisting 
of half hogsheads sunk iu the ground. He died in 1771. 

Danvers is one of the centres of the shoe trade in the county, and 
it has within its limits, very near to the old historic grounds of the 
First Parish, one of the most complete and admirably appointed shoe 
manufactories in this country, with a capacity for fifteen hundred pairs 
daily of women's and misses' pegged or sewed shoes, the average value 
of which is about two thousand dollars. The business has been, for a 
long period, the prominent industry of the town. Caleb Oakes and 
Moses Putnam were prominent among the early manufacturers. The 

shoes produced were chiefly of a coarse grade, intended for the South- 
ern slaves. They were sent South in coasting vessels ; but during the 
war of 1812, this mode of conveyance being dangerous and imprac- 
ticable, the Danvers "Farmers" established means of communication 
by horse teams over the road. From about this period, the number 
of manufacturers iu the town has averaged twenty or more ; and the 
average yearly value of the boots and shoes produced, from one-half 
a million to a million dollars. The early wholesale trade was confined 
at first to men's sewed slippers, which were packed in barrels, and sent 
on private venture by the captains of coasting vessels to Baltimore. 
As the trade increased, the class of work changed to that of pegged 

In 1833, Dea. Samuel Preston, of the First Parish, invented the 
first pegging machine, for which he received a patent, dated March 8th, 
of that year, and signed by President Andrew Jackson. Mr. Preston 
still has the shoe from which he obtained this patent. This machine 
was arranged to put two rows of pegs upon each side of the shoe at 
the same time. Although not generally adopted, its principle is in- 
volved in all the machines of the present day. From the report of the 
Bureau of Statistics of Labor for 1875, there were in that year in 
Danvers twenty-five firms engaged in shoe manufacturing, producing 
goods of an annual average value of $1,331,548, upon a capital in- 
vested of $404,041. 

Iu November, 1844, Gilbert Tapley and his brother Perley Tapley, 
established the present carpet manufacturing business at Tapleyville, 
near the ancient site of " Hadlock's Bridge." The goods produced were 
principally woollen ingrain carpetings. The first factory was built iu 
1844, and burned in June, 1845. It was rebulit in the same year, 
and is still in active operation. 

Hanson's History of Danvers twice states the population iu 1752, 
the date of its incorporation as a district, at 500, or about that num- 
ber. The Village Parish alone had that number seventy years before. 
There were more than three times as many. At the rate of increase 
from 1765 to 1776, the number for 1752 would be 1,968. It was 
probably less. There were 326 resident tax-payers. The ratio of 
five would give 1,630, which, as the list was made out, is not too high. 
The population in 1875 was 6,024. The present valuation of the 
town (1878) is $3,496,390, of which $2,363,100 is iu real estate, and 
$1,057,200 in personal estate. 

Danvers may well be proud of her sons, and of her representative 
men, first and foremost of whom, the name of Samuel Holtou shines 
with an undying lustre upon the page of her history. Samuel Holtou 
was born June 9, 1738. He was a son of Samuel and Hannah Hol- 
tou, and a great-grandson of Joseph Holtou. The house in which he 
was born, built by his grandfather Henry, and called the Holtou 
Hotel, was situated at the south-west of the meeting-house, upon an 
old road, or at least a path, near the line of what is now Prince 
Street, leading from Centre Street to the Newburyport Railroad, and 
not far from the present site of Artemas Wilson's house. It was his 
parents' purpose that he should go to college ; and he spent four years 
in preparatory study, in the family of Peter Clark. At the age of 
twelve his health failed him, and the plan was given up. His hearing 
was permanently impaired, and he was never afterward strong. 
Recovering, in a measure, after a lapse of time, he went to study 
medicine with Dr. Jonathan Prince, a physician of note, who lived 
upon the southern slope of Hathorne Hill, near Newbury Street, at a 
spot now marked by a cluster of pines. Dr. Prince's house has been 
moved away from its original site, aud is the one now occupied by 
John Hooksen. Young Holtou made such rapid progress in the study 
of his chosen profession, that when he was eighteen years of age, Dr. 
Prince told him that he was qualified to set up for himself. He practised 
for a short time in Gloucester, and then returned to his native town, 
where he continued in the practice of his profession — though fre- 
quently interrupted after the first few years — until about the opening 
of the Revolutionary War, when he left it altogether. Dr. Holton 



was chosen representative to the General Court in the thirtieth year 
of his age. He was among the first to enter into the preparations for 
resistance to the encroachments of the British power, which he did 
with characteristic zeal and energy. He was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Convention of 1768, called by a Boston town-meeting without 
the requisite authority of the royal government. He was also a member 
of the Provincial (State) "Congress" of 1775, and was an active mem- 
ber of the "Committee of Safety." He was commissioned a major in 
the 1st Essex regiment, though not a military man. He was a member 
of the executive council under the provisional government. The 
duties of these positions interfered materially with his practice as a 
physician, and soon absorbed all his time. Dr. Wadsworth, his pas- 
tor, says of him, that "in 1777, Judge Holton- was one of the dele- 
gates from Massachusetts, who assisted in framing the Confederation 
of the United States at Yorktown. The ensuing year, he was for 
the first time, chosen a delegate in the American Congress, and 
annexed his ratifying signature to that constitution of government. 
. And so high did he stand in the esteem of that august body, 
that they elected him President of Congress, and thus promoted him 
to the first scat of honor in his country." He was five years in Con- 
gress under the Confederation, and two years under the Federal 
Constitution. But for his failing health, he would have continued 
longer at the seat of the general government. He had been five 
years in the State Senate, and twelve years in the Governor's Council. 
Dr. Wadsworth states that he had been appointed in 1776, one of the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas for his native county, perform- 
ing the duties of that position nearly thirty- two years, and presiding 
about half that time. He was also "Justice of the Court of Gen- 
eral Sessions of the Peace" thirty-five years, and Chief Justice of the 
same fifteen. 

From 1796 to 1815, Dr. Holton occupied the position of Judge of 
Probate for Essex County. He also filled at divers times the positions 
of selectman, town clerk, and assessor; for twenty-four years that of 
town treasurer ; and for nearly half a century was treasurer of the 
First Parish. 

It was also customary to appoint him as arbitrator in case of diffi- 
cult}', and a general pacificator of the village disputes. 

Judge Holton was a man of pure and upright character, with prin- 
ciples of justice and honesty firmly fixed. He was a thorough Chris- 
tian from boyhood, carrying the fruits of his religion into his daily 
walks with men. At the age of seventeen, he joined a religious soci- 
ety of young people, and was a zealous working member. He pro- 
fessed his faith, and became a member of the church, Feb. 4, 1759, 
before attaining his majority. "Whether at home or abroad, he was a 
constant attendant upon public worship and ordinances, notwithstand- 
ing the disadvantage under which he labored of hearing but a part of 
the services." He passed on from the world at peace, declaring of 
the great Christian atonement, "It is the foundation of all my hopes." 

His homestead and his residence for the major portion of his life, 
was at the branching of the roads, about a fourth of a mile south of 
the meeting-house. This house, which had previously belonged to 
the Holton family, was reconstructed and built anew, either by the 
Judge or by his father, who removed to it in 1750. The house is still 
standing, and is owned by Thomas Palmer. This spot is frequently 
called the "Adams Corner," the residence of Israel Adams, whose 
wife was a grand-daughter of Judge Holton, having been here for 
many years. 

In addition to his other associations, Judge Holton was also one of 
the charter members and founders of the Massachusetts Medical So- 

The Holton High School, established by the town in 1850, was 
named in his honor, and in itself a befitting memorial of this eminent 

Another foremost man of his time, was Judge Samuel Putnam. 
He was born in Danvers, on the 13th of April, 1768. His parents 

were persons of supei'ior intelligence. His father was Dea. Gideon 
Putnam, and his ancestry ran back into our greatest American antiq- 
uity. He was a distant relation of Gen. Israel Putnam. He was 
early sent to school in Beverly, whither his family removed for a 
time. At the age of ten, he was a student in Andover academy. He 
saw the departure of Arnold's ill-fated expedition as it passed on from 
Danvers. He had early developed a taste for music, and he played 
the fife for the troops as they marched past his father's gate. Young 
Putnam entered Harvard University, and graduated in the class of 
1787. Among his classmates was John Quincy Adams. It was early 
purposed that he should be a teacher, but Putnam aspired to the study 
of the law. He attempted to become .one of the distinguished Judge 
Parsons' pupils, but his class being full, the latter directed Putnam to 
Martin Bradley, a sound and learned lawyer. Having finished his 
studies, he established himself in the practice of his profession at 
Salem, where he speedily attained high renown, and a widespread 
reputation. No advocate of his time was better versed in the princi- 
ples of common law than he. The great Samuel Dexter, in an im- 
portant case, sent his client to Mr. Putnam as the man to consult in 
that early school of the law in Massachusetts. The afterwards emi- 
nent jurist and distinguished scholar, Judge Story, was Putnam's 
pupil. On the death of Chief Justice Sewall, in 1814, Putnam was 
made an associate justice on the Supreme Judicial Bench of Massachu- 
setts, by his friend, Gov. Strong, for whom he always had the deepest 
reverence. He filled this position for twenty-eight years, obtaining 
the respect of all good men, for the manner in which he performed 
the solemn and responsible duties of his office. No man ever held 
the scales of justice more evenly, or was more fearless and independ- 
ent in his decisions. He was remarkable, too, for the rare urbanity 
which stamped his whole deportment. He represented the town in 
both branches of the Legislature, in that stormy period of public 
affairs, before and after the war of 1812. In 1825, Judge Putnam 
received the degree of Doctor of Laws, from his alma mater, Har- 
vard University; and, in 1842, he retired from the Supreme bench. 
He passed away, on the 3d of July, 1853, in the eighty-sixth year of 
his age. His wife, to whom he had been wedded for fifty-six years, 
survived him. 

Here, too, in Danvers, was born the graceful writer and authoress, 
Harriet W. Preston, the daughter of Deacon Samuel Preston, of the 
First Parish Church, whose "Aspendale," "Love in the Nineteenth 
Century," and her beautiful English translation of the Provencal 
poem, "Mireio," together with many other translations of French and 
German writers, have obtained for her a justly deserved celebrity in 
the world of letters. 

Gen. Israel Putnam, the "Old Put" of Bunker Hill, was another 
distinguished scion of the ancient Putnam family, and was born in 
Danvers, Jan. 7, 1718. He passed his boyhood in the old town, 
remaining until he attained his majority, when he removed to Pom- 
fret, Conn. The place of his birth is still to be seen in Danvers. 

One of the most beautiful drives in this vicinity, is that to the sum- 
mit of Hathorne Hill, now crowned by the new and palatial State in- 
stitution for the insane, and from the summit of which can be obtained 
one of the grandest and most comprehensive views in this portion of 
the county. The asylum, which is here located, was completed and 
opened in the spring of 1878. 

There are two main centre buildings, with four wings radiating from 
them. The administration building is 90 by 60 feet, with a tower 
130 feet in height. In contains the offices for the superintendent 
and assistant superintendent, reception rooms, and general offices, 
together with the officers' residences. Connected with it, in the 
rear, is a building 180 by 60 feet, in which are the spacious kitch- 
ens, laundries, chapel, and dormitories for the attendants. On each 
side of the rear building are the four wings, which are used, respect- 
ively, for the male and female patients, connected with each other by 
small square towers, except the last ones on each side, which are 



joined by octagonal towers. These towers are ten feet square, and 
serve to separate the buildings, as well as to give communication 
throughout. The whole number of patients which the asylum is de- 
signed to accommodate, is five hundred, with possible accommoda- 
tions for one hundred more in the attic. Directly in tbe rear of the 
building, is the boiler or engine house, seventy feet square, with a 
chimney 120 feet high. It contains boilers of 450 horse power, which 
furnish steam for heating the asylum, and also for running the power- 
ful fans for forcing fresh air through ducts in each ward. The build- 
ings arc supplied with water from Middleton Pond, the commis- 
sioners uniting with the town in obtaining the present excellent system 
of water-works. Prior to the introduction of the latter, the town had 
no regular supply of water from street mains. There was a Salem 
and South Danvers Aqueduct Company, which supplied the inhabi- 
tants of the South Parish, but made no attempt to supply those of the 
North, whose only source was their own individual wells. 

The present works include a reservoir, on Hathorne Hill, of a 
minimum capacity of five million gallons, and located about 230 feet 
above tide-water; also, a Worthington duplex pumping-engine, which 
supplies the reservoir, and is capable of pumping two million gallons 
in twenty-four hours, and twenty-five miles of street mains. The 
actual net cost of the works to the town, is $177,515.97. The first 
movement on the part of the town, to secure an adequate supply of 
pure water, was made in the winter of 1869-70. On the 23d of June, 
1876, an agreement was signed with the commissioners, under which 
the present works were constructed. 

The hospital was constructed, at a cost of over $1,500,000, and the 
expeuse has been made the basis of many heated reform argumeuts, in 
recent political campaigns. At the estimated capacity for five hundred 
patients, the average cost per capita, is $3,000. However, the asylum 
is a model structure, and one of the finest of its kind in the country. 

Another interesting ride is that from Danvers, round through 
"Royall Side," to Beverly, by "Polly Hill," or, as it is commonly 
known throughout the county, " Browne's Folly." This is a lofty 
eminence, on the borders of the present line between Danvers and 
Beverly. It received its name from the tact, that tbe Hon. William 
Browne, a wealthy gentleman of the period, erected a splendid man- 
sion on the summit of this hill, about tbe year 1750, which he called 
"Browne's Hall," but which the country people, unable to comprehend 
such an extravagant waste of money, as they deemed it, to erect so 
costly an edifice on so bleak a spot, dubbed it "Browne's Folly," a 
name which has ever since clung to tbe locality. 

This mansion was built in the form of the letter H, a favorite method 
of building at that day, there being two parallel wings, as it were, 
front and rear, connected by a spacious hall in the centre. This house 
had a frontage of seventy feet. The hall was painted in imitation 
mosaic, and springing from tbe wall was a commodious circular gal- 
lery. Near the house, was a dwelling exclusively for the servants, all 
of whom were negroes. Tbe mausion was finished and furnished in 
the most costly manner, iu accord with tbe wealth of its owner. Mag- 
nificent entertainments were held here, and, at a dinner-party on one 
occasion, an ox was roasted whole. Browne was born in 1709, and 
died in 1763. At his death, Capt. Richard Derby became the owner 
of the estate. It subsequently passed into the hands of William Bur- 

ley, who sold it, in different portions, to a number of purchasers, and 
the mansion was broken up and removed by piece-meal ; a portion of 
it being removed to the square, in Danvers, where it was used as a 
tavern for a number of years. Tbe traces of the cellars of this house 
are still to be seen on the summit of the hill. 

Danvers possesses a lively, enterprising weekly paper, known as 
the " Danvers Mirror," published by C. H. Shepard & Co., and es- 
tablished in 1870, which has a good circulation. Previous to the 
establishment of this paper, there had been other short-lived sheets 
published, from time to time. Among these were the " Firefly," es- 
tablished March 9, 1844; the "Danvers Eagle," published by Samuel 
T. Damon, established Aug. 28, 1844, and suspended publication, 
Apr. 16, 1845; the " Danvers Whig," a campaign sheet, established 
in 1844, and the "Danvers Courier," published by George R. Carle- 
ton, established March 15, 1845. All of these papers ceased to exist 
many years ago. The Danvers "Advance," was started in 1875, but 
was given up in the same year. The " Danvers Monitor," which was 
circulated for a time, was an offshoot of the " Peabody Press." The 
" Essex County Citizen," a labor-reform organ, was started in the win- 
ter of 1877-78, but, after an existence of a few months, it was 
merged in the " Peabody Press." There are, in addition to the other 
societies mentioned, a number of secret organizations, including Am- 
ity Lodge of Masons, instituted in 1860, a lodge of Odd Fellows, 
Knights of Pythias, several temperance organizations, and Ward Post 
90, of tbe Grand Army of the Republic. 

No town has so much of romance interwoven in its history, unless 
it be its parent, the city of Salem. Here are the old houses, which 
have stood for more than two centuries, and the old sites, which so 
vividly recall the scenes of other days. At the very entrance to 
the town, at the Port, is the " Old Orchard Farm," where once the 
stern and lordly Endicott resided, and there still, is the renowned 
old Endicott pear-tree, from whose fruit the colonial governor par- 
took, and which, year by year, has furnished its pears to generation 
after generation, for more than two hundred and fifty years. Here is 
the spot where Endicott established his iron and copper works ; and 
near by, must have been those mines of copper, and of iron ore, of 
which he has told us, but of whose existence there is now no trace. 
Here he held his stately receptions, and conducted, in a measure, the 
affairs of the Colony. Farther on in the town, is the birth-place of 
" Old Put," and the Putnam homestead ; and at the Centre, is the 
birth-place of the famous Salem witchcraft delusion, the site of the old 
parsonage of 1681, in which the Rev. Mr. Parris, and his children, con- 
cocted the foul tragedy of 1692. Farther down on the Peabody road, 
near West Danvers Junction, is the cellar of old Giles Corey's little 
farm-house, the man who was barbarously pressed to death, because 
he refused to swear to a lie. Here in Danvers lived George Bur- 
roughs, Giles Corey and his wife, Johu Proctor and his wife, Rebec- 
ca Nurse, George Jacobs, Sarah Goode, and John Willard, all of 
whom were executed in that terrible reign of terror. Here is the his- 
toric Collins House, where Gov. Gage held court. Almost every 
foot of ground is linked with the history of the early colonial days. 
It furnishes a rich spot for the antiquarian, and the lover of historic 
lore. This sketch is but a brief summary of the past history of the 
old town, a history which would of itself fill volumes. 


The town of Essex, long known as Chebacco, or the Second Parish 
of Ipswich, was detached from the latter and incorporated Feb. 18, 
1819. It is situated in the easterly part of the county, and is bounded 
on the north by Ipswich, on the east by Gloucester, on the south by 
Manchester, and on the west by Hamilton, from which it is for some 
distance separated by Chebacco Pond. Its mean length is four and a 
half miles; its mean breadth, three and one-fourth miles. The Con- 
gregationalist church is north latitude 42° 38' 00.50", and in west lon- 
gitude 70° 47' 10.38". The southerly section of the town is hilly ; 
and there is a fine eminence, called Perkins Hill, in the westerly part, 
from the summit of which a fine view of the surrounding country and 
of the 1 ocean is afforded. White's Hill, so named from the first settler, 
and Burnham's Hill, farther towards the north, are noted elevations, 
adding much to the beauty of the local scenery. The view from 
White's Hill embraces the town of Ipswich on the north, Plum Island, 
the ocean on the east, the forests of Manchester on the south, and the 
hills of Hampton on the west; together with the windings of the Che- 
bacco River and the farms of the first settlers of the town. Extensive 
salt marshes, in the north-easterly section of the town, furnish an abund- 
ant supply of ha}'. Chebacco Pond, a fine sheet of water, with an 
area of about 260 acres, abounds in pickerel, perch, and bream ; and 
is a favorite resort for parties of pleasure. The name of this pond 
signifies "The Place of Spirits;" it contains Loon and Gregory 
Islands, and the view of these, with the wooded headlands, and the 
deep blue waters, as taken from the Chebacco House, or the Centen- 
nial Grove, is remarkably fine. 

From this pond issues Chebacco or Essex River, a small, but deep 
and valuable stream, which, pursuing a north-easterly course, divides 
the town into nearly equal sections, becomes navigable a little below 
"The Falls" above the village, spreads out into several creeks, passes 
by Cross Island, and then empties into the sea between Castle Neck 
in Ipswich, and Two-Penny Loaf in Gloucester. Castle Neck River, 
which unites with it from the north, is connected by a canal with 
Ipswich River. Hog Island is a rounded knoll, containing several 
fine farms, and noted as the residence of the Choate family. The 
underlying rock of Essex is sienite, of which there are many ledges, 
overstrown with bowlders of every size and shape. One of these 
bowlders, near the line of Manchester, has a perpendicular face of 
about thirty feet, with a thrifty pine-tree growing on its summit; 
another, in the centre of the village, called "Martin's Rock," consists 
of huge rectangular blocks piled up fantastically, and surmounted by 
a flag-staff. 

The soil is gravelly, or clayey loam, and well adapted to the growth 
of the cereals, vegetables, and fruit trees. The number of inhabitants 
in 1875 was 1,713, the oldest of whom had attained the age of ninety- 
five years. The whole number of farms was 114; of dwelling- 
houses, 343; and the town valuation was $862,325. The town has 
six public schools, and three religious societies, — Congregationalist, 
Methodist, and Universalist, — each of which has a house of worship. 

The central village, pleasantly built on both sides of the Chebacco 
River, presents a very neat and attractive appearance, and the people 
are industrious, hospitable, and patriotic. They are mostly engaged 
in farming, gardening, fishing, and ship-buikling. Digging clams, 
for bait, also furnishes employment to many people. Boots and shoes, 
and cotton lines, are to some extent manufactured ; and the capital 
invested in ship-building in 1875 was $50,500. The value of straw- 
berries annually sold is over $3,000. Apples are abundant; and 

Chebacco Pond furnishes the best of ice for transportation. The town 
has greatly improved since the opening of the Essex Branch Railroad 
to Wenham, in 1872. The buildings are mostly of wood, well 
painted, and surrounded with well-cultivated gardens, flowers, shrub- 
bery, and ornamental trees. By the ebb and flow of the tide, the 
scenery below the village is constantly changing, the river at low-water 
appearing like a silver thread, and at high-water as a broad arm of 
the sea. The ship-building is carried on near the bridge, in the cen- 
tre of the village. The largest vessel ever built here was of 767 tons. 
It was launched in 1873. 

This town, as a part of Ipswich, began to be settled as early as 
1634, at which period lands "toward Chebacco River were granted to 
Mr. William White and Goodman Bradstrect." These, it is presum- 
able, were soon followed by John Perkins, John Cogswell, Robert 
Andrews, George Giddings, John Burnham, William Goodhue, 
Andrew Story, Thomas Low, and John Choate, all men of good 
standing, and names ever since prevalent in the town. The place 
was then a wilderness, infested with wild beasts and savages. The 
original settlers built their houses of logs, kept them in a state of 
defence, and the women and children were not allowed to leave them 
unattended, after night-fall. They attended church at Ipswich, of 
which the Rev. Nathaniel Ward was the beloved pastor. 

Four years subsequent to the first settlement, three Chebacco men, 
Andrew Story, Robert Cross, and" John Burnham, were drafted and 
served in what was called the "Pequot War;" and Mr. Burnham, in 
1639, received a grant of eight acres of land for his service in that 
hard campaign. It does not appear that the people were ever 
molested by the Indians in this place, or that the friendly relatious 
between "the pale and the red faces" of old Chebacco were ever in 
the least disturbed. On the 28th of June, 1638, Masconomo, the 
sagamore of Agawam, sold to John Winthrop, for £20, his lands at 
Ipswich, then embracing what is now Essex ; and in the deed it is 
added, "as well as such land as I formerly reserved for my own use at 
Chebacco," which would lead us to infer that this was the favorite resi- 
dence of the famous chieftain. The facilities for fishing in the ponds 
and river, the beauty of the locality, together with the numerous 
Indian implements and skeletons discovered in this vicinity, would 
seem to corroborate this opinion. 

Land, though very good, was also very cheap; and for it a fair 
compensation was made to the original owners. Hence the peace 
between the parties. 

As Ipswich had early established a grammar school, which must 
be supported, all "the neck beyond Chebacco River and the rest of 
the ground up to Gloucester line" was, Jan. 11, 1651, granted to this 
institution. It was leased to John Cogswell, Jr., for the sum of £14 
per annum. In 1656 the first saw-mill was erected at the Falls on 
Chebacco River, and after this, framed instead of log houses began to 
be constructed. 

The first ship-yard here was set off in 1668, when the town granted 
"One acre of ground, near Mr. Cogswell's farm, to the inhabitants of 
Ipswich for a yard to build vessels, for the use of the inhabitants, and 
to employ workmen for that end." This land was near the present 
bridge across Chebacco River. It is probable that the business of 
ship-building, for which Chebacco has since been so famous,* had 

* Cooper, iu his " Pilot," makes Capt. Barnstable, commander of the " Ariel," come 

from "Old Chebacco"; and Dr. Elisha K. Kane made a polar voyage iu a vessel built 
on Essex River. 



already been commenced, and that this grant was for the purpose of 
affording greater facilities for its prosecution. 

It is said that the first Chehaceo boat was built by one of the Burn- 
ham family in the attic of his house, and that, in order to launch it, 
the window had to be cut away. 

Ou the 29th of Nov., 1669, the little colony was called to mourn the 
death of one of its earliest settlers, John Cogswell, Sr., who was 
aged about 72 years. His grandson, John Cogswell, Jr., was taken 
captive by the Indians at the eastward during Philip's war. 

As the settlement had now much increased in respect to numbers, 
and also, by reason of timber-cutting, boat-building, and heavy crops 
of hay from the rich meadows, had become prosperous, it began to 
agitate the subject of a distinct parochial organization. Some of the 
people were obliged to travel five or six miles to attend public service 
at Ipswich, and to fail in doing it was, with our ancestors, no light 
offence. Accordingly, in February, 1677, they petitioned the town 
of Ipswich for "liberty to call a minister to preach among them- 
selves"; but the town chose not to vote concerning the matter at all. 
They then presented their petition to the General Court, which re- 
fused to grant it at the time; but referred them to the town again. 
As the town would not decide the question they took it upon them- 
selves, Jan. 19, 1679, to call .Mr. Jeremiah Shepard (Harvard Col- 
lege, 1669), son of the Rev. Thomas Shepard, of Cambridge, to be 
their pastor. He preached for awhile in a private house ; but find- 
ing, soon, the place too limited, "they agreed to build a plain house, 
and, if they could obtain leave of the town, or Court, to put it to the 
use of a meeting-house; if not, to some other use." But the church 
at Ipswich was dissatisfied, and Mr. Shepard soon left the place. 
Another petition to the town and to the Court met with a reception no 
more favorable to the petitioners. 

Pending the decision of the Court, however, they prepared the tim- 
ber for the meeting-house, which was to be erected on the ground of 
Mr. William Cogswell, near the river. 

"While we were in this great conflict," says the record, "that all 
things seemed to act against us, some women, without the knowl- 
edge of their husbands, and with the advice of some men, went to 
other towns & got help & raised the house that we intended for 
a meeting-house, if we could get liberty." Dux foemina facti. All 
honor to the noble mothers of Chebacco for their intrepidity ! 

Then came posting down the constable with his warrant for the 
offenders : — 

" To attach the body of Abraham Martin and John Chub and 
bring them before me on Tuesday next about one of the clock to 
answer for their contempt of authority in helping to raise a meet- 
ing-house at Chebacco. You are also at the same time, to bring 
with you the wife of William Goodhue, the wife of Thomas Var- 
nev <fc the wife of Abraham Martin for procuring, or abetting & 
encouraging the raising the said house: and so make return hereof 
under your hand." 

What a sensation in the settlement that day ! 

They were arrested, tried and convicted; but those were days of 
witchcraft and intolerance. 

The case then came before the General Court, which ordered, May, 
1679, that they should appear before the Salem court and make a gen- 
eral acknowledgment for their offence, and be dismissed. A committee 
appointed by the General Court also reported that "the place where 
the house now standeth, be, and is, hereby allowed by us, and they 
have liberty to proceed to the finishing of said meeting-house."* 

This first house of worship stood on what is now, or lately was, 
Capt. Joseph Choate'a house-lot. It had a bell and a sounding-board 
over the cushioned pulpit, and the seats were built one or two at a 
time, as the people could afford the expense of doing it. 

The Rev. John Wise, born in Roxbury, 1648, entered Harvard 
College in 1673, was ordained pastor of the church on the day of its 

* History of Essex, p. 8:2. 

organization, Aug. 12, 1683, having ten acres of land granted him 
for a "settlement," and a yearly salary of £60, one-third to be paid in 
cash, and two-thirds in grain. He was also to have forty cords of 
oak wood and eight loads of salt hay brought annually to his door. 
The parish were also to build and keep in repair for him a parsonage. 
This was on the road to Ipswich. 

Au acre of land was granted for a burial-place Feb. 15, 1680 ; it is 
near the present Congregational church, and has served as a receptacle 
of the dead for many generations. The oldest legible, inscription in it 
is: "Here Lyes ye Body of John Burnham who departed this Life 
Jan?. 11. 1708-9 in the 59 th year of his age." Another near it is: 
" Here Lyes ye Body of Mr Thomas Low, Deacon who died April ye 
12 th 1712 aged 80 years. 

As yon are so were we, 
As we are, you shall be." 

In 1683, the village had the pleasure of witnessing, for the first 
time on the Common, the parade of its military company, of which 
John Andrews was the captain, and William Goodhue the ensign. 

To the exactions of Sir Edmund Andros in 1687, Mr. "Wise and 
others of this place made a manly resistance, and for it, he, together 
with John Andrews, William Goodhue, John Appleton, Thomas 
French, and Robert Kinsman were arrested and committed to jail in 
Boston. The losses sustained by these brave men were subsequently 
met by the town of Ipswich. 

A school for the instruction of the children of Chebacco was opened 
by Nathaniel Rust, Jr., as early as June, 1695, and for the benefit of 
the school, six acres of pasture-land was granted by the town. 

On the 5th of November of the preceding year, the parish was 
called to mourn the decease of Dea. John Burnham, the ancestor of 
numerous families of that name in Essex, and in other places. 

At the commencement of the eighteenth century, Chebacco had a 
population of about three hundred, and they were mostly engaged in 
farming, fishing, and boat-building. 

The first school-house here was erected in 1702, on "the common," 
and continued in use until 1757; Samuel Phillips (Harvard College, 
1708), was the teacher in 1709, and William Giddings in 1713. In 
1710, William Cogswell, of Chebacco, was killed at the eastward by 
the Indians ; and on the 12th of April, 1712, Dea. Thomas Low, a 
prominent citizen, died at the age of eighty years. Dea. William 
Goodhue, also, died about the same time. He had represented the 
town in the General Court, and was highly respected. 

In 1717, appears the first trace of slavery in this place. By a bill 
of sale, dated July 30th of this year, we learn that Jonathan Burn- 
ham, of Chebacco, bought for £64, in bills of credit, a negro boy of 
Joshua Norwood, of Gloucester, he having bought the same of Thomas 
Choate, of Hog Island. 

In the year following the parish erected its second meetinghouse 
on "the common," near the pound. It was fifty-two feet long, and 
forty-two feet wide, having galleries on three sides, and a turret for 
the new bell, rising from the centre. An hour-glass stood on the pul- 
pit, and the psalms were "deaconed off" from Tate and Brady's cele- 
brated version, and sung by the congregation. 

"I received," says the Rev. Thomas Symmes, 1720, "a letter from 
Mr. Wise of Ipswich, wherein he gave it as his judgment that when 
there were a sufficient number in a congregation to carry away a tune 
roundly, it was then proper to introduce that tune." 

Mr. Wise died April 8, 1725, greatly mourned by all who knew 
him. The number of his flock, at the time of his decease, was ninety- 
one. He was a good scholar, and spoke with unusual grace and power. 
His person was commanding, and in all the relations of life he evinced 
remarkable wisdom, firmness, and integrity. He was a stanch 
defender of civil and religious liberty, maintaining that every church 
is in itself independent in all matters pertaining to its own govern- 
ment. He was among the first to denounce the obnoxious doctrine of 



taxation without representation, and he was also an earnest advocate 
of the manumission of slaves. 

He served as chaplain in the expedition against the French in 1690, 
manifesting therein "heroic spirit and martial skill." His publications 
exhibit something of the wit and the ability of those of the Rev. Mr. 
Ward, of Ipswich. His funeral sermon was preached by the Rev John 
White, of Gloucester. A slab, with the following inscription, marks the 
spot of his interment : " Underneath lies the body of the Rev John 
Wise A. M., first pastor of the 2nd church in Ipswich. Graduated 
at Harvard College 1673. Ordained Pastor of said church 1681, and 
died April 8, 1725 aged 73. For talents, piety & learning, he shone 
as a star of the first magnitude." 

The Rev. Theophilus Pickering, Harvard College, 1719, was ordained 
as the successor of Mr. Wise, on the 13th of October, 1727, and con- 
tinued in the pastorate until his decease. Mr. Leonard Cotton was 
the schoolmaster in 1733, and on the 9th of Jul}' of this year, Dea. 
John Choate, born in 1660, died at the age of seventy-three years. In 
October of this year, Jonathan Cogswell was commissioned as justice 
of the peace, an office of much consequence at that period. In 1735, 
the potato is said to have been first introduced into the parish by Mr. 
Cavies. It was cut into slices and boiled as a rare vegetable with 
soup. The Scotch-Irish are said to have brought it with them to this 
country as early as 1719. 

Capt. Thomas Choate, the first resident of Hog Island, and a promi- 
nent citizen, died March 3, 1745, much lamented by the people. 
Joseph Eveleth died December 1st, at the remarkable age of 105 years. 

The preaching of George W'hitcfield, in Ipswich, in September, 1740, 
which Mr. Pickering opposed, was the cause of some disagreement of 
opinion among the members of his church, and in consequence, a 
separate church, called "the Fourth Church in Ipswich," with the Rev. 
Ebenezer Cleaveland as its pastor, was organized May 22, 1746, at 
the house of Mr. Francis Choate, one of the seceders. Eleazer Craft 
and Daniel Giddings, were appointed deacons. On the 25th of Feb- 
ruary of the ensuing year, the Rev. John Cleaveland, was ordained 
pastor of the separate church, and on the 7th of October, of the same 
year, the Rev. Mr. Pickering died at the age of forty-seven years. 

During his ministry, about two hundred persons were added to the 
church. He was a learned, faithful, and industrious minister; but of 
a temperament too cold to accept of the new measures of Mr. White- 
field. He was buried in the old graveyard, and on his tombstone is 
inscribed : — 

" Here lies buried the body of ye Rev d M 1 Theophilus Pickering, 
who departed this life Sep* y e 19 th , 1747, aged 47 years." Of the 
animosities between the two parishes, we need not speak ; but all 
is well that ends well, and such in this case was the final issue. 

The Second Parish elected as successor to Mr. Pickering, the Rev. 
Nehemiah Porter (Harvard College, 1745), who was ordained as pas- 
tor over it, Jan. 3, 1750. He was dismissed in June, 1766, and died 
in Ashtield, Feb. 29, 1820, at the remarkable age of ninety-nine 
years and eleven months. 

In 1752, the "separate church 1 ' erected a house of worship, it hav- 
ing previously held services in a barn, or private house. In 1758, the 
Rev. Mr. Cleaveland served as a chaplain in the army, and kept an 
interesting journal of his adventures in the war. A remarkable 
revival occurred in his church in 1763 ; and under him, in 1774, the 
Second and Fourth parishes were reunited, they voting (April 8th) 
" to bury forever as a church all former differences between them & 
the other church and to acknowledge the other a sister church in char- 
ity & fellowship." 

The officers of the church after the reunion were : the Rev. John 
Cleaveland, pastor ; Francis Choate, and Eleazer Craft, elders; and 
Thomas Burnham, Stephen Choate, Solomon Giddings, and Seth 
Story, deacons. A party of seventy-seven ladies visited Mr. Cleave- 
land's house, June 27, 1769, and spent the day in spinning flax for 
his family. A surprise party of the olden style. 

Dr. Ebenezer Davis, the first local physician, came to reside in 
Chebacco in 1770; two years later a strange fever appeared in the 
place, which carried off about fifty persons. 

During the contest with Great Britain, the people of Chebacco 
heartily espoused the cause of liberty, and made great sacrifices to 
sustain the Revolutionary army. Their pastor, by his voice, his pen, 
and person, led the way. 

At a town-meeting held soon after the destruction of tea in Boston 
harbor, it was amongst other things voted, "That every person who 
shall import tea while the act of duty on it continues shall be held as an 
enemy," and "that no tea be sold in town while this act is in force." 

On the 20th of September, 1774, a military company, consisting of 
sixty-eight men, was organized: Jonathan Cogswell, Jr., was chosen 
Captain ; David Low, Lieutenant, and Francis Perkins, Ensign. 

In January, 1775, Michael Farley was chosen to represent the in- 
habitants of the town in the Provincial Congress ; and on the seven- 
teenth day of June following, six men from Chebacco were ensrasjed 
in the battle of Bunker Hill. Their names are : James Andrews, 
Benjamin and Francis Burnham, Nehemiah Choate, Aaron Perkins, 
and Jesse Story, Jr. ; the latter of whom was killed in the action. 

Mr. Cleaveland was appointed and served as chaplain in Col. Moses 
Little's regiment. It was said of him, that "he preached all the men 
of his parish into the army, and then went himself.'' 

On the 15th of February, Jonathan Cogswell was appointed colonel 
of the third regiment of Essex County, and Mr. Cleaveland served 
with him as chaplain. This regiment, which embraced the Chebacco 
company, under Capt. Perkins, did good service at the battle of White 
Plains, Oct. 28th, and at other places. The parish had twenty-eight 
men in the northern army, under Gen. Horatio Gates, in 1777 ; but 
there was danger close at home. A British frigate this year appeared 
in the bay below the village, and a boat from it attempted to effect a 
landing on Hog Island, then guarded by twelve resolute men. Of 
the inhabitants of that island, all fled for safety, except the wife of 
William Choate, and grandmother of the Hon. Rufus Choate, who 
declared that she would, with her two children, remain at home; she 
did so, and was not molested. 

It appears from the church records, that the following soldiers from 
Chebacco died, in 1788; viz., Israel Andrews, Nathaniel Emerson, 
Abraham and Isaac Jones, and Abijah Story (negro), in the army; 
Jonathan Andrews, and Stephen Rent, at Albany : James Rust, a 
prisoner, aged twenty, at Halifax; and Nehemiah Choate, of the 
small-pox, at Bilboa. 

The whole number of soldiers from Chebacco, serving in the Revo- 
lutionary war, so far as can be ascertained, is 105; and of these 22 
bore the name of Burnham. 

The remarkable "Dark Day," Friday, May 19, 1780, is thus de- 
scribed by a person then at Hog Island : — 

" Soon after nine, a dark, heavy cloud was seen rising from the 
north-west, which gradually spread itself till it covered the whole 
heavens, except a narrow space near the horizon. About ten, this 
was also covered, and the darkness increased so that we had to li<dit 
a candle. All the folks out of doors left their work, and came in. 
Fear and anxiety were manifest on every countenance. It was quite 
dark when we set our dinner table. Early in the afternoon, the dark- 
ness began to abate, and before sundown, it was light, but cloudy, 
with a yellow, brassy appearance." The cause of this strange phe- 
nomenon has never been satisfactorily given. The most probable 
tbeory, however, is that the darkness was occasioned by the smoke of 
forests burning far away, towards the north-west. 

A weekly singing-school, through the winter, w r as commenced as 
early as 1764; but congregational singing, the deacons "lining" the 
hymn, was continued until 1768, after which, the singers sat together 
as a choir. Abraham and Joseph Perkins, and John Choate, were 
the first choristers. In 1785, the Psalms and Hymns of Dr. Watts 
took the place of the "Bay Psalm Book." 



Iu 1787, the population of Chebacco, was 1,200. For the suppres- 
sion of the insurrection, this year, seven men were sent from this 
place; viz., Daniel Burnham, Samuel Eveleth, Abraham and Joseph 
Knowlton, Lieut. Aaron, and Edward Perkins. They enlisted in 
Capt. John Baker's company, and assisted in capturing the insurgents 
under Daniel Shays, in the town of Petersham. 

On the 8th of October, 1793, a new meeting-house, on "Meet- 
ing-house Hill," was dedicated, the pastor preaching an impressive 
sermon to a large audience; and on the 22d of April, 1799, the Rev. 
John Cleavcland's long and useful labors were closed by death. He 
was an ardent patriot, and successful minister. Though not an ele- 
irant, he was a vigorous writer, earnest in the defence of the old doc- 
trincs, and the new measures. His house stood on Spring Street, on 
the spot of the house of the late Hon. David Choate. His writings 
are mostly controversial. "Scrupulous," says Dr. Elijah Parish, who 
preached his funeral sermon, " in his ideas of right and wrong, ardent 
in his feelings, daring in his temper, he followed the convictions of 
his own mind, little regarding what might be the impression upon 

His friend, Dea. Thomas Burnham died on the 18th of May, follow- 
ing, aged 72. He was a school-teacher, and one of the last who lined 
out the psalms in church. 

During a terrible snow-storm, March 13, 1795, Parker Story, in his 
35th year, Aaron Story, in his 28th year, Thomas Holmes, aged 29 
years, and Moses Pearce, aged about 16 years — were drowned in the 
Chebacco River. The loss of these youug men caused a deep sensa- 
tion in the settlement. 

The Rev. Josiah Webster (Dartmouth College, 1798), was ordained 
as Mr. Cleavcland's successor on the 13th of November, 1799. 

At the beginning of the century Chebacco had a population of about 
1,100, and three school districts. In 1802, a social library was estab- 
lished, and in 1804 as many as forty tishing-boats were owned in the 
place. In the following year, December 19, Dr. Parker Rust, the 
beloved physician of the parish, died, and was succeeded by Dr. Reu- 
ben D. Muzzey, who subsequently held a professorship at Dartmouth 
College, and died at Roxbury, June 21, 186(3, aged 86 years. 

At his own request, the Rev. Mr. Webster was dismissed from the 
pastorate, July 23, 1806, and was soon afterwards installed over the 
church at Hampton, N. H., where, after a faithful ministry, he died 
on the 27th of March, 1837. 

On the 5th of April, 1808, "The Christian Society," so called, was 
established here by Elder Elias Smith, Elder Abner Jones and Brother 
John Rand. A house of worship was erected by it, sometime during 
the following year. 

Elias Smith has the honor of starting the first religious newspaper 
ever published. It was called " The Herald of the Gospel of Liberty," 
and was commenced Sept. 1, 1808. It ceased to be published in Sep- 
tember, 1817. Mr. Rand officiated as pastor of the Christian society 
about seven years. The church "is now occupied by the Methodist 
society, of which the Rev. Frank T. Pomeroy is the pastor. 

The successor of Mr. Webster as pastor of the Secoud Parish was 
the Rev. Thomas Holt; born in Meriden, Conn., in November, 1762; 
(Yale College, 1784) ; was installed here, January 25, 1809, and hon- 
orably dismissed, April 20, 1813. His death occurred in Hardwick, 
Feb. 21, 1836. He was followed in the ministry by the Rev. Robert 
Crowell, who was ordained on the 10th of August, 1814, and contin- 
ued faithfully discharging the duties of his pastorate more than forty 

During the war of 1812-15, as many as nineteen soldiers from 
Chebacco were engaged in service. 

In 1818, the number of voters in the parish exceeded 200 ; and as 
the inconvenience of attending town-meetings at Ipswich was consid- 
erable, a petition, signed by 206 persons, was presented to the Gen- 
eral Court for an Act of Incorporation as a separate town, under the 
name of Essex. This, though opposed by the town of Ipswich, was 

granted, and the Act of Incorporation signed by the governor, Feb. 5, 

The first town-meeting was held on the 1st of March following 
when Joseph Story was chosen town clerk; George Choate, Esq., 
Capt. Jonathan Story, 4th, Elias and William Andrews, and William 
Cogswell, Jr., were chosen selectmen, assessors, and overseers of 
the poor ; the selectmen and the Rev. Robert Crowell were chosen 
as the school committee, and Nathan Choate was chosen town treas- 

The sum of $400 was subsequently appropriated for the support of 
schools, and that of $460 for highways and bridges. George Choate 
was chosen this year the first representative of the new town of Essex 
in General Court. 

In 1825, a town farm, costing $4,600 was bought for the accomo- 
dation of the poor, and the town voted (April 5) this year "that the 
selectmen allow no bills for liquor on the highwway." It also directed 
the constables to exert themselves to prevent, by prosecution or 
otherwise, the desecration of the Sabbath. 

The anniversary of the Declaration of Independence was observed 
July 4, 1826, the oration being delivered by Rufus Choate, Esq , in 
the meeting-house. The Essex Light Infantry, under Capt. Joshua 
Low, paraded on the occasion. During this year twenty-three vessels 
were launched, the register being 2,963 tons. The town had, in 
1828, as many as forty vessels on the stocks. 

The year 1829 was noted for the formation of " The Essex Temper- 
ance Society, on the principle of total abstinence," and a general 
reformation in respect to the use of intoxicants. Capt. Winthrop 
Low was the first president of the society, and the first to sign the 
pledge were Samuel and Francis Burnham, David and John Choate, 
the Rev. Mr. Crowell, Jonathan Eveleth, Capt. Winthrop Low, and 
John Perkins. 

The population in 1830 was 1,333, of whom three were over ninety 
years of age. The number of dwelling-houses was 157, and the town 
valuation $322,298. 

A Universalist society, consisting of forty-six members, was organ- 
ized this year, and preachers of that denomination were employed. 

In 1836, the town voted $800 for the support of schools. They 
were then in a fiourishiiiii condition, Mr. David Choate being one of 
the most popular teachers. 

On the 14th of December of this year the Universalist church, 
which, with the land, cost $4,500, w r as dedicated, the Rev. Thomas 
Whittemore preaching the sermon. The pastors of this society have 
been the Revs. A. C. L. Arnold, John Prince, — 1840-44, and 
1852-56, — H. H. Baker, Willard Spalding, C. H. Dutton, Emmons 
Partridge, S. Goff, J. II. Fuller, F. F. ^Lovell, C. S. Clark, and 
Elmer F. Pember, who was pastor here from June, 1874, to Decem- 
ber, 1877, and is now at Little Falls, N. Y. The church received, in 
1844, a legacy valued at $3,000, from Mrs. Betsey Story. 

In 1840, the population of the town was 1,432, and the valuation 
$439,906. The number of polls was 465. There were eight colored 
people in town. 

In 1842, the Congregational church was remodelled and much 
improved, the pastor (November 3d) preaching the dedicatory sermon. 

In 1843, the Rev. John Prince established here a paper called the 
"Essex Cabinet," but which was not of long continuance. 

A destructive hail-storm passed over the town July 22, 1845, 
breaking about 3,000 panes of glass. Some of the hail-stones are 
said to have measured as much as seven inches in circumference. 

The population had increased iu 1850 to 1,585, of whom thirteen 
were colored. 

In the year following, the "Essex Lyceum" was established, of 
which Aaron L. Burnham was elected president. Four years later it 
became "The Chebacco Library Association," of which John Prince 
was the first president. 

"The Spring Street Cemetery," consisting of about two acres, was 



consecrated Oct. 27, 1852, the address being given by the Rev. Dr. 

On the 10th of November. 1855, the town was called to deplore 
the death of the Rev. Robert Crowell, D. D., who had been its faith- 
ful and beloved minister for the long period of forty-one years. He 
was the son of Samuel and Lydia (Woodbury) Crowell, and was 
born in Salem Dec. 9, 1787 ; graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1811, and studied theology with the Rev. Dr. Samuel Worcester. 
The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by his Alma Mater in 
1850. He was a conscientious, faithful and energetic pastor, and 
zealous in every good word and work. His funeral sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Dr. Daniel Fitz, of Ipswich. He published in 
1853 "The History of Essex (then Chebacco, a part of Ipswich) from 
1634 to 1700," which has been enlarged and continued by his son, 
Prof. E. P. Crowell, of Amherst College. 

On the 9th of July, 1856, the Rev. James M. Bacon was installed 
pastor of the Congregational church, in which office ho continued 
until his dismission, June 30, 1870. He was installed pastor at 
Ashby November 2d of the same year, where he died, much regretted, 
March 5, 1873. He was born in Newton, Jan. 3, 1818, and com- 
pleted his theological studies under the Rev. Jacob Ide, D. D., of 
Med way. 

The summer of 1856 was noted for terrific thunder-storms, during 
which the lightning struck in more than twenty places within the 
limits of the town. By it, Mrs. Almira, wife of D. W. Bartlett, 
Esq. (June 30), and Mr. William Burnham (July 4), were killed. 

The population, in 1860, was 1,701, of whom twenty-four were 
colored. The town valuation was $955,106. The fourth ropewalk 
was this year built for the manufacture of fishing-lines. This business 
was started here by Capt. Nathaniel and Mr. Jonathan Burnham, 
prior to 1820, and is still continued. 

During the war of the Rebellion Essex furnished its full quota of 
men for service, and none were more faithful in the discharge of duty, 
whether on land or sea. In almost every battle she was bravely rep- 

A welcome to the soldiers was given by the town, July 4, 1865, 
when it was said by the orator, " We do not for a moment forget our 
glorious, but unreturning, twenty-four. Peace, peace to their hal- 
lowed memories ! On the future monument, of which I love to dream, 
shall all their names be carved. Essex has put 143 of her own citi- 
zens into the country's service, besides 39 strangers and 13 substi- 
tutes ; making the number of 195 in all." 

The town voted April 1, 1867, to purchase the manuscript history 
of the town, begun by the late Rev. Robert Crowell, D. D., and com- 
pleted by his son, Prof. E. P. Crowell, of Amherst College. It was 
published in 1868, under the title of "History of the Town of Essex, 
from 1634 to 1868, by the late Rev. Robert Crowell, D. D., Pastor of 
the Congregational Church, with Sketches of the Soldiers in the War 
of the Rebellion, by Hon. David Choate." It is a well-written work 
of 488 pages, and to it the writer is indebted largely for the materials 
embodied in this sketch of the town. 

The population in 1870 was 1,614; the number of dwelling-houses, 

The Rev. Allen D. Morehouse was installed over the Congregational 
church June 30, 1870, and dismissed Sept. 14, 1874. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. E. G. Smith, installed July 15, 1875, and dis- 
missed Feb. 8, 1877. The Rev. J. Lambdin Harris, born in Belmont 
County, Ohio, began to preach here as acting pastor in May, 1877. 
The "Songs for the Sanctuary" now takes the place of "Watts and 
Select Hymns" in this church. 

The Essex Railroad, five miles in length, and connecting the town 
with the Eastern Railroad at Wenham, was opened for travel July, 
1872 v and not only affords accommodation to the people, but also 
stimulates the industries of the place. 

This place has been well represented in our colleges, and has pro- 

duced many men of eminence. The following is a list of graduates : — 
The Rev. John Eveleth (Harvard College, 1689), son of Joseph and 
Mary Eveleth, and born in Gloucester, Dec. 18, 1669. He supplied the 
pulpit in Manchester, from the time he began to preach, until 1695 ; 
after which he was settled in Stow, and again at Arundel, now Ken- 
nebunk, Me. "He was not only their minister and schoolmaster, but 
a good blacksmith and farmer, and the best fisherman in town." He 
died Aug. 1, 1734. 

John Perkins, M. D. (Harvard College, 1695). He was the son of 
Abraham Perkins, practised medicine in Ipswich, then in Boston, and 
died in 1740. 

The Rev. Francis Goodhue (Harvard College, 1699), son of Dea. 
William and Hannah Goodhue He was born in Chebacco, Oct. 4, 
1678. After a brief pastorate at Jamaica, L. I., he died at Rehoboth, 
in 1707, and was buried at Seekonk, Mass. 

The Rev. Jeremiah Wise (Harvard College, 1700), eldest son of the 
Rev. John Wise, was born in Chebacco, 1680, and settled Nov. 26, 1707, 
over the church in South Berwick, where he continued as pastor until 
his death, which took place Jan. 21, 1756. Some of his sermons 
were published. He was an esteemed and faithful minister. 

The Rev. Benjamin Choate (Harvard College, 1703), son of John 
Choate, an early settler, was born in Chebacco, 1680, fitted for college 
at the Ipswich Grammar School, and, after graduation, was for some 
time chaplain of the garrison at Deerfield. He subsequently removed 
to Kingston, N. H., where he was engaged in preaching and teaching 
until his death, Nov. 26, 1753. 

Henry Wise, merchant (Harvard College, 1717), son of the Rev. 
John Wise. He was for eight years preceptor of the Ipswich Gram- 
mar School, and died about 1732. 

Francis Cogswell (Harvard College, 1718), son of Jonathan Cogs- 
well, became a merchant, and represented in 1750-52 the town of 
Ipswich in the General Court. He died March 9, 1756, at the age of 
fifty-eight years. 

Joseph Wise, M.D. (Harvard College, 1728), son of the Rev. John 

Joseph Perkins (Harvard College, 1794) , sou of Joseph Perkins, was 
born in Chebacco, July 8, 1772, and entered college at the age of 
eighteen years. In 1801, he was appointed county attorney. He 
practised law in Salem, where he died, much lamented, Feb. 28, 1803. 

George Choate, M. D. (Harvard College, 1818), son of George 
Choate, Esq., and born Nov. 7, 1796. He practised medicine in 
Salem, and represented the city in the General Court. His four sons 
were graduates of Harvard College. 

Rufus Choate, LL.D., Dartmouth College, 1819. This eminent 
lawyer and statesman, son of David and Miriam (Foster) Choate, was 
born on Hog Island, Oct. 1, 1799, and began the study of Latin with 
Dr. Thomas Sewell in 1809. He continued his studies with the Rev. 
Thomas Holt, Mr. William Cogswell, and the Rev. Robert Crowell, 
D. D. ; and spent seven months, previous to entering college, at 
Hampton Academy, then in charge of James Adams, Esq. 

In college he was distinguished as an industrious scholar, and for 
his love of the Greek and Roman classics. On leaving college he 
studied law at Cambridge, and also one year in the office of William 
Wirt. He commenced the practice of law at Danvers in 1824, and 
the next year was elected to represent that town in the General Court. 
He was a State senator in 1827, and representative in Congress, 
1832-34. In the latter year he removed to Boston, where he soon, 
by his commanding eloquence, gained distinction as an advocate. In 
1841 he succeeded Daniel Webster as United States senator, and, on 
the death of Mr. Webster, 1852, became the acknowledged leader of 
the bar of this State. In 1853 he was the State attorney-general and 
also a member of the constitutional convention. Impaired health 
caused him to cease from professional labor, in 1858, and to sail for 
Europe. But, failing rapidly in strength, he died at Halifax, N. S., 
July 13, 1859. In person, Mr. Choate was tall and commanding; his 



voice was rich and musical, and his imagination brilliant. His power 
over a jury was remarkable, and some of his forensic efforts are reck- 
oned as the most brilliant specimens of American eloquence. His 
works, with a memoir by Samuel G. Brown, D. D., were published 
in two volumes in 1862. His son, Rufus, died at Dorchester, Jan. 
15, 1866, at the age of 32 years. 

John Dennison Russ, M. D. (Yale College, 1823), son of Dr. Parker 
and Elizabeth (Cogswell) Russ, was born in Chebacco, Sept. 1, 
1801. He prepared for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H., 
and after leaving college, visited Europe, and began the practice of 
medicine in New York city in 1826. A true and active philanthropist, 
he assisted Greece in its struggles for liberty ; used his efforts to stay 
the ravages of the cholera in New York ; took a deep interest in the 
education of the blind, and labored for the amelioration of prison dis- 
cipline. He also strongly advocated the emancipation of the slaves. 
In 1848 he became a member of the Board of Education in the city of 
New York, and was instrumental in greatly improving the system of 
instruction in the public schools. In 1853 he was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Juvenile Asylum in that city. 

Jonathan C. Perkins, LL.D. (Amherst College, 1832), was born 
Nov. 21, 1809. He studied law at the Cambridge Law School, and 
also with Rufus Choate, and commenced the practice of law in Salem, 
where he soon obtained distinction in his profession. He served in 
bolh houses of the Legislature, and was appointed one of the judges 
of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1853 he was a member of the 
of the State constitutional convention. His legal writings are exten- 
sive, accurate, and valuable. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
his alma mater in 1867. He died in December, 1877. 

The Rev. Thomas Sewall, D. D. (Middletown University, 1837), son 
of Thomas Sewall, was born in Chebacco, April 28, 1818, and, after 
his graduation, became a Methodist minister, passing most of his pro- 
fessional life in Maryland and Virginia. He was, in 1868, the 
esteemed pastor of a church in Brooklyn. N. Y. 

George F. Choate (Bowdoin College, 1843), studied law and became 
a judge of the Probate Court in Salem. 

Prof. Edward P. Crowell, Amherst College, 1853. 

The Rev. Edward Norton, Dartmouth College, 1861. 

The Rev. David O. Mears (Amherst College, 1865), now pastor of 
the Piedmont Church in Worcester. 

Coeleb Burnham, M. D., Dartmouth College, 1865. 

The Rev. Michael Burnham (Amherst College, 1867), now pastor of 
the Central Church, Fall River. 

The Rev. Washington Choate, Amherst College, 1870. 

Prof. Leverett Mears, Ph.D., Amherst College, 1874. 

George F. Mears, Amherst College, 1875. 

Gilbert O. Burnham, Brown University, 1875. 

Other Professional Men. — Hon. John Choate, 1761, judge of 
Court of Common Pleas; Parker Cleaveland, M. D., 1770; Nehe- 
miah Cleaveland, M. D., 1783; the Rev. John Cleaveland, Jr., 
1785; Parker Russ, M. D., 1788; Asa Story, M. D., 1817, Dart- 
mouth Medical School; Eliphalet Iv. Webster, M. D., 1837, 
Dartmouth Medical School ; the Rev. Edwin Burnham, the 
Rev. George W. Burnham, the Rev. Hezekiah Burnham ; Jacob 
Story, Esq., 1846, Cambridge Law School; Obed B. Low, Esq., 
1847; David Choate, Jr., M. D., 1854. Mass. Med. College; 
J. Howard Burnham, 1861, teacher; Edward Smith Eveleth, M. D., 
1866, Columbia College (Medical Dep't) ; Philemon Eveleth, M. D. 

David Choate, Esq,, son of David Choate, and brother of the 
Hon. Rufus Choate, was born on Hog Island, Nov. 29, 1796, and 
died Dec. 16, 1872. He was a man of sterling good sense, and to 
his unwearied exertions the town is largely indebted for its intel- 
lectual advancement. He was long engaged as a teacher, and through 
his influence several young men were led to seek a liberal educa- 
tion. He held many offices of trust, and was superintendent of the 
Sabbath school of the Congregational church for the long period of 
thirty-five years. It was often spoken of as one of the best institu- 
tions of the kind in the State. He wrote, in 1860, "An Agricultural 
and Geological Survey of Essex County," which is a work of great 

Representatives since 1 780. 

1781-83, John Choate, Esq. 
1785-86-88, John Choate, Esq. 
1792-93, Col. Jonathan Cogswell. 
1800-13, Col. Jonathan Cogswell, Sr. 
1814-17, George Choate, Esq. 
1819, George Choate, Esq. 
1824, Jacob Story. 
1827-30, Jonathan Story, 3d, Esq. 
1833-34, Jonathan Story, 3d, Esq. 
1835-36, Charles Dexter. 

1837, Oliver Low. 

1838, George W. Burnham. 

1839, Hon. David Choate. 

1840, Samuel Hardy. 

1841, Grover Dodge. 

1842, John Burnham. 

1843, the Rev. John Prince. 

1844, Moses Burnham, Jr. 

1845, Ezra Perkins, Jr., Esq. 

1851, Gilman P. Allen. 

1852, William Burnham, 2d. 

1853, the Rev. John Prince. 

1855, the Rev. John Prince. 

1856, Samuel Story. 

1857, O. II. P. Sargent, Esq. 

1858, Charles Howes. 

1859, the Rev. John Prince. 
1861, Ebenezer Stan wood. 
1863, Nehemiah Burnham. 
1865, Timothy Andrews, Jr. 
1867, Leonard Me Kenzie. 
1868-70, Leonard Mc Kenzie. 
1870, William H. Mears. 
1872, John C. Choate. 

1874, Aaron Low. 

1876, Daniel W. Bartlett. 

List of Toicn Clerks. — Joseph Story, 1819-24; Jonathan Story, 
3d, Esq., 1824-29; Col. William Andrews, Jr., 1830-36; Hon. 
David Choate, 1836-39; Jonathan Story, Esq., 1840-42; Aaron L. 
Burnham, Esq., 1843-55; O. II. P. Sargent, Esq., 1856-61; John 
C. Choate, 1861-78. 




The location of this town is nearly in the geographical centre of the 
township granted to Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, in 163'J, under the name 
of Rowley, and which was, about that time, taken possession of by 
himself, and the sixty families of pioneers in this wilderness settle- 
ment, where, for five years or more, they had all things in common ; 
fixing their homes in what is now known as Old Rowley, holding title 
to all the outlying territory, at present constituting Georgetown, By- 
field, Boxford, Bradford, and Groveland, which was for some years 
uninhabited, and unimproved except for pasturage, for the grass the 
meadows supplied for winter forage, and for the timber in the exten- 
sive forests. 

At a very early moment after the new settlement had got into fair 
working order, there began the process of laying out lots of land to 
such ambitious men, as, by their keenness of vision, had spotted the 
desirable locations in the surrounding country. 

The records do not, certainly, indicate the date of the first move- 
ments of this kind, the earliest recorded being the sale of land in 
1661, and the laying out of a meadow, in 1662, "south of the dwell- 
ing house of Col. John Kimball," which indicates that settlements had 
taken place some time before that date. 

In 1731, the Second Parish was set off, up to which time the paro- 
chial concerns of the old First Society had been managed by the town. 
Since that time, the parish has acted independently of the town, tak- 
ing the name and style of the First Parish of Rowley. As a matter 
of course, the Second Parish adopted the same plan, which placed the 
maintenance and direction of the religious institutions of the separate 
precincts under the management and control of those respectively 

The topography of the town, as it now appears, it is proper to here 
present ; what it was, may be caught from the historical references to 
the olden time. It is located six miles north of Rowley, and six miles 
south of Haverhill, its village being built on a level plain, where now 
centres the Newburyport Railroad, and the Newburyport, George- 
town, and Haverhill railroads. It is bounded, north by West New- 
bury and Groveland, east, by Rowley, and south and west by Box- 
ford and Groveland. Its soil is excellent for agricultural purposes, 
and well adapted to fruit-growing. It has three prominent elevations, 
Rowley Hill, latterly called Spofford's Hill, made historic by the story 
of the animated meal-chest; Long Hill, 233 feet high, and Bald Pate 
Hill, 392 feet high, which is said to be the highest land in Essex 
County. It is watered by Parker River, and has several other creeks, 
affording some water-power. It also contains Pentucket, Rock, and 
Bald Pate ponds (which last is partly in Boxford), the first named being 
the largest body of water in the town. The diversified face of the 
soil gives to the locality a pleasant landscape view. In some por- 
tions of it the scenery is delightful. From these heights, an exten- 
sive and delightful view of the surrounding country may be obtained 
for a great distance, embracing the near view of the plains and val- 
leys below, and distant glimpses of many of the principal mountains 
and hills in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. The spires 
of the churches in Ipswich, Hamilton, Salem, Reading, Andovcr, Hav- 
erhill, West Newbury, Newbury, Groveland, Bradford, and Newbury- 
port, in Massachusetts, and Atkinson, and Plaistow, in New Hamp- 
shire, with several others, are embraced in the view. In a clear day, 
the Isles of Shoals, the rugged, northern shore of Cape Ann, with 
vessels upon the ocean, are embraced in the panoramic scene, to be 
enjoyed by whoever ascends this eminence. When the land was a 
wilderness, these hills were ranged by the wolf, bear, deer, moose, 
and other animals, occupying that region as their undisturbed home. 
These animals were all met with by the early settlers, supplying an 
abundance of game, which the sportsmen of to-day are accustomed to 
seek in far-distant wilds. The wolf was the most troublesome cus- 

tomer of all, and it was many years before it was entirely extermi- 
nated. Forty shillings was a common bounty for the head of a wolf, 
paid by the constable of the town. They were often caught with four 
mackerel hooks, fastened together, baited with brown bread dipped in 
tallow. Minerals have been discovered, which have led to the exhi- 
bition of some enterprise in attempting to develop them, but without 
substantial results. Many years ago, an iron mine was opened, and, 
within a few years, a gold mine was discovered near Tenney's Mills, 
and a shaft sunk thirty feet; but the yield was not sufficient to war- 
rant its further exploration, and it has been abandoned. A portion 
of Byfield Parish belongs to this town, and the remainder is divided 
between Rowley and Newbury, its corporate capacity being only as a 
parish for religious purposes. 

Until 1838, this portion of Rowley was known as New Rowley, or 
the Second Parish, at which date it was incorporated in the name of 
Georgetown, embracing its present territory. In all its political asso- 
ciations and relations to the State, as a township, it was, up to that 
date, a part and parcel of Rowley, and the history of that town, so far 
as it relates to men, institutions, incidents, or events of a municipal, 
political, heroic, or national character, may be properly shared by 
the people of this enterprising and thrifty town. 

Gage, who wrote the history of Rowley about the year 1840, shows 
the situation of this town as it was at that time, and very fully de- 
scribes its leading features, during the time it was a precinct of Rowley 
in the following : 

"At what time that part of Rowley, which has lately been called 
New Rowley or the Second Parish, began to be settled, is not known 
with certainty ; but the records show, that a lot of meadow and up- 
land lying south of the dwelling-house of Col. John Kimball, was laid 
out to Elder Rainer, before 1652 ; the meadow is still known by the 
name of the Elder Rainer meadow. In 1652, several lots of land were 
laid out to Thomas Mighill, one of which is described as bounding 
upon the said Rainer's land. A piece of meadow-land, adjoining land 
now the burial-ground in Georgetown, was bounded westerly by the 
Pen Brook, so called, which crosses the road next easterly of the Con- 
gregational meeting-house. This last-mentioned piece is now owned 
by descendants of the said Mighill. Also another piece upon Rocky 
Hills (now so called). Upon these hills, the young cattle were first 
penned, from which the brook took its name. 

"In 1666, or 1667, the tract of land called the three thousand acres, 
was laid out as village land. The line, which to this time has divided 
the village lands, as they were called, from lands belonging to the 
town proper, was drawn very near where the road leading from Hav- 
erhill to Salem, through Georgetown, now passes. 

" 1687-8, Feb. 23, the town caused a small farm to be laid out in the 
three thousand acres (had in exchange for land at the neck) and the 
rent of said farm, it was agreed, shall be for the use of the ministry ; 
John Pickard, John Pearson, and Ezekiel Northeud, were chosen to 
lay out said farm ; and they, with the selectmen, were instructed to 
agree with some person to go upon the farm. The committee were 
instructed to lay out not above three score acres of upland, and thirty 
acres of meadow, or half the meadow bclon<nno- to three thousand acres. 

From 1700 to 1730, many families settled here. On the 27th of 
May, 1730, they petitioned the General Court to be set off as a separate 
aud distinct precinct or parish. Their petition was signed by forty- 
two persons, whose names were : — 

John Adams, William Adams, John Brocklebank, Francis Brockle- 
bank, Jonathan Boynton, Richard Boynton, Jonathan Chaplin, Beney 
Chase, Richard Dole, William Fisk, Leonard Harriman, Nathaniel Har- 
riman, Samuel Harriman, Jonathan Harriman, John Harriman, Samuel 
Hazen, John Hazen, Samuel Johnson, Daniel Kilborn, Jeremiah Nel- 
son, Solomon Nelson, Richard Boynton, Jr., Thomas Burpee, Ebenezer 
Burpee, Nathan Boynton, Jonathan Bradstreet, Jeremiah Chaplin, 
Joseph Nelson, Aaron Pingrye, Job Pingrye, Thomas Plumer, Daniel 
Plumer, Jedediah Pearson, David Pearson, David Perley, William 
Searle, Samuel Spofford, Jonathan Spofford, Benjamin Stickuey, 
Jonathan Stickney, Abuer Tod, Jonathan Wheeler. 

They were incorporated October, 1731. The first parish meeting 
for choice of officers, was held Oct. 5, 1731. 



"In April, 1838, the most of this parish, with the largest portion 
of Rowley, part of Byficld Parish, were incorporated as a separate 
town by the name of Georgetoum. This town has a central location 
in the northerly half of Essex County, rendering it, therefore, a con- 
venient place for holding various public meetings ; the Essex agricul- 
tural exhibition, when holden in the northern part of the county, has 
been oftener held here than in any other town. 

"There is one large public house, with spacious hall, &c, kept by 
Col. John B. Savory, and seven trading stores in the place, some of 
which are doing an extensive business." 

This most interesting leaf, from the earliest history of "New Row- 
ley,*' supplies the basis for the history of the Georgetown of to-day. 

The sufferings of this town from Indian invasion were comparatively 
light, the principal attack upon this part of the town being Oct. 23, 
1692, recorded by Gage, as follows: ''In that part of Rowley which 
is now in B\ field parish, in Georgetown, a Mr. Goodrich and wife, 
and two daughters, were killed by the Indians. He was shot while 
praying in his family, on Sabbath evening. Another daughter named 
Deborah, aired seven years, was taken captive, but redeemed the next 
spring, at the expense of the Province. She died in Beverly, as ap- 
pears by the records of the first church in that town. The entry is as 
follows: 'Buryed. March 28, 1774, Deborah Duty, aged 88 years, a 
widow." An engraving exists which is an exact representation of the 
house in which .Mr. Goodrich was shot, as it now appears, it having 
been altered and addition made to the northern and western parts. 
It fronts toward the south, and the first lower window east of the 
front door, is that through which the fatal ball passed. Mr. Good- 
rich, his wife, and two daughters, were buried in one grave, a few 
rods easterly of the house. 

The house, becoming dilapidated, was taken down a few years ago. 
The farm is owned by Capt. Gorham P. Tenney, and was the late 
re.-idence of Mr. Dudley Lull, deceased, father of said Tenney's wife."' 
The spot where the Goodrich family is supposed to have been buried 
is now pointed out, and the path through the woods, skulked through 
by the Indians with their French rifles, is still shown. 

Duriug the long and bloody Indian wars, Rowley, it is believed, fur- 
nished her full share of men, though the records are very imperfect as 
to names and the number of the men in the service, representing all 
portions of its territory. Joseph Kilborn, Sr., and Jeremiah Nelson, 
were slain by the Indians in Dunstable, in 1706, and John Pickard 
died of his wounds in Billerica. Lieut. Thomas Gage was killed at 
Port Royal, X. S.. in 1707. and Samuel Avers was killed by the 
Indians at Winter Harbor, at the mouth of Saco River, in Fell., 1710. 

In 174-4, Rowley was represented at the battle of Louisburg, on 
Cape Breton, when James Jewitt was killed by a cannon-ball, and 
Moses Platts died from his wounds. Moses Davis, Jr., John Platts, 
Humphrey Woodbury, Joseph Saunders, Samuel Smith, and Richard 
Harris, all died at Cape Breton in 1745-6. 

In 1754, a large number were in the service on the eastern frontier, 
and in 1755, nearly an entire company served at Lake George, under 
Capt. Thomas Gage, and Lieut. Israel Davis. The town had soldiers 
at Fort Edwards, and at Fort William Henry, and was represented in 
the stirring scenes of Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara, and Quebec. 
In 1759, Rowley, at different enlistments, furnished fifty-two men for 
the service. The records of the State show that " nearly one-third of 
the effective men " were in the service in various ways, thus indicating 
that they were ruled by a spirit of patriotism and Belf-sacrifice which, 
instead of dying out. at the end of the war with the French, only slum- 
bered till the hour came for an awakening, when the oppressions of 
the mother country called the patriots once more to arms. 

At the close of the war, a reorganization of the militia of the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay took place in 1764. Ipswich, Rowley, and 
Topsfield made oue regiment, called the third regiment in Essex 
County. On 1st of June, the field officers, Colouel Samuel Rogers ; 
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dennis ; Major John Baker, were "com- 
missioned; and on the 7th, the officers of the Rowley company were 

commissioned as follows: First company — Captain, Thomas Gage; 
Lieutenant, Joseph Scott ; Ensign, John jewett. Second company — 
Captain, Daniel Spofford ; Lieutenant, Dudley Tyler ; Ensign, Eliphalet 
Spofford. Livebrook company — Captain, Isaac Davis ; Lieutenant, 
David Dresser ; Ensign, Abraham How. 

The next stirring event was the disturbance with the parent govern- 
ment, originating in a system of taxation unwarrantable, oppressive, 
and impolitic. In common with the other colonial towns, Rowley, 
through the whole length and breadth of its territory, was stirred to 
action, and the true-spirited men in all the parishes began to move in 
the expression of opinions and policy of action, and at once to take 
the preliminary steps for organization, with a view to forcible resist- 
ance. As is indicated by an early record. New Rowley, though only 
a precinct, signified its readiness to send "minute-men " in accordance 
with the recommendation of the Provincial Congress, Avheu their 
presence and services were called for. 

The next step onward was a declaration, numerousby signed, called 
a " Whig Covenant," in which they mutually pledged themselves to 
union, to economy, to fidelity in the support of the patriots of Boston, 
and that they would not "hereafter use any foreign tea ourselves, or 
suffer it to be used in our families," until the repeal of the revenue 
act should take place. 

The patriotic sentiment of the town, though strong, was not entirely 
harmonious ; there were those who favored the Royalists, because they 
thought the Colonies were too weak to successfully resist the British 
power. These refused to sign the Whig covenant, the effect of which 
was, they were at once denominated "Tories" and the enemies of 
their country. The time for debate had passed, and the number of 
this class was too small to resist the outburst of public fervor; and 
within a year from the first opening of the conflict, nearly all of these 
got out of the mirage of their fears, wheeled into the patriotic line, 
signed and published recantations, and were in full support of the 
cause of the Colonies. 

By the frequent meetings the town had held, and the work of prep- 
aration the inhabitants had long been engaged in, they were prepared 
at any moment for the note of battle. The news of the battle of 
Lexington reached Rowley the same day, and Capt. Thomas Mighill, 
with his company of minute-men, left immediately for Boston. They 
rendezvoused at Cambridge, on the 20th, awaiting orders, returning 
home in five days. Capt. Edward Pay son, with his militia company, 
reached there the same day. and returned in three days. 

On the 22d of May, 1775, the town voted "That if the Honorable 
Congress shall, for the safety of the Colonies, declare them independ- 
ent of Great Britain, that we, the inhabitants of the town of Rowley, 
do solemnly engage, that with our lives and fortunes we will support 
them in the measure." 

From this time onward, the town voted men and money to the full 
extent of all calls upon them, and fully bore their portion of the bur- 
dens of the Ions: struggle. According to the most authentic records, 
Rowley furnished 448 privates during the war, having an average of 
about fifty men in the service in each of the eight years of the war. 
There were also fifteen or twenty officers and musicians, as follows: 
Captains, Thomas Mighill, Benjamin Adams, Edward Payson ; lieu- 
tenants, Amos Bailey, Daniel Dresser, Mark Creasey, Thomas Green, 
Thomas Pike, Benjamin Stickncy, Moses Scott, John Tenney, Rufus 
Wheeler; musicians: Nathaniel Burpee and Samuel Todd, drummers, 
and Thomas Sttckney, tifer. 

The records of the town from 1798 to 1815 contain copies of corre- 
spondence with President John Adams, together with his reply thereto ; 
also the opinion of the people in relation to the questions which led to 
the war of 1812, and also in relation to the justice and expediency of 
that war. These sentiments appear to have been given form, chiefly, 
by Parker Cleaveland, Esq., Paul Jewett, Joseph Chaplin, Capt. Ben- 
jamin Adams, Jr., Capt. Francis Perley, Joseph Pike, and Dea. 
Thomas Merrill, and nearly unanimously adopted. As literary and 
political documents, they were well framed, and ably presented the 
views they advocated. Their spirit was that of uncompromising hos- 
tility to the war of 1812, which opinions and judgment did not proba- 
bly find a stronger or more forcible expression through any legislative 
body or in any conventions of that time. 






The early history of Georgetown, long known as New Rowley, or 
the Second Parish, is so interwoven with that of Rowley that a brief 
record of those remote days becomes necessary, inasmuch as the action 
and interest in all the events of that period were shared by all the 
inhabitants of the town. The religious history, however, is a different 
interest, dating with the incorporation of the Second Parish in 1731, 
and organized on the 5th of October of that year. 

In the second centennial address delivered by the Rev. James Brad- 
ford, at that anniversary, Sept. 5, 1839, is the following record : 

"The second church in Rowley, now Georgetown, was organized 
Oct. 4th, 1732, ninety-three years after the organization of the first 
church, and about one year after the parish was incorporated, by the 
signature of eighteen males to a covenant, to which, not long after- 
wards, numbers, both male and female, were added. Rev. James 
Chandler was the first pastor of the church. Having received a call, 
with the proffer of £300 settlement, and £110 salary, according to the 
value of money, and twenty cords of wood, he was ordained on the 
20th of October, 1732. William Fisk and William Searle were the 
first deacons. Mr. Chandler was a native of Andover, born 1706, 
and graduated at Harvard, 1728. He married Mary, the daughter of 
Rev. Moses Hale, of Byfield. They had no children. He was a man 
of sound doctrine, exemplary life and conversation, dignified deport- 
ment, and greatly esteemed, generally, by his own people ; highly 
esteemed abroad, and very successful in his ministry. He died April 
19th, 1789, aged eighty-three, and in the fifty-seventh of his minis- 
try, having been in office longer, by seven or eight years, than any 
other minister of the town. In June, 1729, two years before the 
church was organized, the frame of a meeting-house was erected by 
the proprietors, which probably was completed, and became the place 
of worship not long after. In 17G9 a new meeting-house, fifty-five 
feet by forty, was raised, with a steeple and porch, all in one day. 
This house was dedicated 1770, and the dedication sermon preached 
by the eminent Rev. George Whitefield, of England, from 1 Kin<is 
viii. 2: 'The glory of the Lord hath filled the house of the Lord.'"' 
This sermon was delivered near the close of the ministry of this emi- 
nent divine, his death occurring at Newburyport on the 30th of 
the same month. He preached in Rowley on the 12th and 13th ; on 
the 23d in Portsmouth, N. H. ; on the 29th at Exeter ; after which he 
rode to Newburyport and died the next morning. 

"After Mr. Chandler's death, this church was destitute of a pastor 
more than eight years ; and during that period sixty-four preachers 
supplied, for a longer or shorter time, three or four of whom received 
a call to settle. Feb. 14, 1797, the parish concurred with the church 
in calling the Rev. Isaac Braman, with the proffer of £200 settle- 
ment, and £80 salary, and, conditionally, an addition of £10, and ten 
cords of wood, which has been somewhat increased from time to time. 
Mr. Braman was born at Norton, 1770, graduated at Harvard, 1794, 
ordained June 7th, 1797. He married Hannah Palmer, of Norton, 
in 1797; and they had five children, three sons and two daughters. 
He married Sarah Balch, of Newburyport, in 1837. At the com- 
mencement of Mr. Braman's ministry, there were but twelve resident 
male members in the church. Instances of special religious interest 
occurred among his people in the early part of his ministry. Latterly, 
precious revivals have been experienced, as the fruits of which many 
have been added to the church. The whole number of additions 
during his ministry is two hundred and twelve; and the whole num- 
ber now in the church is one hundred and sixty-three. The 7th of 
June last completed forty-two years since Mr. Braman's ordination ; 
and the 18th of October next will complete a hundred and seven years 
since the commencement of that of his venerable predecessor. A 
Sabbath school was organized here in 1817, which contains about two 
hundred and fifty pupils. The annual donations to benevolent objects 
amount to $450. The first meeting-house bell was had in this parish 
since Mr. Braman's ministry, and not until the autumn of 1815. The 
house was enlarged in 1836. The modern mode of singing was intro- 
duced into this parish about half a century since." 

The ministry of the Rev. Mr. Braman continued till his death, on 
the 26th of December, 1857, covering a period of sixty-one years, 
and the two first pastorates extending over one hundred and sixteen 

years. During the late years of his ministry he was assisted by sev- 
eral colleagues; the first was the Rev. Enoch Pond; the second, the 
Rev. John M. Prince ; and the third, the Rev. Charles Beecher, who 
was ordained Nov. 19, 1857. The venerable Dr. Jeremiah Spofford, 
of Groveland, was present at the ordination of Mr. Braman, and now, 
at the age of ninety-two years, is in good health, and still possessed of 
considerable physical, and unimpaired mental force. 

On the occasion of the centennial anniversary, an invitation extended 
to the citizens of Georgetown to join in the same, was accepted by 
them in town-meeting, April 8, 1839, when they appointed the Rev. 
Isaac Braman, Solomon Nelson, Amos J. Tenney, George Spofford, 
Jeremiah Jewett, Ira Stickney, David Mighill, Jeremiah Russell, and 
Benjamin Winter a committee to join with the committee of Rowley 
in making arrangements for the celebration. At a subsequent meet- 
ing of the town they declined to make any appropriation for defray- 
ing any portion of the expenses of the occasion ; and although the 
committee had acted up to that time in the preliminary arrangements, 
they declined now to further co-operate, and withdrew. The commit- 
tee of Rowley then extended an invitation, accompanied by a cordial 
request to the committee, on the part of Georgetown, to continue to 
act with them as in the beginning. In the absence of an appropria- 
tion by the town, some of the citizens contributed liberally to the 
object, and assisted actively in the work of preparation, by means of 
which the anniversary exercises were generally participated in. 

The church established and the covenant adopted by the Rev. 
Ezekiel Rogers, when the town of Rowley was settled, appears to 
have long supplied the theology and directed the worship for the 
people without any disposition being shown to organize for the sup- 
port of different views, though it cannot be doubted that there early 
existed conflicting opinions upon matters of religious belief in that 
town, as elsewhere, but the "standing order" was master of the situa- 
tion till 1754, when there was a withdrawal from the Second Church, 
and a new order made its appearance. These people called them- 
selves " Separatists, " yet did not then profess to be a different denomi- 
nation from the one they had left ; but they soon became known as 
Baptists, accepting that name, and organizing as such. From that 
movement originated the First Baptist Church in Rowley. Those who 
withdrew finally joined with others in the vicinity, purchased the old 
church, removed it to Four Corners near Jonathan Hale's residence in 
Bradford, where they worshipped for several successive years, Mr. 
Eliphaz Chapman, a Congregationalist, of Bethel, Me., being their 
principal preacher. This organization was joined by other residents 
of neighboring towns, becoming what was termed a branch of the 
Baptist church at Haverhill ; and the meeting-house was again moved 
to Rowley, where Baptist worship was established, the subsequent 
history of which properly belongs to the records of that town. 

There does not appear in the early records of this town so much 
evidence of fierce religious conflicts as occurred about that time in 
many of the neighboring towns, yet it is evident that the intensely 
puritanic ideas ruled there, and it is probable the prevalence and 
strength of those opinions, for a century and a half, contributed to 
rule out the elements of debate and strife. 

The first Universalist society in New Rowley, now Georgetown, 
was organized in 1829, fifty-nine males becoming members by signing 
their constitution. In 1834, a meeting-house was built, in dimensions 
forty-five feet by thirty-five feet, at a cost exceeding $2,000, and 
preaching instituted every other Sabbath at an annual expense of 
$200. Sometime after that a Sunday school was established, and sus- 
tained for several years. The society continued to flourish for a suc- 
cession of years, but finally became broken and weakened by the 
"come-outer" movement of the early anti-slavery days, and finally 
passed out of existence. George Hastings was the most prominent 
minister connected with the society, who was also a mechanic of con- 
siderable note, and finally abandoned the ministry, becoming inter- 
ested in the manufacture of watches at Waltham. 

Within a few years the Catholics have established worship here, 
which has had considerable growth under the pastoral care of the Rev. 
Father McClure. Their place of worship is the old chapel of the Old 
South Church, about ten years ago refitted and adapted to that mode 
of worship. With the exception of the Catholics, there are only three 
religious societies in this town, and three houses of worship, the Pea- 
body Memorial Church, the Rev. Mr. Beecher's church, and a Baptist 
church and society, now without a settled pastor. 

About the year 1875, by order of the county commissioners, a street 
was laid out over a portion of the site occupied by the Old South 
Church, and that structure, which had stood the storms and tempests 
of one hundred and five years, with remodelling and improvements, 



was torn clown, and its remains are not now in any building, a portion 
of the site being laid out in a common. From its fragments were 
manufactured canes, rulers, and other mementoes, which have been 
widely distributed anions? the sons of this interesting and somewhat 
"peculiar " town. 

The long condition of harmony in the Orthodox Church at length 
gave indications of being disturbed by a difference of opinion, in ref- 
erence to certain fundamental theological questions, between a portion 
of the church and the Rev. Mr. Beecher. The theological eccentricities 
of Mr. Beecher — the leading one being the doctrine of pre-existence — 
became so prominent in the minds of those who dissented therefrom, 
that unity in the support of his ministry could no longer be main- 
tained ; and Jan. 17, 1864, eighty-five members, by consent of a 
council convened for that purpose, withdrew, and organized themselves 
under the name of the First Orthodox Society, of Georgetown, estab- 
lishing worship in the chapel occupied by the Ladies' Benevolent 

In 1865, a sister of George Peabody, of London, observing the 
position of this society, conceived the idea of having a church built 
for their use, and suggested the idea to her brother of building a 
church there, which should stand as a memorial to their mother. The 
suggestion met with the prompt and cordial approval of Mr. Peabody, 
who at once signified his purpose to carry out the plan, and a site for 
the church was selected in 1866, upon which the structure was erected, 
and dedicated in 1868, at which time the new organization took the 
name of the " Memorial Church." It is located on Main Street, and 
is built of brick. In the rear of the church, and upon the same lot, 
is located the Library Building and the Peabody Lecture Hall. 

The portion of the old society remaining with Mr. Beecher rallied 
to his most cordial support, and was re-enforced by additions from the 
less conservative portion of the community, who saw in his position, 
made prominent by the action of the seceders, a new religious depart- 
ure. Although there appeared a peculiarity and independence in Mr. 
Beecher's belief in certain things, his position was not. regarded as 
decidedly unevangelical. He retained and still retains the leading 
evangelical views of the Congregationalists, blended with his own 
philosophy, forming a theory, probably, more harmonious to his own 
mind than it is to the judgment of many others. He is an independ- 
ent, vigorous thinker and writer, whose suggestions, if followed to 
their legitimate results, would open into very broad fields. 

The old meeting-house had become too dilapidated for agreeable 
occupancy ; and directly after the erection of the Memorial Church, a 
new and very beautiful house of worship was erected for Mr. Beecher, 
on the corner of Andover and Middle streets, fronting on Monument 

The ministry of Mr. Beecher has been well sustained, — a large, 
flourishing, and intelligent congregation having been gathered about 
him. During some portion of his ministry of twenty-one years in 
this town, his health has been such as not to withstand the rigors of a 
northern climate, and he has passed some of his winters in Florida; 
but he has been the constant pastor of the society, and in his absence 
the pulpit has been supplied in such ways as the society devised. 

For a time, the Rev. Thomas R. Beeber was settled as colleague 
with Mr. Beecher, but resigned his office in March, 1875. He was 
succeeded in 1876 by the Rev. Alfred F. Marsh, who remained only 
one year. Mr. Beecher's health is now quite improved. 

In 1868, the Rev. David D. Marsh became the pastor of the 
Memorial Church, and still retains the position. The society has 
flourished under his charge, and the tenth anniversary of his settle- 
ment has just taken place, under circumstances indicating that strong 
bonds of union exist between pastor and people. 

On the occasion of the laying of the corner-stone of the Memorial 
Church, Sept. 9, 1866, it was first made known to the public by Mr. 
Peabody, that it was his further purpose to make Georgetown, the 
birthplace of his mother, and the home of an endeared sister, the 
recipient of his bounty by founding a Public Library; but the letter 
of gift was not received for some time after, by reason of ill health. 

Immediately after the receipt of this gift from Mr. Peabody, the 
Georgetown Agricultural and Social Library Association, — a corpora- 
tion having 116 shareholders and about 1,100 volumes of books, — 
donated the books of their library to the town, to become a part of 
the Peabody Library, on conditions that the "Annals of Congress 
shall be kept in the Library for reference, and that shareholders, not 
residents of the town, shall be entitled to the use of the Peabody 
Library during their lifetime, under such restrictions as the Trustees 
may think proper." 

To the letter of gift the town responded : — " That with the liveliest 

emotions of pleasure we receive from George Peabody his letter of 
gift, bestowing upon us a valuable Library and Building, with the 
means to aid in their improvement and perpetuity ; and that we accept 
the proffered gifts on the conditions conferred, and, for ourselves and 
our posterity, return our heartfelt thanks to the generous donor, who, 
while persistently refusing rank from royalty, by his vast and numer- 
ous donations has become among men, by letters-patent from the 
whole civilized world, worthy of the title of the Prince of Givers." 

Following this, the town voted that the library should be called the 
" Georgetown Peabody Library," and appropriated a sum of money to 
furnish the library-room, and for other incidental purposes ; but its 
expenditure was unexpectedl}' intercepted by the receipt of a check 
from Mr. Peabody for $4,000, to be used by the trustees for the 
benefit of the library, accompanied by the assurance that he should 
not permit the town to be at any expense in the maintenance of the 
library, and, if any had been contracted, he wished it to be repaid 
with interest. In emulation of the example of liberality by her 
brother, Mrs. Daniels made a donation of books, which was followed 
by contributions from other persons. The institution was then fully 
organized by the choice of the following board of trustees and other 
officers for the year 1869 : — 

David D. Marsh, Charles Beecher, J. M. Burtt, ex officio. Chas. 
P. Low; Isaac Wilson; G. J. Tenne}', Treasurer; J. P. Jones; 
Solomon Nelson ; G. D. Tenney. 

President, D. D. Marsh; Secretary, Isaac Wilson; Librarian, O. 
R. Tenney. The officers are changed, from year to year, as uecessity 
requires. The present librarian is Richard Tenney. 

Following these noble gifts to the town, in December, 1871, the 
trustees received a letter from Mrs. Daniels, giving to the board, in 
trust for the town, "The Peabody Lecture Hall," adjoining the library 
building, a joint gift of herself and her affectionately remembered 
brother; the objects and purposes of which, with the conservative 
restrictions attending the gift, are fully set forth in the letter, which 
was accompanied by a gift of $500, to be expended for lectures and 
concerts. This munificent gift was accepted by the trustees, and the 
hall taken possession of by appropriate dedicatory exercises, as had 
already been the case with the Memorial Church and the Library. In 
the hall hangs a fine portrait of Mr. Peabody. The letter of gift 
from Mrs. Daniels is as follows : — 

President and Trustees of the Georgetown Pcetbody Library. 

Gentlemen : — It is known to you, but probably not to all who are 
interested, that the death of Mr. Peabody suddenly checked the 
building of the library hall, which he had caused to be commenced 
before he left this country. 

No record having been made of his gift for this purpose, I was 
aware that considerable delay must ensue before the balance due, 
($3,000) could be paid over, and being desirous that the building 
should be finished at or near the time which he had contemplated, I 
assumed the responsibility, and authorized the immediate prosecution 
of the work. 

That work has been faithfully and beautifully accomplished ; each 
artisan having seemed to vie with the others that his particular depart- 
ment should excel. 

The $3,000 which I advanced at the commencement has been re- 
turned to me, and, having previously directed that the whole of the 
gift of $5,000 should be expended on the building, I have employed 
the returned $3,000 in furnishing it suitably and conveniently for the 
purposes for which it was designed; and I now, in behalf of my 
beloved departed brother, and for myself, offer for your acceptance, 
as trustees, the finished and furnished lecture and concert room as our 
joint gift, to be part and parcel of the Georgetown Peabody Library, 
and, as such, subject to the entire management and control of your- 
selves and your successors. 

In regard to the uses to which the room is to be devoted, I have 
but one condition, — that which the founder invariably attached to the 
literary institutions which sprang from his bounty, — in substance, as 
follows : 

That it shall be strictly guarded against being made a theatre for 
the dissemination or discussion of infidelity, party politics, or that 
pretended philosophy which may be aimed at the approved morals of 
society; and, that it shall never minister, in any manner whatever, to 
the propagation of opinions tending to create jealousies and alienation 
among the people. 

I make the above articles a condition, knowing how earnestly my 
brother enforced them, and having seen how quickly they were 
ignored when he did but recommend them. 



The piano I include in the furniture, on condition that it be kept 
locked, and the librarians have custody of the key, and that it shall 
never be carried out of this hall, to be used elsewhere on any occasion 
whatever, — unless by some contingency another room shall be substi- 
tuted for this, — and as the hall is the property of the town, and not 
any particular district or parish, it is my hope that no article of 
the furniture or fixings will be carried out to be used elsewhere, that 
everything may be preserved to you as long as possible, and be on 
baud whenever it is wanted. 

Believing that, had my brother lived to see the lecture-room fin- 
ished, he would have provided for at least one course of lectures in a 
year, and finding my happiness in carrying out his intentions, as far 
as I may, I have placed in the hands of your treasurer the sum of 
$500, to procure a course of six free lectures for the ensuing season. 

These lectures must be given by gentlemen of high moral standing, 
of acknowledged talents, and of approved ability on the subjects of 
which they treat. 

Should the $500 not be sufficient to procure six lectures as speci- 
fied, then let there be five only, rather than that the standard of ex- 
cellence be lowered. 

Whether they shall be a consecutive course by one person, and one 
subject, or separate lectures by different individuals, on different sub- 
jects, alternating with such lectures, concerts, or entertainments, as 
may be supported by tickets, whether the}' shall be literary, scien- 
tific, or miscellaneous, I leave to the discretion of the trustees, who will 
act as circumstances or their better judgment determine. 

If once, or even twice in the course, the trustees shall choose to 
substitute for a lecture a first-class concert, it will not be inconsistent 
with my views; and here allow me to state, that it was the request of 
Mr. Peabody, that the hall should be finished and furnished with spe- 
cial reference to music, and especially the improvement of the music 
of the town, remarking that the influence of good music on a commun- 
ity is more salutary than that of popular lectures, generally. 

The library lecture-room then may, in accordance with his wishes 
and intentions, at the discretion of the trustees, and 6n occasions 
which they shall approve, be used for any musical purpose of good 
moral tendency, either of instruction or entertainment, in which the 
whole town are interested. 

I have only to ask, that before the room is opened for its legitimate 
purposes, some simple ceremonies of dedication may be observed ; 
and that whatever religious services are required, may be performed 
by the ministers of the town. 

That the citizens of this town and their successors may enjoy with- 
in its walls all the pleasure and instruction which our lamented bene- 
factor hoped and anticipated, is also the earnest desire of her whom a 
kind Providence has permitted to finish his work. 

Most respectfully, 

J. P. Russell Daniels. 
J. P. Jones, President, in behalf of the Trustees. 

These interesting official records and correspondence cover the ori- 
gin and completion of the most important movements ever occurring 
in connection with the religious and literary interests of this town, and 
which are to supply the elements of religious improvement, literary 
culture and refinement for generations to come, filling a distinguished 
and pleasant page in the local history of this town. 




The history of the establishment of common schools in this town, 
possesses the usual interest which surrounds the action of all the col- 
onial towns ; but the records are very imperfect as relating to the first 
movements for their introduction. It was an indictable offence, in 1647, 
for towns to neglect to maintain schools of some kind, which shows 
the just appreciation the fathers had of education. In 1706, the town 
was fined for not keeping schools as the law required. Comfortable 
school-houses appear, also, to have been appreciated ; for the record 
shows, that, in 1720, the " rogueish boys" tore down a dilapidated 

structure, because of the tardiness of the town in supplying a new 
one. In 1742, Benjamin Adams was a teacher, keeping school eight 
months in the First Parish, two month in the Second Parish, and two 
months in the Byfield Parish. In 1749. the town apportioned the 
schools among the several parishes, according to their county taxes 

In 1789, the law required the defining of school districts, and the 
town was divided into four districts. Long after that, other divisions 
were made; and, in 1840, Georgetown had seven school districts. 
In 1839, there were 336 scholars, between the ages of four and six- 
teen years. The appropriation for schools was $600, to which was 
added the interest accruing from their surplus revenue. A high 
school or academy had then been kept for several years, supported 
by tuition from the pupils. Among the early teachers in this town, 
were Greenleaf Dole and Dr. Joshua Jewett, graduates of Dummer 
Academy; Samuel Adams, of Harvard; the Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin, 
of Providence; Nathaniel Merrill, of Dartmouth; Dr. Richard Spof- 
ford, of Cambridge. In 1836-1837, the Old South School was taught 
by Mr. Pingree, of New Hampshire, now at the head of the seminary 
at Newark, N. J. 

With the changes in the modes of education, the school district 
system has been abolished, and a high school established, in Sep- 
tember, 1856. The following named persons, in the order given, have 
filled the position of principal ; William Reed, D. Milton Crafts, 
Edward Parker, Jr., A. J. Dalton, S. C. Cotton, and Edward F. 
Fickctt, the present incumbent. 

The external elements of a people are ever visible, but the pres- 
ence of invisible forces is only shown by results. The religious, the 
political, and the educational impulses of the early settlers of this 
town, and those of their successors, have been briefly traced in the 
acts which make up their history. There still remains to be put on 
record, in this connection, some account of a mystical power, which 
made its appearance in this town at an early day, and appears to have 
been a mixture of delusion, superstition, and facts, strangely com- 
bined in its development, the manner of its handling, and the mur- 
derous results, which supply a dark page in the history of the judicial 
proceedings of the county. This mystic force was denominated 
"witchcraft" in the early time, but its close relations to the phenom- 
ena of the present day, known as Spiritualism, brings it to considera- 
tion as a matter of great historic interest. 

Many persons at that time believed that the witches actually signed 
a material book, presented to them by the devil, and were baptized 
by him, in which ceremony the devil used the words: "Thou art 
mine, and I have full power over thee ! " After this, they were 
thought "to partake of a hellish bread and wine administered unto 
them by the devil," which was denominated a " witch sacrament." 
In these communions, "the witches were supposed to meet on the 
banks of the Merrimac River, riding there upon poles through the 

It is recorded, that " on the 27th of September, 1692, John Shep- 
ard of Rowley was bound over to Court for assisting to convey Mary 
Green, of Haverhill, a prisoner, charged with witchcraft, out of Ips- 
wich jail." Twenty persons thus accused, tried, and condemned, were 
put to death, and eleven others were under condemnation, before 
there was a halt in the horrible slaughter. 

The following is a specimen of the evidence upon which these 
witches were condemned and executed, given Sept. 15, 1692 : — 

" Danell Wycomb | Dep° ags' Margret Scott. 

"The testy mony of Daniell Wicom ayged aboue fifty years 
who sayth that abought five ore sixs years a go Margret Scot of Row- 
lah came to my hous and asked me if she might gleane corne in my 
felld i towld hir she might if she would stay whilst my corne was 
ought of the feeld s d Scot s d you will not get youer corne ought to 
night it may be i tould hir i would s d Scot s d maybe not ; at that 
time my wife gave s d Scot sum corne and then Scot went a way and 
presently after s d Scot was gon i went with my cart and oxseu into 
the felld for corne and when i had lodid my cart i went to go home 
with my corne but the oxsen would not draw the cart any ways bout 
from home thof i wear not twenty Rod from my Door and i coulld 
not get any corne ought of my felld that day the next Day i touck 
the same oxsen and put them to the same cart and the s d cart and the 
same lode of corne they did draw a way with ease." 

"Iurat in Curia." 

Nearly a hundred years after the date of the above deposition, a 
remarkable event took place in Georgetown, at the house of Moody 



Spofford, Esq., situated on Rowley Hill, in the westerly part of this 
town. These singular occurrences took place about the year 1780, 
nearly a hundred years ago. The following statement, written by the 
venerable Dr. Jeremiah Spofford, of Groveland, prepared by the 
request of many persons, is given, as the facts were related to him by 
his father, corroborated by the testimony of a dozen other eye-wit- 
nesses of what took place, among whom were Dr. Amos Spofford, 
David Thurston, Capt. William Perley. late of Haverhill, and David 
Tenney, of Georgetown, grandfather of David B. Tenney, city clerk 
of Haverhill, who was one who rode across the room on the meal- 
chest propelled by the invisible power. This statement is of value as 
to the fact of what occurred, on account of the entire reliability of 
Dr. Spofford as a witness concerning a traditional matter, and also 
from the fact that he had no sympathy with modern Spiritualism or in 
the defence of any of its theories : 

''On a day about 1780, — exact date not known, — my father, living 
at the next house, was passing the house of Mr. Moody Spofford, and 
was called in to hear the strange statement that the girl weaving in 
the chamber, was annoyed by strange sounds, apparently in the walls 
of the room, answering each stroke of the lathe with which she beat 
each thread of the rilling into the cloth ! He examined to see if the 
jar of the loom produced the sound, but could find no loose boards or 
clapboards producing it. He pounded on the house himself, and 
found every blow made by the experiment, answered by a similar 
blow. Unable to account for these things, he left and went home, 
but was soon recalled. 

"The weaver was Hannah Hazen, a native of the place, of respecta- 
ble family and good character, and nothing is known of her having 
any voluntary agency in relation to the doings of the afternoon, but 
a saying of the children's that Hannah had been trying her fortune, 
by some of the experiments popular at that day. . . . Dis- 
turbed in the weaving, Hannah was set to sifting meal, but she or 
her clothes had no sooner touched the meal-chest than it began to 
move away from her by jogs of one or two inches, and so continued 
as long as she kept at work ! A family of children, up to ten or a 
dozen years of age, soon spread the story over the neighborhood, and 
many gathered to see the wonders. My father, with my mother, a 
sister of 'Squire Moody, soon returned to find many there, and experi- 
ments going on ; a table, stauding in the open floor, when touched by 
the girl or her clothes, would move by jogs from her, and other articles 
in the same way. The door-latch flew up and down with great 
rapidity when her clothes touched the door, and even the farmer's 
heavy work-bench, at the shop, upon trial, receded by a similar jog- 
ging motion. Spectators, by this time, were plenty, and the meal- 
chest experiment was renewed, and the chest moved as before, and 
continued to do so while the girl sifted meal, though the weight of 
three men were added. This motion was continued till it reached the 
corner of the room. The men concerned in this experiment, often 
named in stating those facts by those present, were Dr. Amos Spof- 
ford. David Thurston. Esq.. afterwards removed to Maine, Capt. Wil- 
liam Perley, late of Haverhill, all of them residents here, and large 
and heavy men, well known to the writer. 

* Hannah was a passive instrument in the hands of others in all these 
experiments, and probably knew no more of the cause of these won- 
ders than they did. Iron or steel played its usual part : a fork stuck 
in a table or meal-chest arrested its motion, a horse-shoe hung on the 
door, and the latch was still; why the latch, if of iron, did not do the 
same we do not know; perhaps it was of wood. Other experiments 
might show the curiosity or preconceived notions of the actors, but 
throw no light on the moving cause of the chest, bench and chairs. 
On the esquire's return at evening, he put a stop to all experiments, 
and would not even hear their stories ; and everything was quiet over 
the Sabbath ; but, on his departure, Monday moruiug, the same game 
was recommenced at his house, upon which he was immediately recalled. 

" Mr. Chandler, the minister, and Mr. Bradford, the candidate for 
settlement, as colleague, were called in. Ere this, it had been decided 
that all unnatural appearances were optical delusions. Salem Village 
had never seen Margaret Rule suspended above the bed without hands. 
— it was all deception and imagination; but the twenty witnes 
who had seen the loaded meal-chest move to the wall, and begin to 
turn the corner, were not to be put down by a theory, even by two 
clergymen ; they were obliged to concede the facts as stated, or vir- 
tually hold half the Parish to be fools and liars ! To conclude, the 
girl was sent away. Prayer was offered at the house, and henceforth, 
to this day, chairs, tables and chests, have obeyed the laws of gravi- 
tation there as elsewhere." 

The venerable author of the above, though not taking any interest 

in the manifestations of that or later times, thinks it " unphilosophical 
and absurd to disbelieve all facts we do not understand." 

The most important and extensive early mechanical industry estab- 
lished in this town was that of tanning and currying, the annual produc- 
tion of leather being quite large. Among the principal tanners and cur- 
riers were Jeremiah Nelson, Asa Nelson, Nathaniel Nelson, Nathaniel 
Morse. Capt. Benjamin Adams, Solomon Nelson, Benjamin Low, Asa 
Nelson, Henry P. Hilliard, William Nelson, and Col. John Kimball. 
This branch of industry has now nearly ceased to exist in this town, 
only one establishment, doing a small business, now remaining. 

The boot and shoe business, which began to exist here contempo- 
raneously with the leather business, has been a constantly growing 
interest, and is now the principal mechanical industry of the town, its 
extent and importance being indicated by the manufacturing and 
agricultural statistics elsewhere given. 

The early manufacturers of boots and shoes were Moses Stickney, 
Solomon Stickney, Joseph Little, Benjamin Little, John L. Platts, 
George W. Nelson, Greenleaf Spofford, Coleman Platts, D. M. 
Winter, Benjamin Winter, Samuel Holmes, Nelson & Hood. 

The later ones are G. J. Tenney & Son, Little & Noyes, Little £ 
Moulton, Walter M. Brewster, John A. Lovering & Son, H. P. 
Chaplin, Holmes & Noyes, Noyes & Carleton, A. B. Noyes & Co., 
Daniel Pierce, George Spofford, James B. Giles, Maj. Jerry Nelson, 
and Capt. Moses Wright. Heavy goods are principally produced, 
and the business has been subject to comparatively little fluctuation 
for many years. 

At an early date there were numerous small mechanical enterprises 
started, most of which have now passed out of existence. Between 
1730 and 1740, Dea. Aimer Spofford erected the first saw-mill on the 
site where William Spofford's mill was afterwards built. In 1780, 
Col. Daniel Spofford erected a grist-mill in connection with the saw- 
mill, which was iu existence about forty years, but only run a portion 
of the time. 

About the same time Eleazer Spofford erected a mill in the same 
neighborhood for drawing wire, which was only operated a few years. 
Another enterprise added to that locality was a snuff-mill by Jeremiah 
Spofford, which also ceased to operate after a few years. 

In 1739, iron-works were established on a stream running from 
Rock Pond into Pentucket Pond, believed to have been operated by 
Samuel Barrett, but they have so long been closed up that little is 
now known of them. 

In the year 1740, the only canal enterprise ever attempted in the 
town was projected by Daniel Pierce, who attempted to convey the 
water from Pentucket Pond to the site of Dole's mills, for the purpose 
of operating a grist-mill, but the scheme was not a success in his 
hands. It was finally accomplished, and a mill established which 
was capable of being operated six months in a year. In 1807, John 
Wood came in possession of the power, and erected a saw-mill. 

All these enterprises have passed out of sight, or have ceased to be 
noticeable by reason of the prominence of more important interests. 
The manufacture of boots and shoes, most of which is heavy pegged 
work, has proved to be quite remunerative, and for many years has 
been less fluctuating in this town than in a majority of towns engaged 
in similar manufactures, which is attributed to the peculiar styles of 
goods made. 

For the last twenty-five years the custom-clothing trade has been 
an important and profitable branch of manufacturing, commanding the 
best trade of the country for many miles around. The two principal 
clothing-houses are those of Stephen Osgood and S. Plummer, and 
both have been successful. The business still continues to be exten- 
sive and profitable. 

It is a noticeable fact that iu By field Parish, a portion of which is iu 
Georgetown, the first woollen manufactory in New England, and per- 
haps m America, was established, but the business was never largely 
extended, and has now passed away. 

The first triumph of the Daguerrean art, in Essex County, was in this 
town, the achievement being by Mr. W. S. Horner and his brother, 
who conducted the process according to printed directions obtained iu 
New York. Mr. Horner has a pair of compasses in his possession, 
once owned by George Washington, which are regarded of value as a 
relic of the past. Mrs. Horner is one of the most thorough botanists 
in Essex County, and is thoroughly acquainted with the whole 
family of ferns. It is not uncommon for her to take to Boston one 
hundred and fifty specimens of wild flowers. Mr. Horner is the 
ticket-master at the railroad station. 

Georgetown lavs claim to being the home of the inventors of many 
improvements in machinery and devices connected with the manu- 



facture of shoes. Among these are improved modes in making 
pegged shoes, by the late Paul Pillsbury ; the application of machinery 
to cutting sole leather, by H. P. Chaplin ; the Post sewing-machine, 
by David Haskell ; the first use of upper-leather dies, by Horatio 
Nelson ; the first pegging-machine and metal-bound patterns, by Mr. 
Chaplin ; the inventions of Moses Atwood, Manly Morse, Edwin 
Brown, William Burton, Dr. Huse, and others. 

Paul Pillsbury was a remarkable man as an inventor. He first 
invented a corn-sheller, and next a bark-mill, both of which were prac- 
tical. His next great invention was the peg-making machine, which 
he long kept a secret, but, as his biographer sa3 - s, he "let a good 
pious deacon see it, to gratify his curiosity, and when he went out of 
the door the secret went with him." In this way the monopoly of peg- 
making ceased. Mr. Pillsbury invented many other machines, but 
the pegging-machine was the leading one. Mr. Pillsbury was an 
athletic man, and when a soldier in the war of 1812, is said to have 
shouldered a cannon weighing seven hundred pounds. He was born 
iii West Newbury in 1780, and died in By field in 1868, aged eighty- 
eight years. His first wife was Elizabeth Frink, of Haverhill, who 
was born in a house standing on the present site of the Boston and 
Maine Railroad station. His second wife was Mrs. Benjamin Pike, 
mother of Gen. Albert Pike, of Arkansas, the poet and the rebel 
general in the war of the Rebellion. Parker Pillsbury, one of the great 
anti-slavery leaders, was his nephew. 

Since the existence of this community as a precinct, or its incorpo- 
ration as a town, few fires have occurred, involving great loss, till, on 
the morning of Oct. 26, 1874, when a fire broke out in the barn of 
Mr. George J. Tenney, which rapidly spread, threatening the destruc- 
tion of the whole compact portion of the town. A large number of 
buildings, stores, Masonic Hall, stables, and the dwelling-house of 
George J. Tenney were destroyed, laving in ruins the establishments 
of more than thirty business men and firms, destroying a large amount 
of merchandise, and other property. The origin of the fire is not 
certainly known. The property was generally insured, and the loss 
to individuals substantially covered. The fire department was entirely 
inadequate to cope with so extensive a conflagration, and assistance 
was sought from Newburyport and Haverhill, which was promptly 
supplied, by which a general sweep of the village was prevented. The 
burnt district was at once built up with substantial structures in the 
place of those destroyed. The business of the town was only tempo- 
rarily interfered with, and a succession of successful business years 
have followed. It is a singular phenomenal fact, that a lady friend of 
one of the sufferers by the fire, at that time residing in the western 
part of the State, was able to tell at the time that a fire was raging 
there, and to describe the buildings burnt, though no communication, 
by telegraph or otherwise, had reached her. 

In 1732, soon after the organization of the parish, a burial- 
ground was laid out, which has since been enlarged ; first, in 
1755, and again in 1805. It has from time to time been improved, 
and the usual .attention paid to the improvement and embellishment of 
the grounds which refinement and cultivated sentiment suggest, as 
appropriate to the resting-places of those whose memory is fondly 

On the 27th of August, 1867, a distressing casualty occurred, 
engulfing several families in deepest affliction, and carrying sorrow 
to the hearts of a widely-extended circle of friends, while it caused a 
general gloom to settle over the whole community. A party of 
cousins were out sailing: Eugene and Albert Beeeher, sons of Dr. 
Edward Beeeher; Lockwood and Nellie Coffin, children of Rev. 
William Coffin ; and Esther and Hattie Beeeher, daughters of Rev. 
Charles Beeeher. At an unfortunate moment, the boat capsized, and 
three of the number — Albert Beeeher, and Esther and Hattie Beeeher 
— were drowned, the others narrowly escaping the same fate. The 
parties were here spending their summer-vacation from school. 

George W. Boyuton, a prominent and well-known citizen, died 
March 23, 1877, after a long and distressing illness, aged 56 years 
and 4 months. He was appointed constable in 1846, deputy-sheriff 
in 1858, collector of internal revenue, 5th district, in 1862 ; deputy 
provost-marshal in 1863; overseer of house of correction, Law- 
rence, in 1863; appointed deputy-constable by Col. King in 1865; 
again appointed in 1866 and 1869 ; chief constable by Gov. Talbot in 
1874, for the Commonwealth. His last appointment was that of 
deputy- sheriff by officer Her rick, Sept. 23, 1875. He was an efficient 



The history of this people began at a time when they were only the 
fragment of a wide-spread township, sparsely populated, whose centre 
was at the point where the pioneers first located, and built their vil- 
lage. The public sentiment of this section was blended with that of 
the whole township, making one voice. 

At the later period, when patriotism was put to its severest test, 
the duty of a town was accepted by a precinct, when its citizens volun- 
teered as "minute-men," in harmony with the suggestions of the Pro- 
vincial Congress, and through all the Revolutionary struggle not a 
duty was neglected, nor a responsibility shunned. Public sentiment 
was kept at "concert pitch" at home, while the "spirit of '76" was 
taken to the front. 

At length, assuming the position of a separate township, the duties 
of citizenship under the new relation, began with their proper esti- 
mate and faithful performance. At the first town-meeting, April 28, 
1838, Robert Savory was the moderator. The first town officer 
elected was George Foot, town clerk, who was sworn into office by 
Jeremiah Russell. The first board of selectmen and assessors were 
John A. Lovering, Sewell Spofford, and Gorham P. Tenney. James 
Peabody, Moses M. Thurlow, and Jeremiah Clark, were the overseers 
of the poor; Benjamin Winter, treasurer and collector; and Robert 
Savory, Moody Cheney, and Charles Boynton, were constables. 

The appropriations for the expenses the first year were : for 
schools, $600; for repair of highways, $600; for other purposes, 
$650. The first representative to the general court was Jeremiah 
Russell, elected in 1840. 

The public sentiment of this town was in harmony with the advance 
movement of the people, which aimed at a practical application of the 
principles that had been embodied in the organic law of the country. 
At an hour when the question of Union and equality of rights was up 
for decision, it was not difficult to judge of their course. While the 
South had been threatening, they had been deliberating, and when the 
signal-gun was fired, they were instantaneously standing shoulder to 
shoulder, and ready for action. By frequent intercourse with the 
citizens of neighboring communities, they imparted a general inspira- 
tion which was a constant help to the loyal cause, and strength to its 
local support. 

In 1861, the selectmen, who were the war magistrates all through 
the war, were O. B. Tenney, Sherman Nelson, George W. Sanborn. 
The town clerk during the entire period, was Charles E. Jewett. The 
town treasurer, in 1861 and 1862, was Lewis H. Bateman ; in 1863, 
William H. Harriman ; in 1864 and 1865, George H. Carleton. 

After the outbreak, in 1861, the first legal meeting of the town, to 
deliberate upon war, was held April 30th, when it was voted to ap- 
propriate five thousand dollars " for the benefit of such of the citizens 
as may volunteer in the service of their country during the ensuing 
years, and their families." A committee of one from each school dis- 
trict was appointed " to ascertain what supplies may be needed" by 
the volunteers, or their families, and all bills approved by the com- 
mittee, were ordered to be paid by the selectmen. The committee 
were also authorized to aid in the formation, equipment, and drill, of 
a military company in the town. The committee reported the expen- 
diture, from May to October, of eleven hundred dollars, for uniforms, 
equipments, and in aid to families of volunteers. 

At a town meeting, July 17, 1862, it was voted to pay to residents 
of the town, a bounty of one hundred dollars, on enlistment for three 
years in the military service ; and the treasurer was authorized to 
borrow money to pay the same. On the 9th of August, the bounty- 
was increased to one hundred and fifty dollars, and those who had al- 
ready enlisted, were to receive an additional fifty dollars. The vote 
restricting the enlistments to citizens of the town, was reconsidered, 
and the selectmen were authorized to receive recruits from other 
places. A reward of ten dollars was offered, for the arrest of any 
person liable to be drafted, "who shall absent himself from the State, 
before such draft shall be made." On the 16th of August, a bounty 
of two hundred and fifty dollars was voted for nine months' volun- 
teers, and that the selectmen be limited in recruiting to eight days 
from date, to residents of the town, exclusively ; after that, to be 
open to any one who may be legally counted to the quota of George- 
town, and the treasurer authorized to borrow money to pay the boun- 

ties. John G. Barnes, Solomon Nelson, and John P. Bradstreet, 
were appointed " to confer with other towns in regard to forming a 
company.*' On the 4th of November the town appropriated five hun- 
dred dollars for the benefit of disabled and discharged volunteers, and 
their families, residing in town. In 1863, recruiting was still con- 
tinued, in answer to calls by the President for men, and bounties 
paid to volunteers. 

On the 26th of April, 1864, the town again voted to pay a bounty 
of one hundred and twenty-five dollars to each volunteer who had 
been mustered into the military service, to the credit of the town, 
since the 1st instant, and on the 28th of June, it voted to pay the 
same bounty till Jan. 1, 1865. On the 14th of November, the town 
ratified the action of the selectmen, in paying a bounty of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars each, to ten men who had enlisted for 
one year, and the tieasurer authorized to borrow money therefor. In 
1865, on the 3d of June, it was voted to "reimburse the money paid 
by voluntary subscription towards tilling the quota of the town," the 
same to be paid, Oct. 1st, following. 

During the war, Georgetown furnished one hundred and ninety-four 
men for the service, making a surplus of twenty-six above all demands 
for tilling quotas. Of these, six were commissioned ofticeTs. The 
whole amount of money raised and expended by the town for war 
purposes, exclusive of State aid. was $24,217.99. 

The amount of money raised and expended by the town, during the 
four years of the war, for State aid to soldiers' families, which was 
afterwards repaid by the Commonwealth, was $20,824.39. 

The part taken by the ladies of the town in measures of relief for 
the sick and wounded soldiers, is worthy of most honorable mention. 
The ladies' sewing-circle, connected with the Orthodox Congrega- 
tional Church, were untiring in their efforts ; and others, not thus 
associated, joined in most hearty co-operation in general measures for 
the relief of the sufferers. The treasurer of that society, Mrs. Wil- 
liam S. Horner, supplies the record that " early in the autumn of 
1861, the ladies commenced knitting socks and mittens, making shirts, 
&c. The first contribution was sent to the Sanitary Commission, and 
about the same time, we forwarded two boxes to the Nineteenth Regi- 
ment of Massachusetts Volunteers ; and as many as twenty smaller 
packages were sent by individuals, on their own account, to Dr. Howe, 
or the regiments in the field. During the first months of winter, we 
sent to the Sanitary Commission, four boxes of garments and bed- 
ding, valued at $450 : we also sent another box to the Nineteenth 
Regiment. Duriug 1863, we sent barrels of clothing, boxes of books, 
and supplies for the Sanitary and Christian commissions, amounting 
in value to about $350. During the year 1864, we sent about tweuty 
barrels, boxes, and packages, which were equally distributed, to Surg. 
Gen. Dale, and to Mrs. Mary B. Dully, for the hospital at Hampden. 
Ya., value in all, about $480; also fifty dollars in cash to the Chris- 
tian Commission. We also sent, in 1865, about ten barrels to those 
various points, valued at $350. The total, as near as can be ascer- 
tained, is about twenty-tive hundred dollars. Contributions were 
made by other societies, to the amount of about two hundred dol- 

At the close of the war, after the remembrances of the great strug- 
gle had become crystallized into a sentiment of grateful memory of 
those whose lives were given for their country, and the institutions of 
freedom, the citizens caused to be erected a granite shaft, about twen- 
ty-tive feet in height, on a space near the town house, upon which, 
in connection with various chiselled devices, emblematic of war, are 
the following inscriptions: — 


" Erected by the citizens of Georgetown as a token of gratitude to 
those brave men who died in the service of their country, during the 
war of the rebellion, 1861-5." 

The tablets contain the names of fifty heroes whose lives were sur- 
rendered. The structure was erected at a cost of $3,553.77, aud is 
enclosed within an iron fence. 

Everett Peabody Post, No. 108, G. A. R., was also organized, aud 
i- patriotically sustained. H. N. Harrimau is the present Post com- 

Since the close of the war, the business of the town has been re- 
markably prosperous, wealth has been accumulated, and there has 
been considerable growth in population. In 1840, the population was 
1,553; in 1875, 2,214: the number of dwelling-houses was 424: and 
of families, 547. The capital invested in business is $192,700; the 

annual value of manufactures, $537,700, aud of agricultural products, 
$51,385. The present valuation of the town is $f,149,360 ; the num- 
ber of polls, 676, and the rate of taxation, 15 mills. 

The post-orEce in New Rowley was established in 1824. with Ben- 
jamin Little, postmaster ; it was changed to Georgetown in 1838. A 
bank was established in 1836, with a capital of $100,000, but it ceased 
with the expiration of its charter in October, 1851. In 1840, there 
was one hotel, which is still in existence, and serves the public. There 
were then seven stores, since which time the number has been much 
increased, doing business on a more extensive scale, and possessed 
of all the modern appointments. At present the superior advantages 
of large and varied stocks of goods attract an extensive trade from 
the surrounding localities, In 1869, a savings bank was chartered, of 
which O. B. Tenney is treasurer, and in 1875, the Georgetown Na- 
tional Bank was established, of which Henry P. Chaplin is president, 
and George H. Carleton, cashier. 

The fraternal institutions have always been well sustained in this 
town, and have experienced a thrifty growth. C. C. Dame Lodge, of 
Free and Accepted Masons, is one of the best known in the county. 
Protection Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, is also a flourish- 
ing organization. The various temperance organizations, as the Good 
Templars, Sons of Temperance, and the Reform Club, with some others, 
have for many years been active and effective organizations. There 
are other benevolent institutions of acknowledged activity and useful- 

Another mystic institution, known to outsiders as the "Doedunks," 
but whose real uame has never been divulged, had its origin here, and 
was founded in 1852 by six young men, all of whom are now living. 
The veil which shrouds its mysteries is an impenetrable one, even to 
the eve of the historian, and verv little is known of the surroundings 
of the inner court which only the "faithful" are permitted to enter. 
Its claim to have embraced in its membership a large majority of the 
best citizens of the town, is undoubtedly a just oue ; certainly it has 
been the centre of the men of "infinite jest." The organization here 
is the head of the Order in the world, and lodges have been established 
in various localities in New England, and some of the Western States 
of the Union. It claims to have a membership scattered in the f